LingVaria 2024-05-06T12:31:27+02:00 Department of Scientific Journals, Ksiegarnia Akademicka Publishing Open Journal Systems <p>„LingVaria” są półrocznikiem wydawanym od 2006 r. przez Wydział Polonistyki Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego i publikującym artykuły z zakresu językoznawstwa, głównie polonistycznego, ale też z zakresu językoznawstwa ogólnego i slawistycznego. Odbiorcami są językoznawcy, a także doktoranci i studenci o zainteresowaniach lingwistycznych. Założycielem i pierwszym redaktorem naczelnym LingVariów jest prof. dr hab. Mirosław Skarżyński. Wersją podstawową (referencyjną) czasopisma jest wersja elektroniczna.</p> Front Matter 2024-04-30T08:22:39+02:00 2024-05-06T00:00:00+02:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2024 Okazjonalność przymiotników temporalnych w języku polskim 2024-05-06T12:31:18+02:00 Maciej Grochowski <p><strong>OCCASIONAL USE OF TEMPORAL ADJECTIVES IN POLISH</strong></p> <p>Occasional expressions help in referring the predicate to an extralinguistic object, and they serve as a means of its identification. The author of the article presents semantic descriptions of the following Polish temporal adjectives which express the simultaneity of the action with the speech act, namely <em>aktualny [up-to-date]</em>, <em>obecny [present]</em>, <em>bieżący [current]</em>, <em>dzisiejszy [today’s]</em>, <em>teraźniejszy [presentday]</em>. These units can be used occasionally. In this case, they are characterized by several syntactic features. First, they occur only in attribitive positions, never in predicative ones. Second, they cannot be negated. Third, they do not occur with indefinite pronouns. Fourth, they cannot co-occur with metapredicative operators. Fifth, they are not gradable.</p> 2024-05-06T00:00:00+02:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2024 Kilka pytań o samotną matkę i samodzielną matkę i ich opis leksykograficzny 2024-05-06T12:31:13+02:00 Katarzyna Dróżdż-Łuszczyk <p><strong>A FEW QUESTIONS ABOUT SAMOTNA MATKA AND SAMODZIELNA MATKA, AND THEIR LEXICOGRAPHIC DESCRIPTION</strong></p> <p>The author raises questions about how the terms <em>samotna matka</em> <em>[single mother]</em> and <em>samodzielna matka [independent mother]</em> are accounted for in a lexicographic description, whether they are considered discontinuous units, and what relationships exist between them. The author of the article presents corpus data that allows dating the appearance of the term samotna matka and the collocation <em>samodzielna matka</em> in Polish. The author comments on selected definitions of the adjective samotny (lonely). Then, she presents arguments in favour of recognising the combination samotna matka as a linguistic unit. Similar arguments were presented for the collocation <em>samodzielna matka</em>. The article also addresses issues of differences in valuation associated with the discussed collocations and indicates how a new collocation affects the meaning of the older unit.</p> 2024-05-06T00:00:00+02:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2024 Analiza semantyczna wybranych jednostek języka związanych z wydawaniem pieniędzy 2024-05-06T12:31:09+02:00 Dorota Kruk <p><strong>A SEMANTIC ANALYSIS OF SELECTED LANGUAGE UNITS RELATED TO THE CONCEPT OF SPENDING MONEY</strong></p> <p>The aim of the article is the delimitation and semantic analysis of language units represented in the Polish language by the forms: <em>wykosztować się [spend a lot of money]</em>, <em>szarpnąć się [buy something expensive]</em>, <em>zrujnować się, spłukać się [spend all one’s money]</em> and <em>szastać [spend money in a reckless manner]</em>. The author distinguishes the relevant language units and carries out their analysis according to the assumptions of reductionist semantics within the structuralist tradition which sets a clear boundary between semantics and pragmatics. The effect of the analysis conducted by the author is the identification of verbal units in the form of [ktoś<sub>i</sub>] <em>[somebody] wykosztował się na</em> [coś<sub>j</sub>], [ktoś<sub>i</sub>] <em>szarpnął się na</em> [coś<sub>j</sub>], [ktoś<sub>i</sub>] <em>zrujnował się na</em> [coś<sub>j</sub>], [ktoś<sub>i</sub>]<em> spłukał się</em>, as well as [ktoś<sub>i</sub>]<em> szasta</em> [czym<sub>ś</sub>j: <em>pieniądze</em> [money]]. The author describes the semantic properties of the distinguished lexemes and formulates explications of the notions assigned to them.