LingVaria 2023-11-14T09:06:24+01:00 Department of Scientific Journals, Ksiegarnia Akademicka Publishing Open Journal Systems <p>„LingVaria” są półrocznikiem wydawanym od 2006 r. przez Wydział Polonistyki Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego i publikującym artykuły z zakresu językoznawstwa, głównie polonistycznego, ale też z zakresu językoznawstwa ogólnego i slawistycznego. Odbiorcami są językoznawcy, a także doktoranci i studenci o zainteresowaniach lingwistycznych. Założycielem i pierwszym redaktorem naczelnym LingVariów jest prof. dr hab. Mirosław Skarżyński. Wersją podstawową (referencyjną) czasopisma jest wersja elektroniczna.</p> Front Matter 2023-10-25T12:22:26+02:00 2023-11-14T00:00:00+01:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Rola słowników opracowanych przez autochtonów w dokumentacji leksyki gwarowej 2023-11-14T09:05:54+01:00 Halina Karaś <p><strong>THE ROLE OF DICTIONARIES DEVELOPED BY AUTOCHTHONOUS AUTHORS IN THE DOCUMENTATION OF THE DIALECTAL LEXIS</strong></p> <p>The documentation of dialectal vocabulary is an urgent task in view of the rapid disappearance of dialects or their evolution. That is why it is so important to develop dictionaries of dialects that have not been described lexicographically so far. Regional and local dialectal dictionaries, apart from documentation and scientific purposes, also play an important role in the region, in cultural activities undertaken and in maintaining the awareness of regional distinctiveness. They are an important determinant of this regional and local awareness, a sign of emotional ties connecting the inhabitants of a region or one town.<br />A special role in the Polish dialect lexicography is played by autochthonous authors, both linguists, dialectologists and amateurs. It is them, knowing the native dialect and its users well, who can obtain valuable and rare lexical material for scientific research. The article, based on selected examples, discusses the role of dictionaries developed by indigenous peoples, it also indicates the reasons why these dictionaries are so valuable for dialectology.<strong><br /></strong></p> 2023-11-14T00:00:00+01:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Nazwa „mowa chachłacka” w relacjach powojennych przesiedleńców ze Wschodu zamieszkałych w zachodniej Polsce 2023-11-14T09:05:45+01:00 Katarzyna Czarnecka Ewa Dzięgiel Alla Kravchuk <p><strong>THE NAME <em>MOWA CHACHŁACKA</em> (KHAKHOL LANGUAGE) IN ACCOUNTS FROM DISPLACED POST-WAR MIGRANTS FROM THE EAST TO WESTERN POLAND</strong></p> <p>This paper concerns the usage of the linguonym <em>mowa chachłacka</em> (Khakhol language) in Galicia, Podolia and Volhynia during the first half of the 20th Century. Therefore, it can be considered in the realm of historical sociolinguistics.<br />The source material is comprised of interviews, recorded 1992–2006, with over 100 forced migrants from eastern voivodeships of the interwar Second Polish Republic. After World War 2, the respondents were resettled from their home towns into the new borders of post-war Poland, areas which belonged to Germany until 1945. The research method chosen was partially standardized interviews, which were first recorded and then written down.<br />The paper is focused around the following issues: 1) which linguistic variety was referred to as<em> mowa chachłacka</em> in the interwar period within the researched communities, 2) whether this name contained a value judgement, 3) what was the prestige of <em>mowa chachłacka</em> in these communities. The first chapter of the paper concerns the history of the Russian lexeme <em>хохол/хaхол</em>, which forms the basis of the linguonym <em>mowa chachłacka</em>, and which has been used since the 17th Century to refer to Ukrainians. The article takes into account ideas concerning researching social attitudes to a language, such as <em>standard language ideology</em> and <em>monoglossic ideology</em>.