Ad Americam https://journals.akademicka.pl/adamericam Księgarnia Akademicka Ltd. en-US Ad Americam 1896-9461 Nations Reborn: Poland and Mexico in the Aftermath of World War I https://journals.akademicka.pl/adamericam/article/view/453 <p>The aim of the article is to present the situation of Poland and Mexico in the years prior to the establishment of bilateral relations. It is reasonable to have a panorama of very particular conditions that determined the existence of these two countries at the beginning of the 1920s. As Poland reappeared on the political map of Europe it encountered significant difficulties in rebuilding its independent existence. These difficulties were both of an international and domestic dimension. The same can be said about Mexico that was entering the new chapter of its history after a bloody revolution that was aimed to change the domestic situation of the country. In this sense, at the beginning of the 1920s both nations can be described as “Nations reborn”.</p> Karol Derwich Copyright (c) 2018 Ad Americam 2019-02-08 2019-02-08 19 5 22 10.12797/AdAmericam.19.2018.19.01 Génesis y primeros pasos determinantes del establecimiento de las relaciones diplomáticas entre México y Polonia (1921-1939) https://journals.akademicka.pl/adamericam/article/view/454 <p>As the title of this work indicates, it is intended to carry out a review, description and analysis of the genesis and first steps determining the establishment of diplomatic relations between Mexico and Poland, for which the antecedents and historical evolution of these bilateral relations are discussed, its registration in 1928, as well as a brief description of the first diplomatic representatives of both States and the main obstacles of the initial bilateral relations.</p> Marcos Pablo Pablo Moloeznik Gruer Copyright (c) 2018 Ad Americam 2019-02-08 2019-02-08 19 23 34 10.12797/AdAmericam.19.2018.19.02 La relación México-Polonia en la mirada de la burocracia mexicana en el extranjero (1928-1935) https://journals.akademicka.pl/adamericam/article/view/455 <p>By examining the political reports written by the representatives of Mexico in Warsaw, the article studies the actions of the Mexican bureaucracy abroad to promote a positive image of the Latin American country. I argue that the reports prepared by these agents of the State were informed by the Mexican experience itself on its way to political centralization and State formation after the Revolution of 1910. At first I address the context in which Mexico and Poland established diplomatic relations. Then I use that context as a backdrop to the following two sections, where I discuss the ways in which Mexican representatives sought to promote a positive image of Mexico in interwar Europe, and particularly in Poland, in two specific areas: promotion of migratory flows and a favourable image of the country.</p> Abraham Trejo Terreros Copyright (c) 2018 Ad Americam 2019-02-08 2019-02-08 19 35 43 10.12797/AdAmericam.19.2018.19.03 Foreign Policy of the Polish People’s Republic on Mexico 1945-1989 https://journals.akademicka.pl/adamericam/article/view/456 <p>In the period between 1945-1989, Polish-Mexican relations were determined by the Cold War rivalry. Poland remained in the Soviet sphere of influence and its sovereignty was limited by Moscow. Although controlled by the Kremlin, Poland had its own initiatives in foreign policy. Warsaw considered Mexico to be the most important partner in Latin America (not to mention the communist ally, Castro of Cuba), thus Polish diplomacy made many efforts to strengthen mutual political, cultural and economic relations. Mexico, with its independent foreign policy, progressive state ideology and tremendous market, seemed a particularly valuable partner in Latin America to the Polish communist leaders. The climax of Polish diplomatic initiatives occurred in the 1970s. Mexico was also interested in cooperation with Poland, especially in its economic dimension but the result of the efforts was mixed. The poor performance of Polish-Mexican economic relations when compared with the Mexican commercial exchange with other East European countries proves that the efforts of the Polish government in the economic sphere were rather futile. Political relations were good, however geopolitically both countries belonged to different spheres. The special, independent position of Mexico in world politics made such friendly relations possible.