</p> 2024-05-06T00:00:00+02:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2024 O wartościujących etykietach językowych używanych względem małych dzieci 2024-05-06T12:31:06+02:00 Barbara Żebrowska-Mazur <p><strong>ON EVALUATIVE LINGUISTIC LABELS USED IN REGARD TO YOUNG CHILDREN</strong></p> <p>The author of the article attempts to describe the linguistic phenomenon of labelling and stigmatization concerning children. In the introduction, the issue of child discrimination, known as adultism, is addressed. Then, the author discusses the origins and mechanisms of pejorative terms which frequently appear in online discussions related to motherhood and parenthood. In the analytical section, the author presents the most commonly used and negatively charged personal expressions, extracted,e. g. from the Monco PL search engine:<em> bombelek, gówniak, kaszojad, purchlę</em> and <em>purchlak</em> [pejorative terms denoting children]. Possible etymologies and usage examples are provided. Originally unequivocally negative terms for children also permeate colloquial language and gradually become neutralized or serve to distance oneself from parenthood. However, in this context, it’s worth referring to the ethics of language and promoting inclusive communication, which should also extend to talking about children and communicating with them.</p> 2024-05-06T00:00:00+02:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2024 O poprawności językowej tekstów generowanych przez SI na przykładzie ChatuGPT 2024-05-06T12:31:04+02:00 Rafał Mazur <p><strong>LANGUAGE ACCURACY OF TEXTS GENERATED BY AI: A CASE STUDY OF CHATGPT</strong></p> <p>The article aims to assess the linguistic accuracy of texts generated by ChatGPT, based on queries that mirror the instructions found in the 2023 secondary school final exam in Polish language and literature. The analysis focused on identifying and classifying language errors and evaluating their frequency. The results of the analysis revealed a varied level of accuracy in AI-generated texts. Most errors occurred in texts containing more complex constructions, where correct formulation required a comprehensive understanding of grammatical rules. The conclusions drawn from the analysis offer insights into the limitations of AI, which users should be mindful of when editing texts using chatbots.</p> 2024-05-06T00:00:00+02:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2024 Granice historii języka 2024-05-06T12:31:02+02:00 Ewa Woźniak <p><strong>BOUNDARIES OF THE HISTORY OF LANGUAGE</strong></p> <p>The author of the article presents arguments for the redefinition of the subject of study of the history of the Polish language. Theoretical assumptions of this subdiscipline of diachronic linguistics were formulated more than a century ago by Zenon Klemensiewicz, the author of the, so far, only historical-linguistic synthesis. Since then, along with changing research paradigms, the boundaries of the subdiscipline’s field of study have been expanded to include stylistic, semantic, generic, textual, and discursive issues. The author argues that the growth of knowledge, resulting from the use of diverse methods, tools, and operational terms to describe the language of the past, should lead to the emancipation of such subdisciplines as historical stylistics, historical genre studies, and historical discourse studies. In turn, the history of language, rooted in the idea that it is the community that forms a language, would then focus exclusively on those changes in a language that have been causally related to the history of the community that uses it. Within such narrow boundaries of the research field, a new synthesis of the history of the Polish language could be created.</p> 2024-05-06T00:00:00+02:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2024 Anotacja socjolingwistyczna w Korpusie dawnych polskich tekstów dramatycznych (1772–1939) 2024-05-06T12:30:59+02:00 Magdalena Pastuch Barbara Mitrenga Kinga Wąsińska <p><strong>SOCIOLINGUISTIC ANNOTATION IN THE CORPUS OF OLD POLISH DRAMATIC TEXTS (1772–1939)</strong></p> <p>The article presents the criteria applied in the sociolinguistic annotation in the Corpus of old Polish dramatic texts (1772–1939) (KorTeDa). This level of annotation was about assigning the three basic sociolinguistic variables: age, sex and social status to all the utterances of drama characters (except for collective statements). Six values were selected for determining age (underage, young adult, middle- aged adult, older adult (senior), indeterminate adult, indeterminate); three for sex (female, male, indeterminate); and four for social status (low, medium, high, indeterminate). The article shows the interdependence between those factors and the historical, social and cultural context. Additionally, the authors illustrated substantial and technical problems they faced during the process of this type of annotation. KorTeDa may become an important tool for analysing the history of the Polish language taking into account the methods of corpus linguistics and sociopragmatics.