LingVaria 2023-05-16T11:21:39+02:00 Department of Scientific Journals, Ksiegarnia Akademicka Publishing Open Journal Systems <p>„LingVaria” są półrocznikiem wydawanym od 2006 r. przez Wydział Polonistyki Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego i publikującym artykuły z zakresu językoznawstwa, głównie polonistycznego, ale też z zakresu językoznawstwa ogólnego i slawistycznego. Odbiorcami są językoznawcy, a także doktoranci i studenci o zainteresowaniach lingwistycznych.&nbsp;. Założycielem i pierwszym redaktorem naczelnym LingVariów jest prof. dr hab. Mirosław Skarżyński. Wersją podstawową (referencyjną) czasopisma jest wersja elektroniczna.</p> Front Matter 2023-05-08T12:18:57+02:00 2023-05-16T00:00:00+02:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Deutsche Appellativa Zur Bezeichnung Von Metallgiessern Im Spiegel Polnischer, Ukrainischer Und Weissrussischer Sprachdenkmäler 2023-05-16T11:20:51+02:00 Taras Pyts <p><strong>GERMAN APPELLATIONS FOR DENOTING CASTERS IN THE MIRROR OF POLISH, UKRAINIAN AND BYELORUSSIAN WRITTEN RECOLLECTIONS</strong></p> <p>The paper is dedicated to the research of German names of the casters (<em>Kannengießer</em>, <em>Rotgießer</em>, <em>Gießer</em>, <em>Buchstaben-/Schriftgießer</em>, <em>Rinckenmacher</em>) and also their word-forms in Polish, Ukrainian and Byelorussian as a craftsman name and/or surname. The research on the etymology of German borrowings in the three Slavonic languages is analysed. On the basis of written recollection of German, Polish, Ukrainian and Byelorussian languages of the 14<sup>th</sup> – 18<sup>th</sup> centuries, it can be determined which German word-forms of the handicraft names were included into Slavonic languages and what their dialectal origins as well as ways and chronology of borrowings were. Phonetic, morphologic and graphic transformations are also analyzed, and the semantics of Polish rynkmacher and Ukrainian гисеръ/гисаръ is defined more precisely.</p> 2023-05-16T00:00:00+02:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Pamięć nostalgiczna i językowa w listach lwowian do Profesor Zofii Kurzowej (w dwudziestą rocznicę śmierci Uczonej) 2023-05-16T11:20:36+02:00 Zofia Kubiszyn-Mędrala Monika Szpiczakowska <p><strong>NOSTALGIC AND LINGUISTIC MEMORY IN THE LETTERS FROM LEOPOLITANS TO PROFESSOR ZOFIA KURZOWA (ON THE 20<sup>TH</sup> ANNIVERSARY OF DEATH)</strong></p> <p>The article refers to Professor Zofia Kurzowa’s research in the field of the Polish language of <em>Kresy</em> – the Eastern Borderlands. The authors of the article analyse letters that Leopolitans displaced in the postwar period wrote to Professor Kurzowa after the publication of her book about the Polish language of the prewar Lviv. The analysis refers to memory studies and describes the nostalgic and linguistic memory found in the letters of Leopolitans. The nostalgic memory draws on the longing for the homeland, for something that was precious in life but was lost. A manifestation of linguistic memory is what was preserved in the language of prewar Lviv.</p> 2023-05-16T00:00:00+02:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Specyfika staropolszczyzny a anotacja gramatyczna. O potrzebie nowych wartości kategorii 2023-05-16T11:21:15+02:00 Dorota Rojszczak-Robińska Magdalena Wismont Kinga Zalejarz Aleksandra Deskur Ewa Nowak-Pasterska <p><strong>OLD POLISH LANGUAGE SPECIFICITY AND GRAMMATICAL ANNOTATION: ON THE NEED FOR NEW CATEGORY VALUES</strong></p> <p>The paper is focused on the grammatical annotation of Old Polish texts. The authors discuss the necessity to use unusual grammatical category values: 0 and X. It occurs when any of the values is impossible to determine (e.g. due to damage to the manuscript or insufficient syntactic/semantic context) or a word takes no value in a given category (e.g. an unstated adjective). The article presents factors influencing the choice of 0 and X values. It shows those grammatical classes and categories in whose annotation the use of these values has been highly significant.