</p> 2023-11-14T00:00:00+01:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Amatorskie promowanie gwary cieszyńskiej (wybrane formy, strategie, rozwiązania) 2023-11-14T09:05:42+01:00 Małgorzata Bortliczek Irena Bogoczová <p><strong>AMATEUR PROMOTION OF THE CIESZYN DIALECT (SELECTED FORMS, STRATEGIES, SOLUTIONS)</strong></p> <p>The paper focuses on the dialectological topics and problems related to sociolinguistics, ethnolinguistics and psycholinguistics. It gives us insight into Cieszyn Silesia’s linguistic situation, especially in the Czech part of Zaolzie. It presents four social and individual activities, which aim to promote, support, and even revive Cieszyn dialect. The authors describe respectively: 1) testing knowledge of the dialect in form of quizzes, 2) promotion of the dialect across musical texts, 3) encouraging children and young people to use the dialect in a dialect contest, and 4) recording amateur vlogs, which are to enhance internet users’ language and national awareness. Internet and authors’ own remarks related to the official and unofficial social events are the sources of the language materials used in this analysis. Language and cultural development in society – as it is well known – heads toward unification that is increasingly difficult to resist effectively. The subjects responsible for promoting the dialect are eager to maintain the territorial dialect of the national language for future generations. Although they sometimes do it unprofessionally, linguists should be interested respectively in their efforts.</p> 2023-11-14T00:00:00+01:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Gwarowe nazwy roślin derywowane semantycznie od nazw chorób 2023-11-14T09:05:39+01:00 Monika Buława <p><strong>DIALECT PLANT NAMES SEMANTICALLY DERIVED FROM NAMES OF DISEASES</strong></p> <p>It is possible to distinguish three groups among dialect phytonyms derived from names of diseases:1) names which originated from names of diseases due to the process of neosemantisation, 2) names morphologically derived from names of diseases, 3) collocations a) with the name of the disease, b) with an adjective derived from the name of the disease. In the article phytonyms from the first group have been analyzed and the focus is on determining their semantic motivations and thusdepicting the factors which underlie the nomination processes that led to their appearance. In the most typical situation neosemantisation is motivated by the purpose i.e. for the treatment of which disease or ailment the plant was used for. Other motivational hypotheses are primarily connected with the look of the plant or its specific part which may resemble a disease symptom (as it is in the case of <em>kołtun</em> and similar names) or trigger more indirect associations with diseases (like in the case of names of the kind <em>ślepota</em> and <em>kurza ślepota</em>).</p> 2023-11-14T00:00:00+01:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Back Matter 2023-10-31T08:58:56+01:00 2023-11-14T00:00:00+01:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Od redaktora naczelnego 2023-10-25T12:33:27+02:00 Maciej Rak 2023-11-14T00:00:00+01:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Nawiązanie do świata przyrody w propozycjach nazewniczych restauracji w łódzkim Orientarium 2023-11-14T09:05:24+01:00 Katarzyna Burska <p><strong>REFERENCE TO THE WORLD OF NATURE IN SUGGESTIONS OF RESTAURANT NAMES </strong><strong>IN THE ORIENTARIUM IN ŁÓDŹ</strong></p> <p>The aim of the article is to indicate which lexical elements from the thematic field of nature were used by the Internet users during constructing the names of restaurants in the Orientarium in Łódź submitted to the competition organized on the official profile of Łódź on Facebook, with particular emphasis on the motivation of the examined propria and appellative bases. The material basis is 531 naming proposals in which a reference to the world of nature was visible. Semantic-pragmatic analysis with elements of structural analysis was used in the research. Internet users exposed their relationships with fauna and flora by placing the noun <em>animal</em> and its derivatives, using the adjectives natural and wild, recalling the characteristics of animals and their places of residence and foodacquisition. There were less frequent references to plants and water, as well as other natural phenomena.The largest group are chrematonyms based on the names of various animals. Many names havea positive value, which has a persuasive function. The presence of a plant or animal component allows you to show the relationship between the name and the location of the restaurant in Orientarium.