LingVaria <p>„LingVaria” są półrocznikiem wydawanym od 2006 r. przez Wydział Polonistyki Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego i publikującym artykuły z zakresu językoznawstwa, głównie polonistycznego, ale też z zakresu językoznawstwa ogólnego i slawistycznego. Odbiorcami są językoznawcy, a także doktoranci i studenci o zainteresowaniach lingwistycznych.&nbsp;. Założycielem i pierwszym redaktorem naczelnym LingVariów jest prof. dr hab. Mirosław Skarżyński. Wersją podstawową (referencyjną) czasopisma jest wersja elektroniczna.</p> Księgarnia Akademicka Sp. z o.o. pl-PL LingVaria 1896-2122 Od redaktora naczelnego Maciej Rak Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Maciej Rak 2021-11-08 2021-11-08 16 2(32) 7 8 10.12797/LV.16.2021.32.01 Aleksander Zajda (17 II 1937 – 24 V 2021) – uczony, dydaktyk, człowiek Bogusław Dunaj Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 2021-11-18 2021-11-18 16 2(32) 9 11 10.12797/LV.16.2021.32.02 Frazematyczny potencjał połączenia wyrazowego bieda z nędzą we współczesnej polszczyźnie <p><strong>Phrasematic Potential of the Word Combination: <em>bieda z nędzą</em> in Contemporary Polish</strong></p> <p>The combination of synonymous words, whose origin may be associated with folk demonology and personified notions of<em> Bieda</em> [Poverty] and<em> Nędza</em> [Misery], has become the basis for a few phrasemes that are authenticated in contemporary Polish language. The analysis of research material that includes a variety of texts, differing in terms of topic, genre and style, is the evidence that apart from the phraseme <em>bieda z nędzą</em>, which is registered in dictionaries, also other multi-verbal units, whose basic element of composition is this particular word combination, are used in Polish. The primary significance of the analysed phrasemes results from the presence of two synonymous words denoting a difficult financial situation, which leads to the hyperbolisation of the phenomenon. From the pragmatic perspective, however, they are used mostly as negative evaluation units, referring to the material sphere, but also to various fields, phenomena and events, which, according to the speaker, are characterised by low quality, have visible shortages and symptoms of poverty, or result from negligence or bad taste. As expressively and axiologically marked terms, which are characteristic of the colloquial style, these phrasemes are encountered in comments and discussion forums, as well as media coverage, especially in headlines. Longer phrasemes, which are joined by a clear rhyme, are the elements of intertextual games in various cultural texts: artistic works, blogs and chrematonyms.</p> Ewa Młynarczyk Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 2021-11-18 2021-11-18 16 2(32) 47 59 10.12797/LV.16.2021.32.05 O referencji innych <p><strong>On the Reference of<em> inni</em></strong></p> <p>The study focuses on the adjective <em>inny</em> [other] which appears in sentences in a noun position, yet with the noun absent, e.g.<em> Nie porównuj się do innych</em>; <em>Inni dołączą do nas po 18</em> [literally in English: <em>Do not compare yourself to others</em>;<em> Others will join as after 6</em> p.m.]. The analysis focuses on plural (masculine and non-masculine) forms of the adjective, which is related to the assumption that single and plural forms of the expression in question are differentiated functionally. The aim of the analysis is to determine the specificity of the unit as an exponent of reference. The main research issues concerned with the analyzed adjective include an attempt to refute the hypothesis of its substantivization, as well as answering the question whether the unit in its analyzed index (referential) function exhibits features of <em>dictum</em>. The solutions suggested in the study require further investigation, including addressing analyses of referential exponents of synonymous expressions.