Krakowskie Pismo Kresowe <p>"Krakowskie Pismo Kresowe" is a scientific, peer-reviewed historical journal devoted to the cultural richness of the eastern border of the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, from the Middle Ages to the 20th century. The main goal of the journal is a modern, critical and interdisciplinary look at the history of this area, which in Polish literature and historiography was already called "Kresy" since the modern period.</p> en-US (Department of Scientific Journals, Ksiegarnia Akademicka Publishing) (Author’s Support) Mon, 13 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0100 OJS 60 Front Matter Copyright (c) 2022 Mon, 13 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Back Matter Copyright (c) 2022 Mon, 13 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Wstęp Kazimierz Karolczak, Wiktoria Kudela-Świątek Copyright (c) 2022 Mon, 13 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Konferencje „Lwów: Miasto – społeczeństwo – kultura”. 30 lat współpracy polskich i ukraińskich historyków z Uniwersytetu Pedagogicznego im. KEN w Krakowie i Lwowskiego Uniwersytetu Narodowego im. I. Franki Kazimierz Karolczak Copyright (c) 2022 Mon, 13 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Środowisko intelektualne Zakładu Narodowego im. Ossolińskich w dziewiętnastowiecznym Lwowie <p><strong>THE INTELLECTUAL ENVIRONMENT OF THE OSSOLIŃSKI NATIONAL INSTITUTE IN THE NINETEENTH-CENTURY LVIV</strong></p> <p>Nineteenth-century Lviv in the Habsburg monarchy played the role of a provincial capital, and it was the largest city in Galicia, the seat of many administrative, judicial and educational institutions. In 1817, with the initiative of Józef Maksymilian Ossoliński, the Ossoliński National Institute, which in the years 1827-1945 had its seat in Lviv, was established. One of the oldest institutions of Polish culture, it attracted Poles from all the partitions. However, the intellectual environment of the Institute was created by its literary curators and vice-curators, deputies and directors, and a range of employees and associates. They all contributed to the intellectual life of Lviv with their various activities. Outstanding scholars, professors of the University of Lviv, writers, journalists, collectors and many aristocrats who supported the Institute financially were associated with the Ossolineum by donating their book collections. They played a significant role in the intellectual life not only of Lviv but also of Galicia.</p> Kazimierz Karolczak Copyright (c) 2022 Mon, 13 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Lwów i jego mieszkańcy w latach 1847-1850 w świetle „Pamiętników” Ksawery z Brzozowskich Grocholskiej <p><strong><span class="TextRun SCXW21149985 BCX8" lang="PL-PL" xml:lang="PL-PL" data-contrast="auto"><span class="SpellingError SCXW21149985 BCX8">LVIV</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW21149985 BCX8"> AND </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW21149985 BCX8">ITS</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW21149985 BCX8">INHABITANTS</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW21149985 BCX8"> IN 1847-1850 IN THE LIGHT OF THE </span><span class="SpellingError SCXW21149985 BCX8">SO-CALLED</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW21149985 BCX8"> “</span><span class="SpellingError SCXW21149985 BCX8">MEMOIRS</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW21149985 BCX8">” OF KSAWERA GROCHOLSKA </span><span class="SpellingError SCXW21149985 BCX8">NEE</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW21149985 BCX8"> BRZOZOWSKA</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW21149985 BCX8" data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335559739&quot;:160,&quot;335559740&quot;:259}">&nbsp;</span></strong></p> <p>The purpose of this article includes reflection on the issue of how the so-called “Memoirs” of Ksawera Grocholska nee Brzozowska (1807-1872), a landowner from Podolia – elaborated by the Archbishop Zygmunt Szczęsny Feliński – show the life of the Polish aristocracy and landed class in Lviv in the first years after an event called in historiography as the Tarnów Slaughter (Galician Rabacja). Due to many reasons, it is a special biographical perspective. The text presents the figure of Countess Ksawera Grocholska nee Brzozowska, outlines the character of the source which should become a reference point for considerations included in this work. Furthermore, the most important endeavours that dominated the charitable activity of Countess Grocholska during her stay in Lviv have been described. These actions included purchase of a residential building for the needs of an orphanage being founded at the cloister of Sacré Coeur Sisters in Lviv, educational activities in favour of a finishing school for maidens, managed by this cloister, and philanthropic activity in aid of patriotic activists imprisoned in the Lviv jail, the so-called “Magdalenka”, and their families.