Cracow Indological Studies <p>Cracow Indological Studies (CIS) founded in 1995 by Marzenna Czerniak-Drożdżowicz, Iwona Milewska, Lidia Sudyka and Cezary Galewicz is an open-access periodical currently edited at the Department of Languages and Cultures of India and South Asia (Institute of Oriental Studies, Jagiellonian University, Cracow). The CIS volumes are published twice a year in English, covering various areas and contexts of South Asian studies ranging from purely literary issues to those present in texts in different Indian languages contributing to history, philosophy, aesthetics, art and religion of the Indian Subcontinent, with the main focus on India.</p> Księgarnia Akademicka Publishing Ltd. en-US Cracow Indological Studies 1732-0917 Front Matter Copyright (c) 2022 2022-08-18 2022-08-18 24 1 Back matter Copyright (c) 2022 2022-08-18 2022-08-18 24 1 Seeing into the Mind in Early Modern South India <p>In contrast to the many South Asian texts that explore deep, metaphysically oriented states of mind, introspection of a personal, empirical, everyday kind is relatively rare in the textual archive until the early modern period, beginning roughly in the 16<sup>th</sup> century. At that time a remarkable richness of personal introspective works is evident in all the major south Indian languages. This article explores some of the features of that literature, with representative examples of literary, musical, and philosophical sources focused on the individual and on her or his sense of self.</p> David Shulman Copyright (c) 2022 2022-08-18 2022-08-18 24 1 1 21 10.12797/CIS.24.2022.01.01 The Sense of Self in Early Modern South and Southeast India <p>No abstract is available for this article.</p> Lidia Sudyka Copyright (c) 2022 2022-08-18 2022-08-18 24 1 23 28 10.12797/CIS.24.2022.01.02 Churning Selves <p>The Sanskrit<em> campū Nīlakaṇṭhavijaya</em> is arguably the most popular literary work of Nīlakaṇṭha Dīkṣita. It narrates the mythical story of the churning of the Ocean of Milk, with an emphasis on the part played by Dīkṣita’s personal god—Śiva. A close reading reveals that this text is preoccupied with themes of agency and subjectivity. The multiple characters of the story are not conventional archetypes. Rather, they inhabit shared worlds and come across as having distinct yet intersecting identities. Gods, demons, snakes and even Venom are given very human biographies and social milieux. And all these biographies flow into that of the titular Nīlakaṇṭha, presenting an implicit model of the self. But who is the Nīlakaṇṭha of the title?</p> Talia Ariav Naresh Keerthi Copyright (c) 2022 2022-08-18 2022-08-18 24 1 29 60 10.12797/CIS.24.2022.01.03 The Ultimate Self-Awareness <p>Śiva’s sense of self is ever-evolving, ever-changing. His selfawareness is in constant motion, expanding and contracting in its many manifestations. The movement is circular. It forms Śiva’s life cycle which is structured and bound to an internal dynamic based on a tensile balance between the reflexive and reflective modes of the god. The following article examines this dynamic, sketches the structure of the life cycle as it appears in the<em> Kālavadha Kāvya</em> of Kṛṣṇalīlāśuka, and aims to shed new light on the vibrant sense of Śiva’s self.</p> Hemdat Salay Copyright (c) 2022 2022-08-18 2022-08-18 24 1 61–83 61–83 10.12797/CIS.24.2022.01.04 On Brewing Love Potions and Crafting Answers <p>This paper studies <em>Naiṣadha in Our Language </em>(<em>Bhāṣānaiṣadhacampu</em>), a 16<sup>th</sup>-century Maṇipravāḷam retelling of the Nala and Damayantī tale from Kerala. It focuses on two main aspects of this text, both illustrated by different expressive modes: one ‘high,’ pulling towards the polished, dense literature of the Sanskrit style, and the other ‘low,’ pulling towards the performative, the local, and the colloquial. The first is exemplified by reading several verses where