</p> Mariola Wołk Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 2021-11-18 2021-11-18 16 2(32) 61 69 10.12797/LV.16.2021.32.06 Czy idąc prosto przed siebie, nie można zajść daleko? <p><strong>Is It True that “If You Run Ahead of Yourself, You Cannot Go Very Far”? Image Schemata and Aphorisms</strong></p> <p>The author uses a cognitive tool called image schemata to analyse aphorisms. The schemata originate from early bodily experience and are enable to ground the phenomenon of linguistic meaning there. The aphorism is defined not only as a linguistic fact but as a conceptual structure based on an axiological clash. The clash results from profiling opposite values in the used schemata. Considering the language-values relationship, the article adopts a cognitive linguistics approach which claims that valuation is an immanent part of symbolic language units and it mustn’t be relegated to the area of pragmatics. Following Krzeszowski’s concept, the author assumes that preconceptual schemata interact with the SCALE schema. The hearer/reader of the self-contradictory expression must reinterpret it using metaphorical meanings. These are easily available thanks to conceptual metaphors which include image schemata in their source domains.</p> Justyna Winiarska Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 2021-11-18 2021-11-18 16 2(32) 71 80 10.12797/LV.16.2021.32.07 Miejsce hasła i sloganu w komunikowaniu politycznym <p><strong>The Place of Catchwords and Slogans in Political Communication</strong></p> <p>The paper discusses the function of catchwords and slogans, as well as the role that these forms play in political communication. Not only are they short and catchy sayings, but they also carry important meanings – from the point of view of both the government and the society. Political slogans and catchwords are a significant part of political campaigns, politicians’ presentations and election programs, as well as social movements and protests. As multimodal carries, they can be examined with the use of systemic functional linguistics methods. The analysis and conclusions are based on the collection of more than 3100 items: political catchwords from Polish political discourse, excerpted from written (ephemera, press) and oral texts (protests, demonstrations, live presentations) published in 1918–2018. The collection is the part of the project which aims at publishing<em> A Dictionary of Political Catchwords</em>.</p> Marta Śleziak Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 2021-11-18 2021-11-18 16 2(32) 81 92 10.12797/LV.16.2021.32.08 Pozytywna autoprezentacja jako sposób uwiarygodnienia własnej osoby <p><strong>Positive Self-presentation as a Way to Authenticate Oneself</strong></p> <p>The article presents an analysis of public speaking in terms of the style of revealing emotions, from self-promotion to self-presentation. Performers show their (desirable) features, building their image and identity, but at the same time they influence decisions of the recipients. Self-presentation behaviours include all activities, both verbal and non-verbal, which, in addition to the persuasion potential, build a positive self-image of the sender and increase his/her attractiveness in the eyes of the interlocutor. The author of the article discusses some examples of such behaviours based on statements and gestures of public figures recorded during television programs, which are perceived as signals and indicators of interpersonal attitude and reactive behaviour.</p> Jakub Pstrąg Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 2021-11-18 2021-11-18 16 2(32) 93 106 10.12797/LV.16.2021.32.09 O coming oucie i wyrażeniach pokrewnych w polszczyźnie <p><strong>On <em>coming out</em> and Related Constructions in Polish</strong></p> <p>The aim of the present paper is to discuss the English lexical borrowing <em>coming out</em>, together with some related constructions, used in Polish. The construction in question was originally used in Polish in LGBT community to denote the process of disclosing one’s own non-heterosexual orientation; now, however, it has significantly expanded its range of contexts. The construction is thus used in many different contexts, connected with e.g. one’s religion, details about one’s earnings, etc. Interestingly enough, the meaning of other constructions, such as<em> outing</em>, has not been extended. In the article, descriptions of the meanings of the forms in question have been illustrated with numerous examples taken from the National Corpus of Polish (NKJP) and the MoncoPL Corpus.