</p> Wiktoria Kudela-Świątek Copyright (c) 2022 Mon, 13 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0100 „Ja nie znam Ojczyzny jak Polska, w jej zmartwychwstanie wierzę jak w Boga” <p><strong><span class="TextRun SCXW182409140 BCX8" lang="PL-PL" xml:lang="PL-PL" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW182409140 BCX8">“I DO NOT </span><span class="SpellingError SCXW182409140 BCX8">KNOW</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW182409140 BCX8"> THE </span><span class="SpellingError SCXW182409140 BCX8">MOTHERLAND</span> <span class="SpellingError SCXW182409140 BCX8">LIKE</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW182409140 BCX8"> POLAND, I </span><span class="SpellingError SCXW182409140 BCX8">BELIEVE</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW182409140 BCX8"> IN </span><span class="SpellingError SCXW182409140 BCX8">ITS</span> <span class="SpellingError SCXW182409140 BCX8">RESURRECTION</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW182409140 BCX8"> AS IN </span><span class="SpellingError SCXW182409140 BCX8">GOD</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW182409140 BCX8">”: </span><span class="SpellingError SCXW182409140 BCX8">DOMINICAN</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW182409140 BCX8"> PIOTR ZACHARIASZ KOROTKIEWICZ (1803-1873) AS ONE OF THE </span><span class="SpellingError SCXW182409140 BCX8">SPIRITUAL</span> <span class="SpellingError SCXW182409140 BCX8">LEADERS</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW182409140 BCX8"> OF THE </span><span class="SpellingError SCXW182409140 BCX8">PATRIOTIC</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW182409140 BCX8"> AND </span><span class="SpellingError SCXW182409140 BCX8">NATIONAL</span> <span class="SpellingError SCXW182409140 BCX8">MOVEMENT</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW182409140 BCX8"> IN </span><span class="SpellingError SCXW182409140 BCX8">LVIV</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW182409140 BCX8"> IN 1848</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW182409140 BCX8" data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335559739&quot;:160,&quot;335559740&quot;:259}">&nbsp;</span></strong></p> <p>Piotr Zachariasz Korotkiewicz (1803-1873) was one of the Polish Dominicans who played an important role in the religious, social and political life in Galicia in the 19th century. This friar was especially known for his patriotic attitude and political commitment to Poles living in the Habsburg Empire. Both through participation in political institutions and through preaching sermons – he became one of the spiritual leaders of all those for whom the Polish cause during the Spring of Nations was important. He can certainly be classified as an intellectual elite, as through his words and deeds he influenced the moral and political attitude of the Galician society.</p> Marek Miławicki OP Copyright (c) 2022 Mon, 13 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Życie i twórczość Platona Kosteckiego jako wyzwanie biograficzne i źródłoznawcze <p><strong><span class="TextRun SCXW239047055 BCX8" lang="PL-PL" xml:lang="PL-PL" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW239047055 BCX8">THE LIFE AND WORKS OF PLATON KOSTECKI AS </span><span class="SpellingError SCXW239047055 BCX8">BIOGRAPHICAL</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW239047055 BCX8"> AND SOURCE </span><span class="SpellingError SCXW239047055 BCX8">STUDIES</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW239047055 BCX8"> CHALLENGE</span></span></strong></p> <p>The text considers difficulties which arise when writing a biographical work about Platon Kostecki (1832-1908), Lviv poet and journalist of the Ruthenian origins, multi-annual editor of “Gazeta Narodowa” and other Polish and Ruthenian newspapers. The publication discusses, among others, the problem of his identity, impossibility of recognition of all Kostecki’s texts published in the press (because of the lack of given authorship), and finally the lack of the sufficient number of sources allowing to prepare a comprehensive and complete biographical narration. Such a situation results especially from loss of the home archive of Kostecki, whose fragmentary history the author tried to reconstruct in this text. As a result, the biographer of Kostecki must accept the challenge of finding a golden mean between studying the facts from the life of his hero and views of this person visible in the press and literary works. For years, Kostecki was the most recognisable figure of<em> gente Rutheni, natione Poloni</em> among literary and artistic Galician elites, as well as the creator of vision concerning the independent Republic of Three Nations. These facts encourage to conduct deep studies on Kostecki’s biography and influence of his works. The biography of Kostecki can allow to better understand identity changes which appeared in the Polish-Ruthenian society of Galicia in the 19<sup>th</sup> century, and to answer the question why in the first half of the 20<sup>th</sup> century an ultimate disunity between Poles and Ukrainians arose in the area commonly inhabited.