</p> Marcin Fatalski Copyright (c) 2018 Ad Americam 2019-02-08 2019-02-08 19 45 57 10.12797/AdAmericam.19.2018.19.04 Selected Aspects of Polish-Mexican Relations on the Political, Economic and Cultural-Scientific Level in the 21st Century https://journals.akademicka.pl/adamericam/article/view/457 <p>Polish-Mexican relations on the political, economic, cultural and scientific levels have developed over the decades. The first political contacts between our two countries, after Poland regained its independence, were established in the 1920s. However, interstate contacts have not been developed on a larger scale. This was due, among others, to the fact that the Latin American countries did not occupy a priority position in Polish foreign policy neither before or after World War II. After 1990, Mexico became one of Poland’s most important Latin American partners. The Polish-Mexican trade exchange has been growing systematically. In 2015, it exceeded USD 1 billion for the first time in history. In April 2017 the first, historic visit at the highest level of the President of the Republic of Poland, Andrzej Duda, took place in Mexico. It was a positive manifestation of the need to strengthen relations at the highest level and to testify the political will to intensify Poland’s relations with Mexico. In the second decade of the 21st century, we can talk about a “new opening” in Polish-Mexican relations. This manifests itself in both political and economic as well as cultural and scientific contacts. This article shows the most important manifestations of Poland’s relations with Mexico in the first and second decade of the 21st century with some references to previous years.</p> Justyna Łapaj-Kucharska Copyright (c) 2018 Ad Americam 2019-02-08 2019-02-08 19 59 82 10.12797/AdAmericam.19.2018.19.05 Strengthening Polish-Mexican Academic Cooperation: Present and Future Perspectives https://journals.akademicka.pl/adamericam/article/view/458 <p>Science and higher education have always been intensely internationalized areas of human activity. Especially in the era of globalization, higher education systems around the world face the challenge of internationalization. Internationalization not only strengthens opportunities for development, but is seen as an inevitable necessity in the globalizing and strongly competitive world. Although there is a long-standing tradition of academic cooperation between Poland and Mexico, the changing reality enforces increased efforts to build a more conscious, comprehensive relationship with measurable, long-lasting results. Since ad hoc contacts between individual researchers are not sufficient any longer, a complex, realistic vision of such cooperation is needed. Universities in Poland and Mexico start to see the opportunity to intensify cooperation, which – effectively explored – can significantly contribute to a nation’s economic competitiveness in general and to understanding the nature of trends and challenges in international higher education. The author discusses current activities within the framework of academic cooperation between the two countries and the most important initiatives that may bring closer cooperation in the future. A special focus will be put on the challenges faced by both countries in higher education cooperation schemes, as seen from the Polish perspective.</p> Joanna Gocłowska-Bolek Copyright (c) 2018 Ad Americam 2019-02-08 2019-02-08 19 83 102 10.12797/AdAmericam.19.2018.19.06 “Orders Behind the Visible” – Puritan Elements in the Polish Translation of "Gravity’s Rainbow" by Thomas Pynchon https://journals.akademicka.pl/adamericam/article/view/459 <p>The article discusses contemporary American writer Thomas Ruggles Pynchon, a leading representative of postmodernism in literature. The study contains an examination of possible references to Puritanism in his novel, <em>Gravity’s Rainbow</em>. Religious motifs seem to play a crucial role in the interpretation of Pynchon’s work where the past is combined with the present and the Puritan religious doctrine merges with a paranoid approach to reading. Then, fragments from <em>Gravity’s Rainbow</em> in Polish translation are analyzed in terms of preserving the source text’s productive potential regarding the most important Puritan themes in the novel, e.g. animal symbolism and the doctrine of Preterition. Finally, the study offers conclusions related to the extent to which Puritan elements are recreated in the target text, highlighting the most considerable losses and gains in the translation process.