</p> Marcin Zabawa Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 2021-11-18 2021-11-18 16 2(32) 107 118 10.12797/LV.16.2021.32.10 Prozodia, semantyka, styl – o hierarchii poziomów ekwiwalencji w tłumaczeniu piosenki kabaretowej (studium przypadku: polskojęzyczne warianty Money… Freda Ebba) <p><strong>Prosody, Semantics and Style. On the Hierarchy of Levels of Equivalence in the Translation of Cabaret Songs (Case Study: Polish Versions of Fred Ebb's <em>Money</em>…)</strong></p> <p>The article is a case study and contains a comparative analysis of four variants of the Polish translation of Fred Ebb and John Kander’s song <em>Money</em>… from the musical “Cabaret”. The author of the translation is Wojciech Młynarski, one of the most respected Polish songwriters of the second half of the twentieth century. In the study, an assumption is made that Młynarski, who repeatedly changed versions of his translation, sought to create the most faithful rendition of the songs from the musical for the needs of the Polish stage. His efforts can be observed at four levels of text organization. The translator aimed mainly for sound equivalence, i.e. conformity with the original song in terms of rhythm (word stress), rhyme (consonance) and voice instrumentation and, to a lesser extent, sound imitation. He also cared about pragmatic equivalence by rendering into Polish the original intentions, with particular emphasis on the modes of indirect communication, such as irony and satire. However, other aspects of equivalence remained in the background. Not everywhere the translator managed to keep the cognitive equivalence, i.e. convergence of imagery, by translating scenes and scenarios that were part of cultural knowledge into parallel ones and, more broadly, by trying to evoke similar images in the mind of the reader and listener. His efforts to achieve the effect of broadly understood stylistic equivalence were also noteworthy; only to a small extent they consisted in giving the right stylistic coloring to the individual lexical items which had their English equivalents, and they mainly boiled down to translating stylistic games that did not necessarily cover the same fragments of the song, though were usually based on the same mechanism (a clash between low and high style, absurdity). The analysis shows that the translator adopted tabular rather than linear approach to the original.</p> Aneta Wysocka Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 2021-11-18 2021-11-18 16 2(32) 119 129 10.12797/LV.16.2021.32.11 Język i językoznawstwo według Krystyny Pisarkowej (1932–2010) <p><strong>Language and Linguistics According to Krystyna Pisarkowa (1932–2010)</strong></p> <p>Krystyna Pisarkowa’s rich output is characterised by a variety of forms and a wide range of topics, as well as an innovative interpretation of linguistic phenomena. The following paper can be described as biographical and substantive. The text contains certain facts from Pisarkowa’s life that are connected with certain spheres of her scientific activity in which she succeeded, references to people who played a significant role in her life, as well as development of her research interests. The publications which are mentioned in the paper have been selected according to Pisarkowa’s attitude to language, its essence, pragmatic-functional-stylistic variety, as well as potential context and purpose which lies beyond its typical usage. Moreover, an attempt has been made at reconstructing Pisarkowa’s views on the range, shape and place of linguistics among humanistic disciplines.</p> Krystyna Kowalik Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 2021-11-18 2021-11-18 16 2(32) 187 201 10.12797/LV.16.2021.32.15 Krystyna Pisarkowa – ta, która inspiruje <p><strong>Krystyna Pisarkowa – The One Who Inspires</strong></p> <p>The article consists of three parts. In the first one: <em>Krystyna Pisarkowa as a Supervisor</em>, the author shares her memories from the times when she wrote the doctoral thesis supervised by Pisarkowa. In the second part: <em>Krystyna Pisarkowa – the Author of an Article</em>, the author discusses how the text by Pisarkowa entitled <em>Semantic Connotation of Nationalities</em> provided inspiration to fourteen authors of twenty-three monographs and one lexicon. Most of those scholars are experts in Polish language and linguists, but the thoughts included in Pisarkowa’s article also influenced two experts in Russian studies: one sociologist and one anthropologist of culture. Those books were published within 40 years (1980–2020). Five of them were published after the death of Krystyna Pisarkowa. This proves the power of her article’s influence. The third part of the article is entitled <em>Supplement</em>. It describes the history of the book by Ogden and Richards: <em>The Meaning of Meaning. A Study of The Influence of Language upon Thought and of The Science of Symbolism with Supplementary Essays by B. Malinowski and F. G. Crookshank</em>, which followed a strange route from London and reached Pisarkowa who used it while writing: <em>Linguistics by Bronisław Malinowski</em>, vol. 1: <em>Bonds of Shared Language</em> (2000).