</p> Adam Świątek Copyright (c) 2022 Mon, 13 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Zofia Romanowiczówna (1842-1935) – lwowska pamiętnikarka i działaczka społeczna <p><strong><span class="TextRun SCXW125326886 BCX8" lang="PL-PL" xml:lang="PL-PL" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW125326886 BCX8">ZOFIA ROMANOWICZÓWNA (1842-1935) – </span><span class="SpellingError SCXW125326886 BCX8">LVIV</span> <span class="SpellingError SCXW125326886 BCX8">DIARIST</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW125326886 BCX8"> AND </span><span class="SpellingError SCXW125326886 BCX8">SOCIAL</span> <span class="SpellingError SCXW125326886 BCX8">ACTIVIST</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW125326886 BCX8" data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335559739&quot;:160,&quot;335559740&quot;:259}">&nbsp;</span></strong></p> <p>Zofia Romanowiczówna is usually presented as a participant in the January Uprising, a teacher, and also a member of Lviv women’s associations. Undoubtedly, the aforementioned activities cannot be ignored, however no one can forget that she was primarily a human being, driven by feelings, a human being with all her weaknesses, but also with her advantages. Since both professional and patriotic activity was only an addition to her rich inner life, the image of which she outlined in her diary, which was kept throughout almost all of her long life. Zofia Romanowiczówna, as well as her further fates, perfectly illustrate the path that the emancipated women of the time had to go through –from a certain kind of stagnation to a conscious struggle for herself, as a woman and a human being, capable of self-maintenance without the need of the support by a man. This article is only an attempt to present the figure of a Lviv woman, her motivation, and it also emphasizes her activity in the social and patriotic field.</p> Katarzyna Świetlik Copyright (c) 2022 Mon, 13 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Wokół biografii metropolity Andrzeja Szeptyckiego – stan badań, źródła i metoda <p><strong><span class="TextRun SCXW104018929 BCX8" lang="PL-PL" xml:lang="PL-PL" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW104018929 BCX8">ON THE </span><span class="SpellingError SCXW104018929 BCX8">BIOGRAPHY</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW104018929 BCX8"> OF THE METROPOLITAN ANDREI </span><span class="SpellingError SCXW104018929 BCX8">SHEPTYTS’KYI</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW104018929 BCX8"> – </span><span class="SpellingError SCXW104018929 BCX8">RESEARCH</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW104018929 BCX8">, </span><span class="SpellingError SCXW104018929 BCX8">SOURCES</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW104018929 BCX8"> AND </span><span class="SpellingError SCXW104018929 BCX8">METHODS</span></span></strong></p> <p>The text discusses the state of research, sources and methods of studying which concern the metropolitan Andrei Sheptyts’kyi, his life and activities. It indicates institutions and archives, where scholars can search for documents on his biography. The author of the text has summed up the state of research on Sheptyts’kyi’s biography, referring readers to numerous publications, including bibliographic sources. Moreover, she has underlined the high rank of studies on Andrei Sheptyts’kyi in the world historiography. The author stated that these considerations need further international research. The text also recognises the areas that require further scholarly studies and complementary analysis.