</p> 2023-05-16T00:00:00+02:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Barokowa polszczyzna w internecie, czyli Elektroniczny słownik języka polskiego XVII i XVIII wieku 2023-05-16T11:21:10+02:00 Dorota Adamiec Włodzimierz Gruszczyński Magdalena Majdak Mateusz Żółtak <p><strong>BAROQUE POLISH IN THE INTERNET OR THE ELECTRONIC DICTIONARY OF POLISH IN THE 17<sup>TH</sup> AND 18<sup>TH</sup> CENTURIES</strong></p> <p>In 2021, the Electronic <em>Dictionary of Polish Language of the 17th and 18th Centuries</em> (e-SXVII) was given the 4<sup>th</sup> edition Award of the Linguistics Committee of the Polish Academy of Sciences for outstanding scientific achievements in the field of linguistics. The award was granted in the category of team work carried out by Prof. Włodzimierz Gruszczyński PhD together with the Studio of the History of Polish Language of the 17th and 18th Centuries IJP PAN under his management, where e-SXVII is being created. The dictionary has been recognized as “an achievement in producing linguistic resources or tools”. The article reports on the history of the studio and introduces the evolution of conceptual works, especially after the decision to suspend further publication of SXVII in paper form (2004) and transform it into the first Polish dictionary created initially in the electronic form. It also deals with detailed issues regarding the canon of sources, structure and content (shape) of individual elements of the entry and media structure, and relations with other digital collections (especially the <em>Electronic Corpus of Polish Texts from the 17th and 18th Centuries</em>). The authors of the article also describe an important IT tool created for the needs of this dictionary.</p> 2023-05-16T00:00:00+02:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Korpus XIX w. Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego i IJP PAN 2023-05-16T11:21:08+02:00 Marek Łaziński Rafał L. Górski Michał Woźniak <p><strong>CORPUS OF THE 19<sup>TH</sup> CENTURY OF THE WARSAW UNIVERSITY AND IJP PAN</strong></p> <p>The article describes a historical corpus which documents the 19<sup>th</sup> and early 20<sup>th</sup> century. The corpus was created as part of a research grant whose objective was to investigate the development of the aspectual system of Polish in the last 250 years against the background of Czech and Russian. An important resource for this investigation was a database of aspectual triplets, which, in turn, was based on materials such as text corpora. Since there was no large corpus of the 19<sup>th</sup> and early 20<sup>th</sup> century available, there was a need to bridge this gap. In the course of the project, such corpus was made and it is now publicly accessible with no restrictions. This comprehensive corpus contains over 12 million contemporary words. Its texts originate from major Polish virtual libraries. It is POS-tagged with a tagger dedicated for 19<sup>th</sup> century texts. A web-based concordancer, an adjusted version of ParaVoz, allows for querying the corpus. The queries may be constrained by metadata.</p> 2023-05-16T00:00:00+02:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 O guście ze smakiem – czyli kiedy i dlaczego wyraz gust utracił w polszczyźnie znaczenie zmysłowe 2023-05-16T11:21:05+02:00 Barbara Batko-Tokarz <p><strong>ABOUT GOOD TASTE (POLISH: <em>GUST</em>) AND DELICIOUS TASTE (POLISH: <em>SMAK</em>): IN OTHER WORDS: WHY THE POLISH WORD <em>GUST</em> LOST ITS ETYMOLOGICAL MEANING</strong></p> <p>The word gust was borrowed from Western European Languages in 17<sup>th</sup> century in a few meanings, including perception of taste and flavour of food and appetite. The author of this article discusses the very etymological meaning of the word gust and also words derived from it: the adjective gustowny and adverb gustownie. The author presents the reasons why this etymological meaning disappeared from Polish language, which is compared in the context of the synonymic Polish word smak and other borrowings with the core of word (-gust-). The article discusses the etymology and history of the Polish word gust along with the examples of its exact meaning found in texts from 17<sup>th</sup> and 18<sup>th</sup> centuries, especially in cookbooks. The article also explains the semantic evolution of gust. In order to achieve her objective, the author used historical dictionaries, descriptions of cultural changes associated with the French idea of bon goût, and also linguistic descriptions concerning semantic changes of the lexis of taste evolving into their metaphorical meanings. This article underlines the evolution of the meaning of the Polish words gust and smak during the past centuries.