</p> Anna Tyrpa Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 2021-11-18 2021-11-18 16 2(32) 203 213 10.12797/LV.16.2021.32.16 Krystyny Pisarkowej odkrywanie Malinowskiego <p><strong>Krystyna Pisarkowa’s Discovering of Malinowski</strong></p> <p>The article is concerned with the two-volume publication<em> Językoznawstwo Bronisława Malinowskiego</em> <em>[Bronisław Malinowski’s Linguistics</em>], edited by Krystyna Pisarek. Its first volume contains the editor’s thorough analysis of the linguistic achievements of this Polish-born British anthropologist, while the second volume includes translations of Malinowski’s works and a dictionary of the Kiriwina language. The linguistic importance of Malinowski’s works had been underestimated: his articles “Classificatory Particles in the Language of Kiriwina” (1920) and “The Problem of Meaning in Primitive Languages” (1923) were not included in the thirteen-volume collection of his writings (<em>Dzieła</em> [<em>Works</em>]). Pisarkowa, in turn, does recognize Malinowski’s contribution to linguistics and considers the following to be his unique achievements: (1) the discovery of the phatic function of speech (adopted by Roman Jakobson in his classification of language functions); (2) an explicit formulation of the principle of contextualism and the pragmatic aspect of word meaning; and (3) a precise description of the Kiriwina system of classificatory particles.</p> Jerzy Bartmiński Stanisława Niebrzegowska-Bartmińska Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 2021-11-18 2021-11-18 16 2(32) 216 228 10.12797/LV.16.2021.32.17 Historia składni języka polskiego Krystyny Pisarkowej – świadectwo zmiany i źródło inspiracji <p><strong>Krystyna Pisarkowa’s <em>The History of Polish Syntax</em> – The Testimony of Change and the Source of Inspiration</strong></p> <p>The author of the article shows Krystyna Pisarkowa’s monograph as a text which presents a diachronic approach to Polish syntax in a new and modern way, taking into account the times and the Polish linguistic tradition. Focusing on discontinuous phenomena in the history of the Polish language, Pisarkowa separates tendencies and processes typical of each syntactic level. Not only does she discuss traditionally described elements of simple and complex utterances, but she also takes into account the semantic structure of sentences and their pragmatic aspect. Therefore, <em>Historia składni języka polskiego</em> [<em>The History of Polish Syntax</em>] is a testimony of a methodological change and a quest for adequate solutions, as well as a source of inspiration for further generations of researchers.</p> Agnieszka Słoboda Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 2021-11-18 2021-11-18 16 2(32) 229 235 10.12797/LV.16.2021.32.18 O Rachunku sumienia jako zadaniu tłumacza Krystyny Pisarkowej <p><strong>On <em>Rachunek sumienia jako zadanie tłumacza</em> [<em>Examination of Conscience as a Translator’s Task</em>] by Krystyna Pisarkowa</strong></p> <p>The author of the article tries to reconstruct the way in which Krystyna Pisarkowa perceived confession and examination of conscience. Pisarkowa discussed those forms of confessing one’s sins in a series of lectures, in an article of 2002, and in a book published two years after her death. The main message of these works is the connection between the examination of conscience and translation according to the approach of Walter Benjamin. In the opinion of Pisarkowa, examination of conscience is a complex act of thought and internal speech that needs to be translated into a natural language. Also, Pisarkowa takes into account the second dimension of updating the examination of conscience, which is related to functioning of a certain genre in religious discourse. She provides some examples of old Polish confessions and she analyses them in terms of textology, which deserves our special attention.