</p> Magdalena Nowak Copyright (c) 2022 Mon, 13 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Z rektorskiego fotela do poselskich ław <p><strong><span class="TextRun SCXW102789722 BCX8" lang="PL-PL" xml:lang="PL-PL" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW102789722 BCX8">FROM THE </span><span class="SpellingError SCXW102789722 BCX8">RECTOR’S</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW102789722 BCX8"> CHAIR TO </span><span class="SpellingError SCXW102789722 BCX8">DEPUTIES</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW102789722 BCX8">’ </span><span class="SpellingError SCXW102789722 BCX8">BENCHES</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW102789722 BCX8">: THE </span><span class="SpellingError SCXW102789722 BCX8">RECTORS</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW102789722 BCX8"> OF THE </span><span class="SpellingError SCXW102789722 BCX8">LVIV</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW102789722 BCX8"> UNIVERSITY AS </span><span class="SpellingError SCXW102789722 BCX8">VIRILIST</span> <span class="SpellingError SCXW102789722 BCX8">DEPUTIES</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW102789722 BCX8"> OF THE </span><span class="SpellingError SCXW102789722 BCX8">NATIONAL</span> <span class="SpellingError SCXW102789722 BCX8">GALICIAN</span> <span class="SpellingError SCXW102789722 BCX8">PARLIAMENT</span></span></strong><span class="EOP SCXW102789722 BCX8" data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335559739&quot;:160,&quot;335559740&quot;:259}">&nbsp;</span></p> <p>In 1861, the National Galician Parliament was established. Among its deputies, there were the representatives of Galician Universities. It was the institution of the so-called ex-officio members of parliament or chancellors virilists. Despite its many shortcomings, the chancellors stayed in the benches of the Galician Parliament until the end of the Habsburg Monarchy. In the years 1861-1914, the University of Lviv sent 50 rectors to the Galician Parliament. They were mostly Poles, and to a lesser extent Germans and Ukrainians. The rectors were rather not involved in political debates. The main area of their interest was the field of education.</p> Damian Szymczak Copyright (c) 2022 Mon, 13 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Środowisko intelektualne Towarzystwa Miłośników Przeszłości Lwowa (1906-1939) <p><strong><span class="TextRun SCXW65492054 BCX8" lang="PL-PL" xml:lang="PL-PL" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW65492054 BCX8">THE </span><span class="SpellingError SCXW65492054 BCX8">INTELLECTUAL</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW65492054 BCX8"> MILIEU </span><span class="SpellingError SCXW65492054 BCX8">CHARACTERISING</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW65492054 BCX8"> THE </span><span class="SpellingError SCXW65492054 BCX8">SOCIETY</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW65492054 BCX8"> OF </span><span class="SpellingError SCXW65492054 BCX8">FRIENDS</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW65492054 BCX8"> OF THE PAST OF </span><span class="SpellingError SCXW65492054 BCX8">LVIV</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW65492054 BCX8"> (1906-1939)</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW65492054 BCX8" data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335559739&quot;:160,&quot;335559740&quot;:259}">&nbsp;</span></strong></p> <p>The paper is an attempt to characterise the Society of Friends of the Past of Lviv in the years 1906-1939 (with a 1914-1926 break); the community of Lviv historians, journalists, museologists, and archivists around this Society, and various forms and manifestations of their activity. The Society contributed to the development of research in the field of regional history, and studies on the history of Lviv, its culture and monuments. Among the co-founders of the Society were famous Lviv historians, including Aleksander Czołowski (1865-1944), Ludwik Kubala (1838-1918), Józef Białynia-Chołodecki (1852-1934), and the vice-mayor of the city of Lviv, Tadeusz Rutowski (1852-1918).</p> Lidia Michalska-Bracha Copyright (c) 2022 Mon, 13 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Lwów i lwowianie w czasie wojny polsko-bolszewickiej (lipiec-sierpień 1920 r.) <p><strong><span class="TextRun SCXW253262936 BCX8" lang="PL-PL" xml:lang="PL-PL" data-contrast="auto"><span class="SpellingError SCXW253262936 BCX8">LVIV</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW253262936 BCX8"> AND </span><span class="SpellingError SCXW253262936 BCX8">ITS</span> <span class="SpellingError SCXW253262936 BCX8">CITIZENS</span> <span class="SpellingError SCXW253262936 BCX8">DURING</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW253262936 BCX8"> THE </span><span class="SpellingError SCXW253262936 BCX8">POLISH-SOVIET</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW253262936 BCX8"> WAR (</span><span class="SpellingError SCXW253262936 BCX8">JULY</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW253262936 BCX8">-AUGUST 1920)</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW253262936 BCX8" data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335559739&quot;:160,&quot;335559740&quot;:259}">&nbsp;</span></strong></p> <p>The threat of Soviet occupation of Lviv in summer 1920 forced both the civilian and military authorities to hastily prepare defense. Since