</p> 2023-05-16T00:00:00+02:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Umieranie i śmierć w polskojęzycznych drukach prawosławnych z kręgu Akademii Mohylańskiej 2023-05-16T11:21:01+02:00 Jolanta Klimek-Grądzka <p><strong>DYING AND DEATH IN POLISH LANGUAGE ORTHODOX PRINTED TEXTS AUTHORED BY THE MEMBERS OF KIYV-MOHYLA ACADEMY</strong></p> <p>This article deals with the Polish lexis in the semantic field of DEATH and conceptualizations of death as represented in Orthodox hagiographies and <em>miracula</em> collections. The analysis includes the following three text collections: H. Denisowicz’s Parergon cudów świętych [Parergon of the Miracles of the Saints] (1638), A. Kalnofojski’s <em>Teratourgēma lubo cuda</em>... [Teratourgēma, that is Miracles...] (1638) and S. Kossow’s <em>Paterikon abo zywoty</em>… [Patericon, that is the lives...] (1635). The lexical field under analysis was further divided in to subcategories addressing e.g. the cause of death (<em>zabić</em> [kill], <em>zamordować</em> [murder], <em>obwiesić się</em> [hang oneself]), the killer (<em>bratomorderca</em> [fratricide]), or the relationship between the killer and the victim (<em>oycozaboystwo</em> [patricide]). The article concentrates predominantly on conceptualizations of death, such as death as a road, farewell, crossing the borderline, salvation / condemnation, a dream. These are presented against the background of the Old Polish literary tradition.</p> 2023-05-16T00:00:00+02:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Słownictwo religijne a reformacja. Głos w dyskusji nad konfesyjnym zróżnicowaniem polskiej leksyki w XVI w. 2023-05-16T11:20:59+02:00 Magdalena Gozdek Ewa Woźniak <p><strong>RELIGIOUS VOCABULARY AND THE REFORMATION: A CONTRIBUTION TO THE DISCUSSION ON THE CONFESSIONAL DIVERSITY OF THE SIXTEENTH-CENTURY POLISH LEXICON</strong></p> <p>The article addresses the problem of the confessional diversity of sixteenth-century Polish religious vocabulary. It revises the arguments put forward by other academics and formulates new research recommendations. Focusing on the lexicon of Polish Lutheranism, which has so far received little scholarly attention, the article examines the vocabulary used in the polemical texts by one of the main representatives of the Polish Reformation: the Lutheran Erazm Gliczner. Based on the analysis of two groups of confessional terms: 1. <em>repentance</em> [<em>pokajanie</em>] – <em>reflection</em> [<em>upamiętanie</em>], 2. <em>the Catholic church</em> [<em>Kościół</em>] – <em>the Protestant church</em> [<em>Zbór</em>], we claim that the author does not avoid words that belong to the Catholic lexicon, but distances himself from the terminology used by representatives of radical, anti-Trinitarian denominations. Our findings help to revise certain popular ideas, conclusions drawn from the analysis of Polish translations of the Bible, as well as linguistic commentaries of the translators. It is thus essential that the research in the field of the sixteenth-century Polish religious vocabulary should be continued and should include texts other than Bible translations, i.e., texts whose authors’ word choice was determined by different factors.</p> 2023-05-16T00:00:00+02:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Od redaktora naczelnego 2023-05-08T12:21:23+02:00 Maciej Rak 2023-05-16T00:00:00+02:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Onomastyka otwarta. Współczesne kierunki rozwoju polskich badań nad nazwami własnymi 2023-05-16T11:20:48+02:00 Mariusz Rutkowski <p><strong>OPEN ONOMASTICS: CONTEMPORARY TRENDS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF POLISH RESEARCH ON PROPER NAMES</strong></p> <p>Onomastics is traditionally treated as a subdiscipline of linguistics. Despite the close relationship between onomastics and methods of research on names derived from linguistics, a current in the development of onomastics based on other traditions and achievements in various scientific disciplines has also become popular in recent years. Given Antoni Furdal’s concept of open linguistics, one can refer to them as onomastics becoming open to perspectives and methodological frameworks beyond linguistics. In this article, the most significant types of such achievements in contemporary Polish onomastics are discussed, and a brief comment on them is made. The author discusses the changes in the subject of the research, including the methodology, as well as the processes of the permeation of paradigms and drawing inspiration from other social sciences.</p> 2023-05-16T00:00:00+02:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Warsaw and Kyiv Lodging Establishment Names of the Early 20th Cent. 2023-05-16T11:20:46+02:00 Tetiana Chernysh Serhii Yermolenko <p><strong>NAZWY WARSZAWSKICH I KIJOWSKICH HOTELI NA POCZĄTKU XX W.</strong></p> <p>Artykuł zawiera studium przypadku w zakresie komparatywnej socjoonomastyki ogólnoeuropejskiego obszaru językowo-kulturowego. Analizując formę wewnętrzną nazw hoteli warszawskich i kijowskich z początku ubiegłego wieku oraz jej motywacje zewnątrzjęzykowe, autorzy pokazują, że mimo odmienności języków, orientacji narodowo-kulturowych oraz popularności pewnych onimów nazwy te stanowiły realizację na odpowiednich obszarach wspólnoeuropejskiego systemu onomastycznego w tym zakresie zarówno na poziomie poszczególnych nazw, jak i ich modeli semantycznych. Jako część systemu onomastyki europejskiej zbadane nazwy odzwierciedlają też dynamikę tego systemu, między innymi rozprzestrzenienie innowacji onomastycznych i ich przekształcenie w nieuosobione nazwy własne.