</p> Kinga Tutak Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 2021-11-18 2021-11-18 16 2(32) 237 244 10.12797/LV.16.2021.32.19 „Ile przemilczam, tego nie wypowiem”: o (prze)milczeniu w utworach Wisławy Szymborskiej i ich przekładzie na język niemiecki <p><strong>“How Much I Dissemble I shall not Utter”: on Aposiopesis in the Poems by Wisława Szymborska and Their Translation into German</strong></p> <p>Krystyna Pisarkowa emphasises the importance of means which participate in shaping the expression of emotions in a poetic text, and calls for extracting from the text “essential ingredients from seemingly minor semantic accents” (Pisarkowa 1998: 36). In this article, the author takes this inspiration and analyses how Wisława Szymborska applies silence in her poems as an aesthetic category and an expression of choked emotions, what indicators of silence she uses, and what happens with this silence in the translation of her poems into German by Karl Dedecius. The author concludes that a translator should be able to empathise with emotions and be an intermediary not only for the word, but also for the unspoken.</p> Joanna Kubaszczyk Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 2021-11-18 2021-11-18 16 2(32) 245 256 10.12797/LV.16.2021.32.20 Back matter Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 2021-11-18 2021-11-18 16 2(32) Komunikacja w przestrzeni miejskiej zmieniająca standardy zachowania w dobie pandemii SARS-CoV-2 <p><strong>Urban Communication and Its Influence on Standards of Behaviour in the Sars-Cov-2 Pandemic</strong></p> <p>The SARS-Cov-2 virus pandemic made it necessary to implement new standards of behaviour in public spaces. As instruments of communication, brief messages in a generally accessible public space aimed at limiting infections by changing social behaviour. This way, such messages contributed to modifying public space in its physical, social and communicative aspects. The article attempts to capture the communicative and linguistic practices used for this purpose.</p> Zofia Berdychowska Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 2021-11-18 2021-11-18 16 2(32) 15 29 10.12797/LV.16.2021.32.03 Estetyczne akty mowy jako przedmiot pragmalingwistyki: status, funkcje, formy <p><strong>Aesthetic Acts of Speech as a Subject of Pragmalinguistics: Status, Functions, Forms. Part 1</strong></p> <p>In the paper, the status and features of aesthetic speech acts are discussed. They are a research phenomenon at the junction of two disciplines: pragmatics and stylistics. The authors treat aesthetic speech acts as these kinds of speech acts that are produced by the sender with an intention to make the receiver have an aesthetic experience, however, they are not limited solely to the field of literature. No performative verbs can be ascribed to them, therefore they may be categorized as indirect stimulating acts. Moreover, the aesthetic function performed by such speech acts is frequently accompanied by other linguistic functions.</p> Aleksander Kiklewicz Sebastian Przybyszewski Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 2021-11-18 2021-11-18 16 2(32) 31 43 10.12797/LV.16.2021.32.04 Końska mięta (Mentha arvensis), kobyli szczaw (Rumex obtusifolius) i krowi mlecz (Taraxacum officinale) <p><strong>Field Mint [Polish: “Horse Mint”] (<em>Mentha arvensis</em>), Curly Dock [Polish: “Mare Dock”] (<em>Rumex obtusifolius</em>) and Dandelion [Polish: “Cow Dandelion”] (<em>Taraxacum officinale</em>). On the Names of Farm Animals in Folk Phytonyms</strong></p> <p>The subject of the article are folk phytonyms with an animal component. While analyzing the “animal” names of plants in the cultural context, the author reaches for so-called “co-linguistic data” (i.e. folk knowledge, beliefs and practices) related to animals and plants. Also, she arranges the phytonyms according to the semantic criterion, distinguishing the names of plants motivated by: (1) the animal’s appearance and (2) the appearance of the animal’s body parts, (3) animals’ smells, (4) the use of a plant as animal food, (5) the way in which the plant is used in folk magic and (6) in folk veterinary medicine. The analysis of dialectal names of plants in the cultural context makes it possible to consider the status of the animal part of the name. On the basis of her analyses, the author proves that both in the case of complex plant names and noun derivatives, the animal part of the name becomes “independent” in terms of a meaning and adopts qualitative meanings such as “big, great”, “dedicated to an animal (as food or medicine)”, “worse, useless for a human being”.