</p> 2024-05-06T00:00:00+02:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2024 Specyfika staropolszczyzny a anotacja gramatyczna. O lematyzacji tekstu staropolskiego 2024-05-06T12:30:56+02:00 Magdalena Wismont Kinga Zalejarz Ewa Nowak-Pasterska Dorota Rojszczak-Robińska <p><strong>SPECIFIC FEATURES OF OLD POLISH LANGUAGE AND GRAMMATICAL ANNOTATION: </strong><strong>LEMMATIZATION OF OLD POLISH TEXTS</strong></p> <p>The article is dedicated to grammatical annotation of Old Polish texts. It discusses the problem with the lemmatization of a medieval text. In the <em>Apocrypha</em> tool, a lemma is not the same as the basic form of a word. It is only a dictionary form, or a kind of a label. The author of the article presents the reasons for this decision and the adopted rules for assigning lemmas to different grammatical classes. The article also shows the criteria of the repartition of lemmas. These criteria are the frequency of the basic form in the text or texts, the persistence of the form or the differentiation of meanings. Third person pronouns turned out to be particularly difficult for lemmatization. According to the accepted rules, they have a gender, but do not conjugate with a gender (which forced, for example, the adoption of the masculine lemma ONY). The other examples are forms such as siebie, sobie [self], for which the lemma JA was adopted. The article also describes the issues of determining the lemma boundary when annotating words conjugated with different single morphemes: particles, agglutinants or residual forms of personal pronouns. All of the solutions adopted in the tool and presented in the article aimed at respecting the Old Polish language specific features while facilitating the analysis of the material.</p> 2024-05-06T00:00:00+02:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2024 O przyczynach dwóch ornitologicznych nieporozumień w tekście Kroniki wszytkiego świata Marcina Bielskiego 2024-05-06T12:30:53+02:00 Władimir Miakiszew <p><strong>ROOTS OF TWO ORNITHOLOGICAL MISTAKES </strong><strong>FOUND IN THE </strong><strong><em>CHRONICLES OF THE WHOLE WORLD </em></strong><strong>BY MARCIN BIELSKI</strong></p> <p>Two fragments from the tenth volume of Marcin Bielski’s Kronika <em>Wszytkiego Świata</em> <em>[Chronicles of the Whole World]</em>, dealing with the discovery of Haiti by Columbus and with the arrival of Cadamosto’s men at the uncharted territory of what is now Senegal, contain descriptions of starlings, but with the appearance and behaviour that is not typical of this bird species. Taking into account the fact that starlings did not inhabit those lands at the time, the author of the article attempts to figure out both the reason behind the ornithological misunderstanding and the actual type of the birds the travelers met.</p> 2024-05-06T00:00:00+02:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2024 O wybranych archaizmach w polskiej leksyce ludycznej 2024-05-06T12:30:51+02:00 Beata Raszewska-Żurek <p><strong>SELECTED ARCHAISMS IN POLISH LUDIC LEXIS</strong></p> <p>The article is dedicated to the history of old lexemes from the conceptual field of zabawa [play], which today are already archaisms: <em>krotochwila</em> <em>[joke]</em>,<em> krotochwilić [to joke]</em>,<em> kłam [a lie]</em>, <em>przekwint/ przekwinta [excessive elegance]</em> and <em>wydwarzanie [playing jokes]</em>. The text is a contribution to the analysis of Polish ludic vocabulary in the diachronic aspect. The analysis is based on dictionaries and corpuses of historical Polish. A review of the history of just a few lexemes showed that, within the concept of ZABAWA, changes were taking place which included the withdrawal of lexemes present in this conceptual field from the beginning. These changes concerned both words whose presence in the field was strongly marked (krotochwilić, krotochwila), as well as those that appeared in it only occasionally (przekwinta, wydwarzanie). Regardless of this, all of them eventually left not only the conceptual field of PLAY, but also the Polish language in general.</p> 2024-05-06T00:00:00+02:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2024 Ile ojca, ile matki jest w polskiej ojczyźnie? 