</p> 2023-11-14T00:00:00+01:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Sieć powiązań derywacyjnych na materiale Słownika gramatycznego języka polskiego 2023-11-14T09:06:19+01:00 Joanna Wołoszyn Witold Kieraś Marcin Woliński <p><strong>DERIVATIONAL NETWORK ON THE BASIS OF <em>SŁOWNIK GRAMATYCZNY JĘZYKA POLSKIEGO</em>: SUGGESTION FOR CLASSIFICATION</strong></p> <p>The article presents a suggestion of adding a derivational network to the <em>Słownik gramatyczny języka polskiego</em> (SGJP, Grammatical Dictionary of Polish). To date, SGJP regularly noted selected wordbuilding relations (e.g., names of features created by adding the ending -<em>ość</em> to adjectives), several (such as diminutives) were marked inconsistently and many were not introduced there at all. To fill this gap, the authors adjusted the classification of derivatives developed by Renata Grzegorczykowa to the needs of SGJP (with slight modifications discussed in the first part of the text). Next, an experiment was conducted where lexemes from a list of 2500 most common SGJP words were connected with their derivatives and the latter were then classified according to the assumed rules.</p> 2023-11-14T00:00:00+01:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Problemy z interpretacją fonologiczną samogłosek nosowych w języku polskim 2023-11-14T09:06:17+01:00 Natalia Siudzińska <p><strong>PROBLEMS WITH PHONOLOGICAL INTERPRETATION OF NASAL VOWELS IN POLISH</strong></p> <p>The article discusses problems related to the sound realisation of the nasal sounds “ą” and “ę” as well as the differences in the phonological interpretation of those realisations. The issue has been raised many times by linguistic researchers, which proves its complexity. The article is an overview as its main goal has been to compare suggestions in terms of the nasal phonemes range, including the author’s suggestion for the phonological interpretation of the second part of the biphonemic sound production of the sounds “ą” and “ę” using phonological opposition and sound distribution.</p> 2023-11-14T00:00:00+01:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Problemy z interpretacją fonologiczną postpalatalnych głosek zwarto-wybuchowych 2023-11-14T09:06:14+01:00 Katarzyna Dróżdż-Łuszczyk <p><strong>PROBLEMS WITH THE PHONOLOGICAL INTERPRETATION OF POST-PALATAL PLOSIVE SOUNDS</strong></p> <p>The article reports the most important phonetic changes which took place in the contemporary Polish language. The aim of the chapter is to answer the questions that arise when learning phonetics and phonology, especially in regard to phonemes /k΄/ and /g΄/. In this paper the author presents various opinions on the phonological distinctiveness of the two sounds. The author focuses on the phenomenon associated with depalatalisation of consonants [k΄] and [g΄] and presents solutions adopted in academic textbooks. Finally, the author presents suggestions for the phonological interpretation of selected consonants.</p> 2023-11-14T00:00:00+01:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Odproprialny czy odapelatywny? – problemy opisu motywacji związków frazeologicznych z nazwą własną 2023-11-14T09:06:11+01:00 Iwona Kosek <p><strong>FROM A PROPER NOUN OR FROM A COMMON NOUN? ON SOME PROBLEMS IN THE MOTIVATION OF PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS WITH PROPER NAMES</strong></p> <p>The paper addresses the issue of the motivation of some phraseologisms which include components homonymous with proper names (e.g., <em>dookoła wojtek</em>, lit. ‘Wojtek in circles’; <em>w koło macieju</em>, lit.‘Maciej in circles’, both these idioms meaning ‘to keep talking or doing the same thing all the time’; <em>bosy antek</em>, lit. ‘barefoot Antek’, referring to a person from central Poland, historically under Russian occupation; <em>cienki bolek</em>, lit. ‘thin Bolek’ meaning a person who is weak and incompetent). The aim of the study is to indicate some difficulties in an analysis of the origin of such units, which illustrates more general problems in the description of their motivation. In the discussed expressions, the original source of their nominal components remains unclear, which distinguishes them from such unitsas <em>Achilles heel</em>,<em> the shirt of Nessus</em>. The problems identified in the analysis relate to the phenomenon of apelativisation of proper nouns, which is part of the broader issue of the relationship between phraseologism and proper nouns.