</p> Łukasz Barciński Copyright (c) 2018 Ad Americam 2019-02-08 2019-02-08 19 103 111 10.12797/AdAmericam.19.2018.19.07 American Slavery Through the Eyes of British Women Travelers in the First Half of the 19th Century https://journals.akademicka.pl/adamericam/article/view/460 <p>My paper investigates 19th-century travel writing by British women visiting America: texts by such authors as Frances Trollope, Isabella Bird, or Frances Kemble. I analyze to what extent these travelers’ gender influences their view of race. On the one hand, as Tim Youngs stresses, there seems to be very little difference between male and female travel writing in the 19th century, as women, in order to be accepted by their audience, needed to mimic men’s style (135). On the other hand, women writers occasionally mention their gender, as for example Trollope, who explains that she is not competent enough to speak on political matters, which is why she wishes to limit herself only to domestic issues. This provision, however, may be seen as a mere performance of a conventional obligation, since it does not prevent Trollope from expressing her opinions on American democracy. Moreover, Jenny Sharpe shows how Victorian Englishwomen are trapped between a social role of superiority and inferiority, possessing “a dominant position of race and a subordinate one of gender” (11). This makes the female authors believe that as women they owe to the oppressed people more sympathy than their male compatriots. My paper discusses female writing about the United States in order to see how these writers navigate their position of superiority/inferiority.</p> Justyna Fruzińska Copyright (c) 2018 Ad Americam 2019-02-08 2019-02-08 19 113 121 10.12797/AdAmericam.19.2018.19.08 Conflicted Cultural Memory and U.S. Foreign Policy: The “Lost Ca(u)se” of the U.S. Radar Base in the Czech Republic https://journals.akademicka.pl/adamericam/article/view/461 <p>This article analyzes the developments in cultural memory in Czech-U.S. relations since the end of the Cold War with a special emphasis on the heated debate about placing a U.S. radar base on Czech soil in 2008. It first describes the abrupt transformation in cultural memory related to the transition from communist rule from the transatlantic perspective. It claims that the debate about the radar base is a clear indication of the shift within cultural memory, which became much more contested, especially when compared with the previous period culminating with the Czech Republic’s entry into NATO. As cultural memory is closely linked to dominant historical narratives as well as identity, the findings have serious implications for the future of the transatlantic ties in the region.</p> Kryštof Kozák Copyright (c) 2018 Ad Americam 2019-02-08 2019-02-08 19 123 142 10.12797/AdAmericam.19.2018.19.09 Successful Against All Odds? – Margaret Fuller: The Self-Made Woman in the Nineteenth Century https://journals.akademicka.pl/adamericam/article/view/462 <p>Margaret Fuller was an American philosopher, writer, journalist and one of the first gender theorists. The article examines Fuller’s work and life in the context of 19th century American culture and social determinants influencing women’s lives. From a very early age, Fuller perceived her role in society different from the role designed for her as a biological girl by the cultural model of the times she lived in. The article focuses on Fuller’s achievements in the context of the self-made man/woman concept.</p> Jolanta Szymkowska-Bartyzel Copyright (c) 2018 Ad Americam 2019-02-08 2019-02-08 19 143 154 10.12797/AdAmericam.19.2018.19.10 The Bitcoin – Democratic Money in a Neoliberal Economy https://journals.akademicka.pl/adamericam/article/view/463 <p>This article examines the bitcoin, at present the most popular cryptocurrency. The bitcoin grew on the major pillars of the neoliberal market economy, such as liberalization, deregulation and privatization. But in the end, it turned out to be a cure for the dysfunctions of the financial system, which was based on neoliberal assumptions. The difficulty in capturing the character and status of the bitcoin still makes it elusive for the existing rules of law. Some governments observe the evolution of the bitcoin market with interest; others try to work against it. All of this makes the bitcoin an intriguing subject for research.<br>The aim of this article is to present the original assumptions of the bitcoin system; trace the reactions to the bitcoin’s emergence in virtual reality, and next on the very real financial market; and analyze the reinterpretation of the idea that underlies the creation of the cryptocurrency. This article attempts to assess the bitcoin’s potential of achieving a seemingly impregnable position on the global financial market.</p> Magdalena Trzcionka Copyright (c) 2018 Ad Americam 2019-02-08 2019-02-08 19 155 173 10.12797/AdAmericam.19.2018.19.11