</p> 2023-05-16T00:00:00+02:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 O nazwach handlowych polskich miodów pitnych – między tradycją a nowoczesnością 2023-05-16T11:20:42+02:00 Rafał Mazur <p><strong>TRADE NAMES OF POLISH MEADS – BETWEEN TRADITION AND MODERNITY</strong></p> <p>The aim of the study is to analyze and classify the trade names of Polish meads. The research material consists of 256 names of liquors which were divided into two groups: names of direct motivation and names of conventional motivation. The analysis of the motivation of the collected onyms made it possible for the author to highlight two marketing strategies used in the promotion of mead. On the one hand, a large group of names presents honey as a traditional alcohol with a long history. On the other hand, the motivations of many of the collected chrematonyms follow the opposite tendency, which is an attempt to present mead as a modern, interesting and intriguing alcohol.</p> 2023-05-16T00:00:00+02:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Krakuś, radomek, warszewik i gdańskmen – uwagi o ekspresywnej potencji słowotwórczej wybranych nazw miast 2023-05-16T11:20:40+02:00 Anna Pilińska <p><strong><em>KRAKUŚ</em>, <em>RADOMEK</em>,<em> WARSZEWIK</em> AND <em>GDAŃSKMEN</em>: COMMENTS ON THE EXPRESSIVE VOCABULARY POTENCY OF SELECTED CITY NAMES</strong></p> <p>The article presents the characteristics and analysis of expressive words motivated by the names of places: Brussels, Warsaw, Gdańsk, Kraków, Radom and Kraśnik. The cities with the highest participation in public discourse were selected. These lexemes, apart from their basic meaning, gained secondary meanings, often created as a result of metonymization, stereotyping, and the consolidation of negative associations or connotations. The collected material was grouped and presented in word-formative nests.</p> 2023-05-16T00:00:00+02:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Mikołaj Rej i jego epoka po japońsku. Rozważania na marginesie książki ミコワイ・レイ氏の鏡と 動物園 [Zwierciadło i Zwierzyniec pana Mikołaja Reja] 2023-05-16T11:20:29+02:00 Bartosz T. Wojciechowski Władysław T. Miodunka <p><strong>MIKOLAJ REJ AND HIS EPOCH (POLISH RENAISSANCE) IN JAPANESE: SEVERAL THOUGHTS CONCERNING THE BOOK ミコワイ・レイ氏の鏡と動物園. <em>ZWIERCIADŁO</em> I <em>ZWIERZYNIEC</em> PANA MIKOŁAJA REJA</strong></p> <p>The article opens with remarks on Mikołaj Rej as outlined in Czesław Miłosz’s <em>The History of Polish Literature</em>, along with some observations on Rej’s language that became the material basis for the first grammatical description of the Polish language by Piotr Statorius-Stojeński in 1568. The next part of the article includes an outline of Professor Sekiguchi Tokimasa’s academic profile. Professor Sekiguchi is one of Japan’s foremost authorities in Polish Studies, as well as prolific writer and translator whose output includes translations of Rej’s literary legacy enclosed in the volume in question. The text also gives a detailed analysis of the original Japanese work, including its presentation of Mikołaj Rej as an author, but also commented fragments of his works: <em>Speculum</em>, <em>Bestiary</em>, <em>Figliki</em> (<em>Facetiae</em>), and T<em>he Image of a Good Man’s Life</em>. The concluding part comments on Rej’s epoch which is commonly labeled “The Golden Age of Polish Culture”.</p> 2023-05-16T00:00:00+02:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Polski bezokolicznik celu przy czasownikach ruchu 2023-05-16T11:21:32+02:00 Magdalena Danielewiczowa Izabela Duraj-Nowosielska <p><strong>POLISH INFINITIVE OF PURPOSE WITH MOTION VERBS</strong></p> <p>The authors of the article discuss Polish verbal constructions with an infinitive indicating the purpose of the motion, such as pobiegł otworzyć drzwi (he ran to open the door). In the first part of the study, the authors describe the research field, separating lexicalised expressions such as [ktoś] idzie spać ([someone] goes to sleep), (nie) idzie wytrzymać (it is hard to bear this), spieszę donieść, że… (I’m in a rush to report that…). The second part is devoted to the formal characteristics of structures with the infinitive of purpose. The semantic aspects of the studied structures are considered in the third part of the article. The authors present several arguments contradicting the common view that the analysed expressions and the corresponding structures with a subordinate purpose clause are synonymous. Part four of the study provides information on the status of the examined structures in contemporary Polish. Their formal and semantic properties suggest that they are products of a semantic-syntactic operation. In the last, fifth section of the article, the authors place Polish verbal constructions with the infinitive of purpose against a broader typological background, considering their relationship with similar expressions in other languages, which are at various stages of grammaticalization.