the conscription into the regular army, in Lviv as well, did not bring the expected influx of recruits, the country leadership took a decision to announce the recruitment of volunteers. Despite some difficulties, several “Małopolska” divisions of the Volunteer Army were formed in Lviv. These divisions were very active and ensured law and order in the city along with regular troops. At the same time, numerous patriotic events were regularly held in Lviv. Donations for the army were constantly collected and preparations for defense were made in the city. The possibility of capturing Lviv changed significantly, though not radically, the lives of its inhabitants. Feelings of fear, outbursts of panic, evacuation of entire families became the features of everyday life in Lviv. However, catering establishments, city markets, shops, theaters, cinemas, and other facilities continued to function, although with minor adjustments.</p> Ihor Mraka Copyright (c) 2022 Mon, 13 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Spisy powszechne w Polsce w latach 1921 i 1931 jako źródło do badań liczebności, struktury etniczno-wyznaniowej i zatrudnienia przedsiębiorców przemysłowych we Lwowie w okresie międzywojennym <p><strong><span class="TextRun SCXW111838338 BCX8" lang="PL-PL" xml:lang="PL-PL" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW111838338 BCX8">THE </span><span class="SpellingError SCXW111838338 BCX8">POLISH</span> <span class="SpellingError SCXW111838338 BCX8">CENSUSES</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW111838338 BCX8"> OF 1921 AND 1931 AS A SOURCE FOR </span><span class="SpellingError SCXW111838338 BCX8">STUDYING</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW111838338 BCX8"> THE </span><span class="SpellingError SCXW111838338 BCX8">NUMBER</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW111838338 BCX8">, </span><span class="SpellingError SCXW111838338 BCX8">ETHNO-CONFESSIONAL</span> <span class="SpellingError SCXW111838338 BCX8">STRUCTURE</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW111838338 BCX8">, AND </span><span class="SpellingError SCXW111838338 BCX8">EMPLOYMENT</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW111838338 BCX8"> OF </span><span class="SpellingError SCXW111838338 BCX8">INDUSTRIAL</span> <span class="SpellingError SCXW111838338 BCX8">ENTREPRENEURS</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW111838338 BCX8"> IN </span><span class="SpellingError SCXW111838338 BCX8">INTERWAR</span> <span class="SpellingError SCXW111838338 BCX8">LVIV</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW111838338 BCX8" data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335559739&quot;:160,&quot;335559740&quot;:259}">&nbsp;</span></strong></p> <p>The author of the article analyses the censuses of 1921 and 1931 as a source for studying the business community of Lviv in the interwar period. He shows that census materials allow to establish the number of industrial entrepreneurs, the structure of their employment and ethno-confessional affiliation. In addition, these materials help to trace the quantitative changes of this social stratum, which occurred during the researched period. More advanced methodological principles of the 1931 census help to shed light on the stratification of Lviv entrepreneurs engaged in industry, depending on the size of the enterprises they owned, and to compare the relationships between different groups of entrepreneurs in the city’s largest ethno-confessional communities.</p> Ołeh Dudiak Copyright (c) 2022 Mon, 13 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Lwowski okres twórczości Wasyla Simowycza <p><strong><span class="TextRun SCXW182910314 BCX8" lang="PL-PL" xml:lang="PL-PL" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW182910314 BCX8">THE </span><span class="SpellingError SCXW182910314 BCX8">LVIV</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW182910314 BCX8"> PERIOD OF </span><span class="SpellingError SCXW182910314 BCX8">VASYL</span> <span class="SpellingError SCXW182910314 BCX8">SIMOVYCH’S</span> <span class="SpellingError SCXW182910314 BCX8">CREATIVITY</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW182910314 BCX8" data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335559739&quot;:160,&quot;335559740&quot;:259}">&nbsp;</span></strong></p> <p>aVasyl Simovych was a full member of the National Association of Taras Shevchenko, professor and rector of the Ukrainian Higher Pedagogical Institute in Prague, head of the Ukrainian language department and dean of the philological faculty of Lviv University (1939- 1941). The article discusses the scientific and organisational, publishing, cultural and educational activities of Vasyl Simovych in Lviv and Prague. His influence is shown not only in the context of the scientific, social and public life of Lviv but also of Galicia.