</p> 2023-11-14T00:00:00+01:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Polskie frazeologizmy pochodne od biblijnej frazy Łatwiej wielbłądowi przejść przez ucho igielne niż bogaczowi wejść do królestwa niebieskiego 2023-11-14T09:06:08+01:00 Jolanta Ignatowicz-Skowrońska <p><strong>POLISH PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS DERIVED FROM THE BIBLICAL PHRASE </strong><strong>‘ŁATWIEJ WIELBŁĄDOWI PRZEJŚĆ PRZEZ UCHO IGIELNE NIŻ BOGACZOWI WEJŚĆ DO KRÓLESTWA NIEBIESKIEGO’</strong></p> <p>The subject of the article are Polish phraseological units which derive from the biblical quotation <em>Łatwiej wielbłądowi przejść przez ucho igielne niż bogaczowi wejść do królestwa niebieskiego</em> (‘It iseasier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle than for a rich man to enter the kingdom of God’). The IT assisted research which is based on citations found in 4464 contextual records from 1693–2022 showed that the above quotation first appeared in the Polish language in the middle of the 16th century, and that by the end of the 17th century it was used in non-Biblical texts either as a quotation or a free paraphrase. Phraseological units which derive from it can be found in various texts as late as in the middle of the 19th century. The earliest are the comparative structures in the form of syntactically dependent expressions, or phrases which connote a sentence or a clause such as: <em>(jest, było) łatwiej (łacniej) wielbłądowi (słoniowi) przejść (przeleźć, przekraść się, przecisnąć się, przedostać się) przez ucho igielne (igielne ucho) niż (aniżeli)</em> [do something for someone, achieve something, accomplish something]; <em>Łatwiej (prędzej) wielbłąd (słoń) przejdzie (przedostanie się, przeciśnie się, prześlizgnie się) przez ucho igielne niż (aniżeli)</em> [someone does something, someone achieves something]. Later, the expression <em>kto, co przejdzie – przechodzi, przecisnął się, przecisnęło się – przeciska się</em>, etc.,<em> przez ucho igielne (igielne ucho)</em> (+what) has got stabilized. First it meant that ‘someone or something fulfilled severe conditions, met demanding requirements, endured a rigorous test’. In the course of time a new meaning was added: ‘someone or something overcame obstacles or difficulties’; today the phrase isused in various texts as a polysemantic unit. The expression <em>ucho igielne</em> (+what) was the last one to beisolated – nowadays, its usage has two meanings: 1. ‘a tiny place, narrow passage, tight gate, pass’ and 2. ‘careful selection, checkpoint, requirements or conditions imposed upon someone or something’.</p> 2023-11-14T00:00:00+01:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Nie tylko Bulla gnieźnieńska. O znaczeniu dokumentu fundacyjnego Zbyluta (1153) dla polskich badań historycznojęzykowych 2023-11-14T09:06:06+01:00 Marcin Kuźmicki Tomasz Mika <p><strong>NOT ONLY <em>BULL OF GNIEZNO</em>: ON THE IMPORTANCE OF ZBYLUT’S FOUNDATION DOCUMENT (1153) FOR POLISH HISTORICAL AND LINGUISTIC RESEARCH. PART 3: TOWARDS TRANSCRIPTION</strong></p> <p>This article is the third part of a series dedicated to the documents sharing the name of “Zbylut’s foundation document”. The aim of the first part was to bring the three 12th-century documents into the field of interest of philologists and to review the historical literature with a view to identifying threads that may be relevant to philological (historical-linguistic) research, while the second part brought ananswer to the question of the relationship between the surviving documents, the degree of imitation between them, and the number of writers who were their authors. The present, third part, shows how complicated (and sometimes impossible) it is to get to the wording of the Zbylut document’s records and what procedures are used to do so. A comparison and analysis of selected records from the oldest three documents indicates the place of graphic substitution, the custom of redrawing records and the Latinization of records in the hierarchy of successive filters imposed on the record. We have also tried to show how making different assumptions leads to completely different readings of the same name and to different hypotheses about the presumed sound of its name. We have also discussed the consequences of “translating” a name written in simple graphics into the modern alphabet with which, according to the essence of transcription, ancient phonetic features were to be expressed, and which, aswe often get the impression, is no better suited for this than the graphics used by 12th-century scribes. We also took up the theme of the indispensable cooperation of historians and philologists in finding out the truth hidden in the oldest records of Polish proper names.