</p> Olga Kielak Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 2021-11-18 2021-11-18 16 2(32) 151 166 10.12797/LV.16.2021.32.13 Zaprzedać duszę diabłu – reprodukowalność mitu we frazematyce z polskiego obszaru gwarowego i języka potocznego w kontekście kultury tradycyjnej <p><strong><em>Selling One’s Soul to the Devil</em> – Reproducibility of the Mythical Motif in Phrasematics of the Polish Colloquial Language in the Context of Traditional Culture</strong></p> <p>The author of the article discussed reproducibility of the mythical motif of “Adam’s pact with the devil” in Polish traditional culture and in dialectal and colloquial phrasematics. The adoption of the concept of “language narrativeness” in the description of a small piece of reality such as the act of selling one’s soul to the devil, makes it possible to present this piece in a form of a structured image within the frames of a great narrative about the world (based on the Christian belief concerning the soul) which contains small narratives (referring to myths and folk demonology included in stereotypical text motifs) and micro-narratives that are hidden in lexis and broadly understood phrasematics and that reflect a whole range of interpretations and evaluations related to a person’s pact with a demonic being.</p> Ewa Masłowska Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 2021-11-18 2021-11-18 16 2(32) 167 183 10.12797/LV.16.2021.32.14 Wielojęzyczność w literaturze dokumentu osobistego: funkcje wykładników transkodowych <p><strong>Multilingualism in the Literature of Personal Document: Functions of Transcode Markers</strong></p> <p>The article is dedicated to semantic functions of transcode markers in Polish émigré literature. Two diaries, written respectively by Gustaw Herling-Grudziński and Jan Lechoń, constitute the exemplification material. The diary genre, similarly to letters and memoirs, lends itself to introducing this kind of markers. Their presence reflects the multilingual competence of the author, as well as his mental, social, and psychological experience. The second language enables broadening the referential space of the first language and conveying emotions. The strategy of code switching depends on the motivation and goal of writing a given text. In Herling-Grudziński’s <em>Journal Written by Night</em>, foreign words from different languages abound. They fulfill several functions in the text, namely: metalinguistic, index and stylistic function. Their presence is justified by the content and by the role adopted by the author – the one of an interpreter of the political and social reality. <em>The Diary</em> by Lechoń is different in terms of types of predominant functions which can be distinguished in his text. Besides commenting on the émigré life, the author focuses on his emotions and experiences. Therefore, index and metalinguistic functions turn out to be the most important. Pointing out different strategies of introducing transcode markers in a text by its author is fundamental for the research on bilingualism in émigré writing.</p> Elżbieta Sękowska Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 2021-11-18 2021-11-18 16 2(32) 301 316 10.12797/LV.16.2021.32.23 Front matter Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 2021-11-18 2021-11-18 16 2(32) Jan Baudouin de Courtenay, Czy historia i filologia mogą umiejętnie rozwiązać swoje zadanie bez ścisłego związku z filozofią, a mianowicie z filozofią historii i filozofią języka? <p><strong>Can History and Philology Competently Address Their Tasks without a Close Connection with Philosophy, Namely Philosophy of History and Philosophy of Language?</strong></p> <p>The thesis by Jan Baudouin de Courtenay published here is probably the oldest of the texts by the Polish linguist. The text was submitted in 1864 as a part of the logic and philosophy course taught at the Warsaw Main School by Henryk Struve. It clearly shows an attempt by the young researcher to embark on a scholarly path, which turns out to be far from the one Baudouin de Courtenay took later in his academic activity. The future linguist argues here in defence of linguistics as a so-called physical science (a natural skill, as he often calls it in his dissertation), thus contrasting it with philology and history.