</p> Olha Szeluch, Emilia Kazan Copyright (c) 2022 Mon, 13 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0100 „Lwów był dla mnie Mekką”. Wspomnienia Ułasa Samczuka <p><strong><span class="TextRun SCXW187381503 BCX8" lang="PL-PL" xml:lang="PL-PL" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW187381503 BCX8">„</span><span class="SpellingError SCXW187381503 BCX8">LVIV</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW187381503 BCX8"> WAS A </span><span class="SpellingError SCXW187381503 BCX8">MECCA</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW187381503 BCX8"> FOR ME”: </span><span class="SpellingError SCXW187381503 BCX8">MEMORIES</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW187381503 BCX8"> OF </span><span class="SpellingError SCXW187381503 BCX8">ULAS</span> <span class="SpellingError SCXW187381503 BCX8">SAMCHUK</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW187381503 BCX8" data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335559739&quot;:160,&quot;335559740&quot;:259}">&nbsp;</span></strong></p> <p>The article is devoted to the recollections of the Ukrainian writer, public figure Ulas Samchuk (1905-1987) concerning Lviv, reflected in his memoirs (On a White Horse, 1965 and On a Crow’s Horse, 1975), which he wrote in exile. Lviv of the 1920s appears as the centre of Ukrainian social and political life, with the most expedient, according to the writer, means of evolutionary and organic development. Lviv during the Nazi occupation of the 1940s, despite outright repression by the authorities, remained an important literary and publishing centre. Ulas Samchuk considered the imperial-Russian awareness, Stalinist and Nazi totalitarian systems to be the main enemies and threats to Ukraine. It was Lviv that the writer perceived as the centre of formation of a democratic Ukraine according to the Western model, which should be extended to the rest of Ukrainian territory.</p> Zoja Baran Copyright (c) 2022 Mon, 13 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Wojenne losy Aleksandra Prusiewicza i jego „Dziennik z wydarzeń II wojny światowej 1939-1941” <p><strong><span class="TextRun SCXW116844151 BCX8" lang="PL-PL" xml:lang="PL-PL" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW116844151 BCX8">THE </span><span class="SpellingError SCXW116844151 BCX8">WARTIME</span> <span class="SpellingError SCXW116844151 BCX8">FATE</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW116844151 BCX8"> OF ALEKSANDER </span><span class="SpellingError SCXW116844151 BCX8">PRUSIEWICZ</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW116844151 BCX8"> AND HIS “</span><span class="SpellingError SCXW116844151 BCX8">DIARY</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW116844151 BCX8"> FROM THE </span><span class="SpellingError SCXW116844151 BCX8">EVENTS</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW116844151 BCX8"> OF THE SECOND WORLD WAR 1939-1941”</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW116844151 BCX8" data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335559739&quot;:160,&quot;335559740&quot;:259}">&nbsp;</span></strong></p> <p>The article presents the last years of the life of Aleksander Prusiewicz (1878-1941), an ethnographer, sightseer, collector, curator of the Volyn Museum in Lutsk, organiser and manager of the Lviv Ethnographic Museum. From 1 September 1939, he kept a diary, describing, among many other things, the siege of Lviv, the first days of Soviet occupation as well as the worsening living conditions in the city. He devoted most of his attention to the arrest of the former Prime Minister of Poland, professor of archeology, Leon Kozłowski, which he provoked on 26 September 1939. In the next months, Prusiewicz limited keeping his diary to laconic notes. In the spring of 1940, he made efforts to obtain PhD at the Ivan Franko State University of Lviv, which ended in failure. He returned to systematic diary-keeping after the outbreak of the German-Soviet war, bringing his notes until 13 August 1941. Three weeks later, on 6 September 1941, he committed suicide. He was buried in the Łyczakowski cemetery.