</p> 2023-05-16T00:00:00+02:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Ile jest słów pochodzenia ukraińskiego we współczesnej polszczyźnie ogólnej? 2023-05-16T11:21:26+02:00 Adam Fałowski <p><strong>HOW MANY WORDS OF UKRAINIAN ORIGIN ARE THERE IN MODERN GENERAL POLISH?</strong></p> <p>The answer the question posed in the title is by no means simple. So far, no analytical-synthetic work has appeared which would constitute a summary of detailed studies within the aforementioned area. In the article, the author cites and confronts quantitative data taken from the most important studies devoted to the issue of lexical influences of the Ukrainian language on contemporary general Polish, and the latest lexicographical sources. For the time being, we must be satisfied with the statement that the list of Ukrainianisms (rutenisms) in contemporary Polish general language includes between 106 and 366 words. This state of affairs certainly does not bring pride to Polish linguistics.</p> 2023-05-16T00:00:00+02:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Co kryje w sobie koronaparty? Językowy obraz pandemicznej uciechy wśród polskiej młodzieży studenckiej (na podstawie danych eksperymentalnych) 2023-05-16T11:21:22+02:00 Natalia Długosz <p><strong>WHAT IS INCLUDED IN THE POLISH LEXEME <em>KORONAPARTY</em>? THE LINGUISTIC IMAGE OF PANDEMIC JOKES TOLD BY THE POLISH STUDENTS (BASED ON SURVEY DATA)</strong></p> <p>This article attempts to create a cognitive definition of the meaning of the Polish lexeme <em>koronaparty</em> on the basis of experimental data obtained among Polish students through a survey. The experiment was conducted in February 2021. Fifty students took part in it. First, they answered the question: What do you think the word <em>koronaparty</em> means? Second, they built sentences including the koronaparty lexeme. As a result, 53 responses were obtained and 46 sentences were made with the use of the <em>koronaparty</em> lexeme. The collected data allowed for the preparation of a synthetic cognitive definition of the meaning of the word. The categorial semantic feature of the <em>koronaparty</em> is the occurrence of the event during the pandemic. The meaning of <em>koronaparty</em> may include as follows: 1. “social gathering at high risk of developing Covid-19: with the participation of people infected with Covid-19, without sanitation requirements and restrictions / usually secret / live”; 2. “social gathering during which sanitary requirements and restrictions are respected: open and live, e.g. a wedding with a limited number of people, going to the theatre or to a concert with a face mask and social distance, etc.”; 3. “online social gathering (via Zoom, Skype, FaceTime etc.), official cultural event (e.g. concert, performance, etc.) or private gathering such as watching movies and/or drinking alcohol together”.</p> 2023-05-16T00:00:00+02:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Stylizacja na język warszawskich blokersów w kreskówce Blok ekipa 2023-05-16T11:21:17+02:00 Konrad K. Szamryk <p><strong>STYLIZATION FOR THE LANGUAGE OF WARSAW CHAVS IN THE CARTOON <em>BLOK EKIPA</em></strong></p> <p>The article presents the linguistic stylization for the sociolect of young people living in blocks of flats (chavs) in the adult cartoon entitled <em>Blok ekipa</em> [“Blok of flats – crew”]. The language of the protagonists imitates both elements typical of subcultures and colloquial Polish language: expression, vulgarization, slang and prison vocabulary, as well as language of domination and aggression. In addition, the language of the cartoon characters reflects negligent pronunciation (phonetic, inflectional, dialectisms). Furthermore, the elements that make the series attractive are original comparative structures. The stylization covers almost all levels of the language system (phonetics, inflection, word formation, lexis) and stylistics. Moreover, all the above-mentioned exponents are deliberately cumulated, so the type of stylization in the cartoon might be perceived as reconstructive-manneristic.