</p> Mateusz Kowalski Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 2021-11-18 2021-11-18 16 2(32) 259 279 10.12797/LV.16.2021.32.21 Konceptualizacja nadziei w metaforach pojęciowych w wypowiedziach pacjentów chorych na nowotwór złośliwy na tle wypowiedzi osób zdrowych <p><strong>Conceptualization of Hope in Conceptual Metaphors in the Statements of Patients with Malignant Tumor and Healthy People</strong></p> <p>The article presents the results of analyses of language structures obtained from blog texts, divided into two parts: research group and control group. The analyses aimed at checking which metaphors are used to conceptualize hope among people with cancer and healthy people, and to identify differences in the conceptualization of this feeling. The difference is in the attitude of the conceptualising people: patients describe themselves more often as passive participants in events, and they usually borrow hope from others, while healthy people are more active. The issue of the influence of individual contextual factors on the formation of metaphors is also very interesting.</p> Alicja Stankiewicz Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 2021-11-18 2021-11-18 16 2(32) 319 330 10.12797/LV.16.2021.32.24 Germanizmy emotywno-oceniające w gwarach kujawskich: nazwy osób <p><strong>Emotive-Evaluative Germanisms in the Kuyavian Dialect: Names of Persons</strong></p> <p>The article contributes to the knowledge on the sources of lexical borrowings from German into Polish dialects. The subject of the analysis includes selected names of persons that are Germanisms, characterized by expressiveness, and documented in the Kuyavian dialect. The vocabulary of this region has never been studied in this aspect. The material was taken from the 1st Volume of <em>The Dialect and Culture Dictionary of Kuyavia</em>, and from its file. The term “Germanism” is understood broadly in this paper. Germanisms are considered not only as proper borrowings from the German language and dialects, but also as derivatives which were created in the native Kuyavian land on the basis of German original forms, using various nominative techniques. <em>Four</em> ways of penetrating the German influence into the Polish language were indicated. Various criteria were used in the analysis of these German loans: formal, etymological, semantic and geographical ones. A typology of expressivisms, developed by Stanisław Grabias, was utilised. The article presents seventeen Germanisms in the Kuyavian dialect that define a man in terms of his physicalness, psyche and material status, in the context of the comparison with the semantically similar vocabulary in other regions of Poland and with non-general varieties of Polish. These are names that mostly reflect negative valuation (e.g.<em> gałgan</em>,<em> fagas</em>, <em>huncwot</em>,<em> rojber</em>, <em>ekensztyjer</em>, <em>lofer</em>, <em>lump</em>), and that are already present in the meanings and expressiveness of the German basic forms.</p> Zofia Sawaniewska-Mochowa Katarzyna Siewert-Kowalkowska Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 2021-11-18 2021-11-18 16 2(32) 133 148 10.12797/LV.16.2021.32.12 On the origin of Pol. dial. kautek ‘dwarf’, G dial. (EPr.) Kautke ‘ditto’ <p><strong>On the Origin of Mythonyms (Pol. dial. <em>kautek</em>, (G dial) (wschprus.) <em>Kautke</em>)</strong></p> <p>Referring to etymological analysis, the author of this article presents a new hypothesis concerning the origin of the Polish mythological name <em>kautek</em> and the East Prussian word<em> Kautke</em>. The analysis refers to the description of derivatives and semantic development of those mythonyms. While summing up the research results, one may conclude that mythological names such as Pol. dial.<em> kautek</em>, G dial. (EPr.)<em> Kautke</em> belong to lexemes of the West Slavic origin. More precisely, those mythonyms are derived from Pol. dial. *<em>kałtunek</em> ‘a mythological being who makes human hair tangled’ ↔ ‘a dwarf’ ← WSl. *<em>kołtun</em> ‘a mythological being’ (&gt; USrb. <em>kołtun</em> ‘wił – a demon living in a tree’ ↔ (M)Pol. (dial.) <em>kołtun</em> ‘hair allegedly tangled because of a disease called <em>trichoma</em>’ &lt; PSl. *<em>kъḷtunъ</em> ‘curled hair’) + dem. suff. Pol. -<em>ek</em>. <br>East Prussian mythologeme <em>Kautke</em> belongs to Polonisms used in the past in the Duchy of Prussia.</p> Rolandas Kregždys Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 2021-11-18 2021-11-18 16 2(32) 283 298 10.12797/LV.16.2021.32.22