</p> 2023-11-14T00:00:00+01:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Specyfika staropolszczyzny a anotacja gramatyczna 2023-11-14T09:06:02+01:00 Wojciech Stelmach Magdalena Wismont Kinga Zalejarz Ewa Nowak-Pasterska Dorota Rojszczak-Robińska <p><strong>OLD POLISH LANGUAGE SPECIFICITY AND GRAMMATICAL ANNOTATION: TENSE AND MOOD CATEGORIES</strong></p> <p>This article is dedicated to the grammatical annotation of Old Polish texts. The problem with the annotation of tense and mood in medieval texts has been discussed. It results from the absence of the verb as a grammatical class, the varied ways of constructing the forms of tense and mood, and the mobility of the elements of these forms. Due to the difficulties related to the material studied, as well as technical issues, it was necessary to implement an additional level of annotation. The article discusses the rules of the second annotation, and identifies forms and constructions that are problematic to interpret in grammatical and syntactical basis. Differences in the way of understanding of agglutination category have been shown (in relation to other corpora of historical and contemporary texts). The work on the preparation of the “Tense and Mood” search engine has demonstrated that Old Polish apocryphal texts document the development of Polish verbal inflection.</p> 2023-11-14T00:00:00+01:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 O labializacji w języku polskim 2023-11-14T09:06:00+01:00 Bogusław Dunaj Mirosława Mycawka <p><strong>ON THE LABIALIZATION IN POLISH LANGUAGE</strong></p> <p>The authors of the article attempted to answer several questions about the phenomenon of labialization: 1) What are the reasons for its absence in the Polish literary language?; 2) The time of the emergence of labialization; 3) Since when such pronunciation began to be treated as dialectal?; 4) What was the everyday pronunciation of writers at the turn of the 16th and 17th centuries? As for the first question, the authors are inclined to the thesis that the primary factor in the absence of labialization in the literary language was the influence of the Mazovian dialect, and an additional factor was the influence of Latin pronunciation. Labialization in southwestern dialects is an old phenomenon, having arisen at least in the 14th, and perhaps even as early as in the 12th century. Such pronunciation began to be treated as dialectal perhaps as early as the second half of the 16th century. The answer to the fourth question is that the writers of the second half of the 16th century and the beginning of the 17th century did not use dialects in their daily interactions although their language undoubtedly contained some regional elements that were more numerous than today.</p> 2023-11-14T00:00:00+01:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Latynizmy czasownikowe w staropolszczyźnie 2023-11-14T09:05:57+01:00 Jan German <p><strong>VERBAL BORROWINGS FROM LATIN IN OLD POLISH</strong></p> <p>The paper focuses on direct verbal borrowings from Latin into Old Polish. It attempts to determine the exact number of these borrowings and to describe the possible reasons for it being rather small in comparison with nominal borrowings. In the initial parts, some introductory remarks are made on verbal borrowings in general and Polish–Latin language contact in Middle Ages. The main part of the paper discusses the etymology of four Old Polish verbs: <em>koronować ~ korunować</em>, <em>obligować się</em>, <em>ufundować</em> and <em>sylabizować</em>. The final part contains general remarks and conclusions.