2024-05-06T12:30:49+02:00 Stanisława Niebrzegowska-Bartmińska <p><strong>HOW MUCH OF A FATHER, HOW MUCH OF A MOTHER IS THERE IN THE POLISH </strong><strong><em>OJCZYZNA </em></strong><strong>[</strong><strong><em>FATHERLAND</em></strong><strong>]? </strong><strong>ONCE AGAIN ABOUT THE ROLE OF ETYMOLOGICAL DATA IN THE RECONSTRUCTION </strong><strong>OF THE LINGUISTIC WORLDVIEW</strong></p> <p>The author assumes that (1) etymological data are ethnolinguistically relevant, (2) the task of etymological research is to detect the original meaning of a word (to find the original semantic motivation) and to reach a world that disappeared, but, at the same time, remained a part of the present, (3) the focus of the research should shift from formal interests to broadly understood semantics (reconstruction of the conceptualization processes that accompany the nominations and of the linguistic image of the words hiding behind words). Based on this, the author undertakes the analysis of the names for the fatherland in the Polish language. To do this, she compares the Polish lexis and its onomasiological basis with the corresponding vocabulary of other Slavic languages. According to the author, studying the semantics of a whole group of words allows us to discover the basic cognitive situation, i.e. the generalized experience of a specific linguistic and cultural community. Using dictionary data and studies of the concept of the “fatherland” in Slavic languages, the author analyses the names related to the Polish concept of OJCZYZNA: lexical and semantic nests such as <em>“ojczyzna i patria” [homeland and patria]</em>,<em> “macierz [“motherland”]</em>, <em>“państwo” [“state”]</em> and <em>“kraj” [country]</em>, and she extracts the underlying cultural “codes”: (1) kin and family, (2) home, (3) power and dominion, and (4) land. The author also shows the coherence of these codes and the image of the fatherland that emerges from them.</p> 2024-05-06T00:00:00+02:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2024 Back Matter 2024-04-30T13:51:21+02:00 2024-05-06T00:00:00+02:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2024 Od redaktora naczelnego 2024-04-30T08:26:19+02:00 Maciej Rak 2024-05-06T00:00:00+02:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2024 On the origin of toponym Rajgród 2024-05-06T12:30:47+02:00 Rolandas Kregždys <p><strong>ON THE ORIGIN OF THE TOPONYM <em>RAJGRÓD</em></strong></p> <p>The article focuses on the etymological analysis of the place-name Pol. <em>Rajgród</em> ‘a town in Grajewo County, Podlaskie Voivodeship’. It has been stated that the stronghold known as the “Castle Hill” in <em>Rajgród</em> was founded by Yotvingians. Referring to the etymological analysis of the West Germanic forms of the analysed onym and its variants, such as <em>Rongart</em> 1360 etc., the author of the article presents a new hypothesis concerning the origin of Pol. <em>Rajgród</em>. In summing up the research results, one may conclude that the toponym Pol. <em>Rajgród</em> is to be ascribed to adapted place-names of Germanic origin, i. e. (1) CS <em>Раи<sub>1253</sub></em> ← top. *<em>Rain</em> / *<em>Rein</em> (/ *<em>Reyn</em>) ‘a frontier’ ↔ top. MLG †<em>Reyne</em> 1292, 1293, 1489; (2) <em>Raygrod</em> 1244, <em>Reygrod</em> 1429 etc. (↔ <em>Rajgród</em>) ← *<em>Reingarden</em> / *<em>Reingart(h)</em> ‘a frontier area’; (3) <em>Rongart</em> 1360,<em> Rogors</em> 1422 etc. ← sub. MLG <em>ronne(bôm)</em> ‘a border pole, i.e. a frontier, a march’.</p> 2024-05-06T00:00:00+02:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2024 Predykaty wyższego vs. pierwszego rzędu jako problem syntaktyczny 2024-05-06T12:31:27+02:00 Aleksander Kiklewicz <p><strong>HIGHER-ORDER VS FIRST-ORDER PREDICATES AS A SYNTACTIC PROBLEM</strong></p> <p>The author considers the problems of syntactic analysis of language expressions with higher-order and first-order predicates. In the first part it is shown that there are some discrepancies in the treatment of these categories: on the one hand, in semantic syntax, and, on the other hand, in predicate logic and in categorial grammar. In the following chapters, the author analyses the disputed phenomena that can be treated in two ways, depending on whether the verb is considered a first-order or higher-order predicate. At the same time, it is stated that the valence properties of a verb depend on its lexical meaning, and, on the other hand, the definition of meaning should take into account the nature of the syntactic structure. The notion of precedent representations is suggested, i. e. constructions with a clausal actant that indicate the propositional status of the appropriate complements of the predicate.