</p> Agnieszka Biedrzycka Copyright (c) 2022 Mon, 13 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0100 „Przy partyjnym stole”. Dostawy towarów spożywczych dla nowej elity lwowskiej w latach 1944-1947 <p><strong><span class="TextRun SCXW21588179 BCX8" lang="PL-PL" xml:lang="PL-PL" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW21588179 BCX8">“AT THE </span><span class="SpellingError SCXW21588179 BCX8">TABLE</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW21588179 BCX8"> OF THE </span><span class="SpellingError SCXW21588179 BCX8">COMMUNIST</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW21588179 BCX8"> PARTY”: FOOD SUPPLY FOR THE NEW </span><span class="SpellingError SCXW21588179 BCX8">LVIV</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW21588179 BCX8"> ELITE IN 1944-1947</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW21588179 BCX8" data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335559739&quot;:160,&quot;335559740&quot;:259}">&nbsp;</span></strong></p> <p>The article covers the change of the Lviv food paradigm after the arrival of Soviets. On the basis of archival materials and specialised literature, the city’s limited system of product distribution was analysed. Furthermore, the role of the Soviet elite in this system and in providing Lviv with food was studied in this work. Taking advantage of their official position, the Bolshevik leaders received food from their subordinates, used the food services of the Executive Committee, had their own departmental food establishments, and, finally, thanks to better salaries, could have better food from commercial establishments. The basis of the food of the Lviv communist party elite was the food of letter types “A” and “B”, which in terms of calories and set of products significantly exceeded the usual card system. The diet of the Soviet authorities was supplemented by various order tables, where they periodically received improved sets of products according to particular lists and previously declared needs. During the transition period that started after the abolition of the limited product distribution system, which was extended for a selected number of city officials, they were using special coupons for identification of the “right people”. Despite the theoretical defense of the classlessness of Soviet society, the new authorities of Lviv widely used their dominant position and tolerated a pronounced stratification and deep caste system while providing Lviv with food in the first postwar years. In the end, this approach led to the blurring of the original face of Lviv and, to some extent, deprived the city of the colours formed by many generations of Lviv residents.</p> Roman Heneha Copyright (c) 2022 Mon, 13 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Ustanowienie sowieckiego systemu przysposobienia obronnego w cywilnych szkołach wyższych we Lwowie (1944-1961) <p><strong><span class="TextRun SCXW173440370 BCX8" lang="PL-PL" xml:lang="PL-PL" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW173440370 BCX8">ESTABLISHMENT OF THE </span><span class="SpellingError SCXW173440370 BCX8">SOVIET</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW173440370 BCX8"> SYSTEM OF </span><span class="SpellingError SCXW173440370 BCX8">MILITARY</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW173440370 BCX8"> TRAINING IN </span><span class="SpellingError SCXW173440370 BCX8">CIVIL</span> <span class="SpellingError SCXW173440370 BCX8">HIGHER</span> <span class="SpellingError SCXW173440370 BCX8">EDUCATIONAL</span> <span class="SpellingError SCXW173440370 BCX8">INSTITUTIONS</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW173440370 BCX8"> OF </span><span class="SpellingError SCXW173440370 BCX8">LVIV</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW173440370 BCX8"> (1944-1961)</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW173440370 BCX8" data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335559739&quot;:160,&quot;335559740&quot;:259}">&nbsp;</span></strong></p> <p>This article presents information about the restoration, establishing and opening of higher education institutions in Lviv during the last period of the Second World War and in the first postwar years. The author underscores that the restored universities were already part of the Soviet educational system. According to the Decree of the Council of People’s Commissars of the Soviet Union No. 413 of 13 April 1944, the military training of students of higher education institutions was introduced. The main task of the military departments was the military training of students. However, in our research we indicate that the officers of these departments also took an active part in the mass defense, political propaganda and educational work of the universities. The author presents the prosopography of officers, and points to the complex scheme of staffing in the military departments of higher educational institutions, which was the effect of simultaneous subordination of these officers to military and civilian departments. During 1944-1991, the military departments with some differences operated in each civilian higher educational institution in Lviv, but most of these departments were liquidated by 1961-1962 during the military reform.