</p> 2023-11-14T00:00:00+01:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 W stronę integracji i interdyscyplinarności 2023-11-14T09:05:29+01:00 Anna Chudzik Beata Drabik <p><strong>TOWARDS INTEGRATION AND INTERDISCIPLINARITY. ACTIVITIES OF THE SEMANTICS OF UTTERANCES LABORATORY IN KRAKOW</strong></p> <p>The subject of the article is the activity of the Semantics of Utterance Laboratory, which existed in the years 1988–2001 at the Institute of Polish Philology of the Jagiellonian University, and dealt with the popularization and critical discussion of innovative concepts in the humanities, especially in linguistics. The aim of the article is to recall this important chapter in the recent history of Krakow’s scientific life and to indicate the importance of this initiative for the popularization of new trends in research thought, integration of the scientific community and dissemination of the idea of interdisciplinary discourse. The article presents the beginnings of the Semantics of Utterances Laboratory, its scientific program, research and didactic goals, topics of speeches and their authors, as well as direct and long-term effects of its activity.</p> 2023-11-14T00:00:00+01:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Materiały do Słownika historyczno-geograficznego Tatr i Podtatrza Witolda Henryka Paryskiego 2023-11-14T09:05:27+01:00 Agnieszka Jurczyńska-Kłosok <p><strong>MATERIALS FOR THE <em>HISTORICAL-GEOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF THE TATRA MOUNTAINS AND PODTATRZE REGION</em> BY WITOLD HENRYK PARYSKI</strong></p> <p>The nomenclature of the Tatra and Podtatrze Mountains has for over a hundred years been of interest not only to linguists and historians but also to people working on this subject as a hobby. An example of such a person was Witold Henryk Paryski – the author of important studies mainly on Tatra subjects, who collected material for the Historic-Geographical Dictionary of the Tatra Mountains and the Podtatrze. However, the work was not completed and remained in the form of notes collected in a total of 150 binders and folders, which, after the deaths of Paryski and his wife, Zofia, together with other materials, were deposited in the Zofia Radwańska-Paryska and Witold Henryk Paryski Tatra Documentation Centre, a unit functioning within the structures of the Tatra National Park in Zakopane. The aim of this article is to provide a general characterization of this part of the collection, which was to become the basis for the publication of the aforementioned dictionary. The presentation of the archival material is the result of a search conducted by the author in 2022 in the ODT TPN in Zakopane and financed with funds from Program Excellence Initiative at the Jagiellonian University.</p> 2023-11-14T00:00:00+01:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Genologia w lingwistyce – lingwistyka w genologii 2023-11-14T09:06:24+01:00 Maria Wojtak <p><strong>GENOLOGY IN LINGUISTICS – LINGUISTICS IN GENOLOGY</strong></p> <p>The author draws a sketch picture of genology from two perspectives outlined in the title. Linguistic genology is considered as the form of presence of genology in linguistics. It’s being developed since the 1990s by a large group of linguists and treated as a sub-discipline, usually combined with textology, stylistics, pragmalinguistics and axiolinguistics. The article discusses the basic methodological assumptions of the sub-discipline, its organization and scopes, as well as results of the research.The second part of the article is dedicated to the author’s original proposal of interpreting genology as an open cognitive space, filled with various thought styles as understood by Fleck. It allows for combination of linguistic approaches preserved in the tradition with a wide range of authors’ original research proposals in the form research programs etc. in order to give genology the character of cognitive paths of humanistic nature merged in various ways.</p> 2023-11-14T00:00:00+01:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Pamięcioznawstwo lingwistyczne w ujęciu Wojciecha Chlebdy 2023-11-14T09:06:22+01:00 Waldemar Czachur Marta Wójcicka <p><strong>LINGUISTIC MEMORY STUDIES BY WOJCIECH CHLEBDA</strong></p> <p>The purpose of this paper is to present the concept of linguistic memory studies, developed by WojciechChlebda, as a research program of modern linguistics. Wojciech Chlebda assumes that memory,both individual and collective, is strongly linked to language, that is, it participates both in the formingof memory content and in its material expression: its externalizing in verbal narrations (and, morebroadly, semiotic narrations). In this context, he identifies the following challenges facing linguisticmemory studies: description and classification of linguistic exponents of memory, description of theprocess of mapping collective memories, and research on collective oblivion.