Damayantī is struggling to formulate an answer to Nala. Here, I discuss a heightened interest in the depiction of the individual, encapsulated in his or her relationship with and separation from other individuals. The second is illustrated by long prose sections describing men on their way to the wedding. Here, I discuss several allusions to Kerala’s contemporary society and literature, and the expressive possibilities of Maṇipravāḷam prose. The association with Śrīharṣa’s canonical Sanskrit <em>Naiṣadhacaritam</em> serves as a roadmap to some of the intriguing literary selections of this text.</p> Sivan Goren-Arzony Copyright (c) 2022 2022-08-18 2022-08-18 24 1 85–109 85–109 10.12797/CIS.24.2022.01.05 The Many Selves of an Actor <p>This article explores artistic innovations in Kūṭiyāṭṭam theater through the lens of critique developed in the <em>Naṭāṅkuśa</em>—a polemical treatise composed, perhaps, in the 15<sup>th</sup> century Kerala. The focus is on the <em>Naṭāṅkuśa</em>’s fierce disapproval of the performance of multiple roles by an actor dressed as one and the same character—for example, switching from the role of Hanumān to that of Rāma, while still in Hanumān’s costume and make-up. The author of the <em>Naṭāṅkuśa</em> utilizes epistemological arguments to demonstrate the impossibility of accommodating more than one character in a single actor’s mind. Nor can a spectator have a stable cognition of the second- order characters. The fact that the author attributes to the opponent— a Kūṭiyāṭṭam performer—a non-dualist theory of cognition, suggests that the theory of Kūṭiyāṭṭam was inspired by Advaita Vedāntin and the non-dualist Śaiva epistemological presuppositions.</p> Dimitry Shevchenko Copyright (c) 2022 2022-08-18 2022-08-18 24 1 111 130 10.12797/CIS.24.2022.01.06 Kārtikā Tirunāḻ Bālarāma Varma’s Self-portrait in Bālarāmabharata <p>Kārtikā Tirunāḷ Bālarāma Varma (r. 1758–1798) was the ruler of the South Indian state of Travancore and the author of a Sanskrit treatise on theatrology, the<em> Bālarāmabharata</em>. His reign constituted an important period of patronage of arts and literature, especially in the field of performing arts. The king was not only an outstanding patron but also an eminent scholar and an accomplished author. As the evidence of this great variety of roles, the paper proposes to analyse the opening passages of the <em>Bālarāmabharata</em> where Kārtikā Tirunāḷ Bālarāma Varma presents himself in a self-portrait of sorts: as a ruler, patron, scholar and poet. He inscribes himself in the patronage tradition of the rulers of Travancore as well as in the line of the continuators of Bharata’s <em>Nāṭyaśāstra</em> while simultaneously showcasing his literary prowess and practical experience in the contemporary tradition of performing arts.</p> Agnieszka Wójcik Copyright (c) 2022 2022-08-18 2022-08-18 24 1 131 158 10.12797/CIS.24.2022.01.07 History, Myth, and Maṭam in Southeast Indian Portraits <p>Portraiture emerged as a major interest in literature, sculpture, and painting in early modern southeastern India. While this may, on one hand, reflect an interest in historical documentation, it is also indicative of the wider significance of mimetic representation across the arts. Pursuing one avenue of implication, this essay elucidates the relationship between historical, mythic, and ideal representations of unique individuals through portraiture, focusing on the murals at the great temple of Citamparam.</p> Anna Lise Seastrand Copyright (c) 2022 2022-08-18 2022-08-18 24 1 159 184 10.12797/CIS.24.2022.01.08 Peter C. Bisschop: The Vārāṇasī Māhātmya of the Bhairavaprādurbhāva (A Twelfth-Century Glorification of Vārāṇasī), Collection Indologie n˚148, Institut Français de Pondichéry / École française d’Extrême-Orient 2021, pp. 190. Marzenna Czerniak-Drożdżowicz Copyright (c) 2022 2022-08-18 2022-08-18 24 1 187 190 10.12797/CIS.24.2022.01.09