</p> Łarysa Szełestak Copyright (c) 2022 Mon, 13 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Ten, który łączył niepołączalne. O profesorze Petrze Nedbajle i prawach człowieka <p><strong><span class="TextRun SCXW263370212 BCX8" lang="PL-PL" xml:lang="PL-PL" data-contrast="auto"><span class="SpellingError SCXW263370212 BCX8">COMBINING</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW263370212 BCX8"> THE </span><span class="SpellingError SCXW263370212 BCX8">INCOMPATIBLE</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW263370212 BCX8">: </span><span class="SpellingError SCXW263370212 BCX8">PROFESSOR</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW263370212 BCX8"> PETRO </span><span class="SpellingError SCXW263370212 BCX8">NEDBAILO</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW263370212 BCX8"> AND HUMAN </span><span class="SpellingError SCXW263370212 BCX8">RIGHTS</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW263370212 BCX8" data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335559739&quot;:160,&quot;335559740&quot;:259}">&nbsp;</span></strong></p> <p>The article analyses the scientific and diplomatic activities of Professor Petro Nedbailo. At the end of 1939, as part of the policy of “strengthening personnel” after the accession of Western Ukraine to the Ukrainian SSR, he was sent to work at the Lviv University. Since then, Petro Nedbailo headed the departments of state law, theory and history of state as well as law, state and administrative law, and he was twice appointed the dean of the law faculty. Initially, the scientist studied the issues of “socialist legitimacy”, but after being appointed the permanent representative of the Ukrainian SSR to the UN Commission on Human Rights (1958-1971) and the transition to teaching at the University of Kyiv, he paid more attention to human rights and freedoms. Repeating the Soviet official position, Petro Nedbailo interpreted human rights as a subject of internal competence of the state, and accepted international cooperation in this area only as a component of the “struggle for peace and security of the Soviet Union”. In his speeches in the UN General Assembly, Petro Nedbailo argued about the full respect for human rights in the Ukrainian SSR, but such allegations were far from the truth.</p> Rusłan Siromśkyj Copyright (c) 2022 Mon, 13 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0100 „Nie wychowywać nowej inteligencji”. Trudne lata mniejszości polskiej we Lwowie 1959-1962 <p><strong><span class="TextRun SCXW65476613 BCX8" lang="PL-PL" xml:lang="PL-PL" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW65476613 BCX8">“</span><span class="SpellingError SCXW65476613 BCX8">DON’T</span> <span class="SpellingError SCXW65476613 BCX8">RAISE</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW65476613 BCX8"> A NEW </span><span class="SpellingError SCXW65476613 BCX8">INTELLIGENCE</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW65476613 BCX8">”: </span><span class="SpellingError SCXW65476613 BCX8">DIFFICULT</span> <span class="SpellingError SCXW65476613 BCX8">POLISH</span> <span class="SpellingError SCXW65476613 BCX8">YEARS</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW65476613 BCX8"> IN </span><span class="SpellingError SCXW65476613 BCX8">LVIV</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW65476613 BCX8">, 1959- 1962</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW65476613 BCX8" data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335559739&quot;:160,&quot;335559740&quot;:259}">&nbsp;</span></strong></p> <p>The text concerns the fate of Poles in Lviv over three years (1959-1962), since the end of the so-called second repatriation to significant reduction of the presence of the Polish language in urban space. This period was marked by a clearly anti-Polish policy of the local authorities, aimed at almost total Sovietisation of the Polish minority. During the analysed period, the parish of St. Mary Magdalene (the church building was handed over to the neighbouring Lviv Polytechnic Institute). In addition, the Polish-language education system in the city was also damaged: out of three existing institutions, one was closed (school No. 30), and the other was reduced to the role of an eight-year-old (school No. 10). Both blows against the Polish minority resulted from a significant drop in the percentage of Poles in Lviv caused by departures to Poland in 1955-1959. The aim was, however, not to educate new generations of Polish intelligentsia in the city. It was intended to achieve this effect by limiting the possibility of meeting spiritual needs and receiving education in the mother tongue. In this way, the next generations of Lviv Poles were supposed to feel primarily as citizens of the USSR, which was assumed by the authorities.</p> Piotr Olechowski Copyright (c) 2022 Mon, 13 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0100