</p> 2023-11-14T00:00:00+01:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Kalinowym mostem chodziłam, kalinowe serce zgubiłam. Kontynuacje i transformacje motywów ludowych w tekstach literackich 2023-11-14T09:05:35+01:00 Stanisława Niebrzegowska-Bartmińska <p><strong><em>KALINOWYM MOSTEM CHODZIŁAM, KALINOWE SERCE ZGUBIŁAM</em>: CONTINUATIONS AND TRANSFORMATIONS OF FOLK MOTIFS IN LITERARY TEXTS</strong></p> <p>The author analyzes the relationship between the folk images of viburnum, viburnum bridge and viburnum grove, as they all are reconstructed in the Lublin ethnolinguistic dictionary, and viburnum motifs identified in five selected literary texts: Teofil Lenartowicz’ <em>Kalina</em> ‘Viburnum’ (1845), Wincenty Korotyński’s <em>Two Loves</em> (1857), Krystyna Krahelska’s <em>Kalinowym mostem chodziłam</em> ‘I Used to Walk over the Viburnum Bridge’ (1941), Andrzej Trzebiński’s <em>Wymarsz Uderzenia</em> (1943) and Tadeusz Urgacz’ <em>Kalinowe serce</em> ‘Viburnum Heart’ (1961). As a result, both continuation and transformation of folk motifs can be detected. What connects the “Viburnum” motifs and the images created from them in the literary works representing different eras, times and styles is the world of values communicated by means of a symbol. The recurring value, as projected here in/by the central symbol of the viburnum, appears to be love.</p> 2023-11-14T00:00:00+01:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Etnolingwistyka kognitywna – w stronę integralnego opisu języka 2023-11-14T09:05:32+01:00 Sebastian Wasiuta <p><strong>COGNITIVE ETHNOLINGUISTICS: TOWARDS THE INTEGRAL DESCRIPTION OF LANGUAGE</strong></p> <p>The history of ethnolinguistics is, among other things, the history of the evolution of the idea of integrating hitherto isolated levels of research and types of data that are used in analyses. This paper discusses four views important for ethnolinguistics: on the unity of language and culture; about the importance of the cognitive function of language; about the need to use a broad material base inresearch; about recognizing that the ultimate goal of ethnolinguistic research is to reach the way of conceptualization of the world by the speaker, his mentality and the world of values.</p> 2023-11-14T00:00:00+01:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Jak frazeologizmy funkcjonują w różnych wariantach i kontekstach? Funkcjonalna analiza materiału historycznojęzykowego na podstawie jednostki jak Boga kocham 2023-11-14T09:05:22+01:00 Aleksandra Ryś <p><strong>How do Phraseologisms Function in Different Variants and Contexts? The Functional Analysis of Historica-Linguistic Material Based on the Unit: <em>jak Boga kocham</em></strong></p> <p>The paper presents a functional approach to phraseology from former colloquial Polish speech based on the lexicalized unit<em> jak Boga kocham</em> and its selected variant forms. The author used the elements of the socio-pragmatic method (assuming parallel analysis of the material at the sociological and pragmatic levels) to research the use of these lexicalized constructions. The bases of the material were constructed dialogues from the <em>Korpus dawnych polskich tekstów dramatycznych (1772–1939)</em>. During the analysis, it was observed in which way the phraseological unit might realize itself in various variants and contexts. Furthermore, attention was paid to the ‘from sender to the receiver’s perspective, applying the assumptions of Wojciech Chlebda’s phrasematic conception to historical linguistics. This approach gave an opportunity to observe in which variants and socio-pragmatic contexts idioms are most often invoked in the statements of representatives of both sexes. The obtained results were interpreted on the basis of selected non-linguistic factors, primarily historical and cultural ones.</p> 2023-11-14T00:00:00+01:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023