</p> 2023-05-16T00:00:00+02:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Zaolziańska wspólnota w trosce o tożsamość językową i kulturową 2023-05-16T11:20:55+02:00 Janina Labocha <p><strong>THE COMMUNITY OF ZAOLZIE (TRANS-OLZA) ACTING TO MAINTAIN ITS LINGUISTIC AND CULTURAL IDENTITY</strong></p> <p>The community of Zaolzie includes Polish people who, as a result of the division of the Cieszyn Silesia into the Polish and Czechoslovak parts in 1929, became a national minority outside the borders of Poland. Living among the Czech population in a linguistically and culturally foreign country, the Polish community fought to maintain its ethnic and cultural identity. The bond uniting the community was maintained by the Cieszyn dialect, i.e. colloquial speech which I call the<em> Zaolzie dialect</em>. Educational and cultural activities were also of great importance, referring to the tradition of the struggle for Polishness in the period from the 19th century onwards. The knowledge spread by Polish schools in Zaolzie, the teaching of Polish history and, against its background, the history of the Cieszyn region, as well as the reading of Polish books contributed to the consolidation of the knowledge of Polish literary language and to the formation of Polish linguistic and national awareness in the Czech environment. In the second part of the article, I present selected utterances of Zaolzie cultural activists published in 1950s and 1960s in the regional monthly entitled “Zwrot”. They illustrate the linguistic problems in Zaolzie which are still relevant despite the changes in the local communication system that occurred as a result of the decreasing number of Polish schools and people with a strong Polish identity.</p> 2023-05-16T00:00:00+02:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Ontogenetyczny i filogenetyczny wymiar zmian językowych w zakresie gramatyki 2023-05-16T11:21:39+02:00 Michaił Kotin <p><strong>ONTOGENETIC AND PHYLOGENETIC DIMENSIONS OF LANGUAGE CHANGE IN GRAMMAR</strong></p> <p>This paper discusses selected aspects of the theory of linguistic change in grammar. The main assumption is the claim that the development of the categorial functions of natural languages throughout the time (phylogenesis) mostly coincides with the stadiums of the acquisition of the same categories by an individual (ontogenesis). Using the examples of the development and acquisition of strong and weak verb forms in Germanic languages and the categorial links between aspectuality, temporality and modality of the verb, different stages that characterise the linguistic changes in question are analysed in comparison with the stages of their acquisition in the process of language acquisition among children between 2 and 14 years of age. The analysis proves that the connections between ontogenesis and phylogenesis are complex, so they cannot be always explained in a simple and definite manner. The change in either sphere has its own specific features and runs mutatis mutandis in both spheres.</p> 2023-05-16T00:00:00+02:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Sygnały metaforyczności w tekstach użytkowych – na przykładzie metaforyki sportowej 2023-05-16T11:21:35+02:00 Renata Przybylska <p><strong>SIGNALS OF METAPHORICITY IN APPLIED TEXTS – BASED ON THE EXAMPLE OF SPORTS METAPHORICS</strong></p> <p>This article is an attempt of description and typology of the signals of metaphoricity present in applied texts. The illustrative material consists of metaphorical uses of sports vocabulary. The author suggests a division of metaphoricity signals into macro-textual and micro-textual. The macro-textual ones include the apparent clear contrast between the metaphorically used vocabulary, e.g. words related to sports, and the global topic of the text and the genre of the utterance. The micro-textual signals include indicators of metaphoricity at the level of metatext and at the level of the subject text. Metatextual signals are: the use of inverted commas, the use of the ‘so-called’ operator, the use of words such as like ‘proverbial’, ‘peculiar’, etc. Micro-textual signals in the subject language consist in changing the valence of the metaphorized word and altering its standard collocation profile. The metaphoricity signals in question only guide the interpretation of the meaning of words and expressions; they do not unequivocally determine their metaphorical meaning.</p> 2023-05-16T00:00:00+02:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Back Matter 2023-05-08T15:34:13+02:00 2023-05-16T00:00:00+02:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023