</p> 2024-05-06T00:00:00+02:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2024 Frazeologia gestyczna – znaczenie gestu a znaczenie idiomu 2024-05-06T12:31:24+02:00 Izabela Kraśnicka <p><strong>GESTURAL PHRASEOLOGY – THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE MEANING OF A GESTURE</strong><strong> AND THE MEANING OF AN IDIOM</strong></p> <p>The aim of the article is to discuss the relationship between the meaning of a gesture and the meaning of an idiom which is a literal description of this gesture, i. e. the so-called gestural phraseme (e. g. machnąć na coś ręką [literally: wave your hand at something; metaphorically: give up something], zacierać ręce [rub your hands], rozkładać ręce [throw up one’s hands]). Selected examples of gestures and their phraseological equivalents were discussed, also taking into account their meanings created in direct dialogue. This is particularly important because the meaning of many gestures, which are part of human communicative activity, depends on the context, which, in this case, is the speaker’s entire utterance. Moreover, analyzing gestures and idioms in the dialogue allows us to trace possible ways of co-occurring of these two semiotic modes, which, in turn, sheds some light on the functions of nonverbal behaviour in creating the meaning of utterances. Thus, the research material will contain recordings of TV programs which show politicians’ speeches and utterances of other famous people, thanks to which it is possible to watch spontaneous gesticulation accompanying speech. Conclusions from qualitative research tend to distinguish three types of relationships between a gesture and its idiomatic description: a gesture with a phraseological description accompanies an utterance which it can complement semantically; the gesture precedes the statement, announcing its content; the gesture occurs simultaneously with the idiom that describes it.</p> 2024-05-06T00:00:00+02:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2024 Frazeologiczne ujęcie kolokacji Franza Josefa Hausmanna i możliwość jego adaptacji w języku polskim 2024-05-06T12:31:20+02:00 Joanna Targońska <p><strong>A PHRASEOLOGICAL APPROACH TO COLLOCATIONS ACCORDING TO FRANZ JOSEF HAUSMANN </strong><strong>AND ITS POSSIBLE ADAPTATION IN POLISH</strong></p> <p>Collocations is a term for a linguistic phenomenon that can be and is variously understood and defined. The aim of this article is to give an overview of the narrow concept of collocations suggested by Hausmann. The author of the article describes the semantic (phraseological) approach to the term, which stands in opposition to the syntactic, or corpus-based one. Collocations, according to Hausmann, take into account the process of thinking and language production of language learners. The hierarchical structure of collocations consisting of the collocation base and the collocator, which was suggested for the first time, is presented, and the individual elements of this phraseme are characterised in the article. Also, the author of the article attempts to transfer the concept of collocations according to Hausmann to the Polish language, and indicates a possible classification of Polish collocations in the semantic approach.</p> 2024-05-06T00:00:00+02:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2024 Investigating Predicate Types and Mood Selection in Polish Complement Clauses: An Empirical Study 2024-05-06T12:30:43+02:00 Hanna Twardowska <p><strong>TYPY PREDYKATÓW I WYBÓR TRYBU W POLSKICH ZDANIACH DOPEŁNIENIOWYCH – BADANIE EMPIRYCZNE</strong></p> <p>Często zakłada się, że występowanie trybu łączącego jest ograniczone tylko do języków, które mają osobny paradygmat odmian dla tego trybu. Takie założenia sprawiają, że tryb łączący nie może pojawić się w językach takich jak język polski ze względu na brak osobnych końcówek morfologicznych. Jednakże polska konstrukcja, która składa się ze spójnika zdaniowego <em>żeby</em> oraz imiesłowu przeszłego, wykazuje właściwości semantyczne oraz morfoskładniowe podobne do tych zaobserwowanych dla hiszpańskiego trybu łączącego. Konstrukcja ta pojawia się prawie wyłącznie w zdaniach podrzędnych, nie pozwala na koreferencyjność podmiotów, a także jest defektywna pod względem czasowym. Ponadto możemy ją znaleźć po tych samych typach predykatów, po których występuje tryb łączący w języku hiszpańskim. Z tego względu celem tego artykułu jest pokazanie, że można założyć istnienie konstrukcji koniunktywnej w języku polskim. To założenie potwierdzają dane uzyskane w wyniku badania korpusowego oraz testu gramatyczności.</p> 2024-05-06T00:00:00+02:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2024