LingVaria <p>„LingVaria” są półrocznikiem wydawanym od 2006 r. przez Wydział Polonistyki Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego i publikującym artykuły z zakresu językoznawstwa, głównie polonistycznego, ale też z zakresu językoznawstwa ogólnego i slawistycznego. Odbiorcami są językoznawcy, a także doktoranci i studenci o zainteresowaniach lingwistycznych.&nbsp;. Założycielem i pierwszym redaktorem naczelnym LingVariów jest prof. dr hab. Mirosław Skarżyński. Wersją podstawową (referencyjną) czasopisma jest wersja elektroniczna.</p> Księgarnia Akademicka Sp. z o.o. pl-PL LingVaria 1896-2122 Front Matter Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 2022-11-21 2022-11-21 17 2(34) Notulae etymologicae Lemkovianae <p><strong>NOTULAE ETYMOLOGICAE LEMKOVIANAE (LEMKO ETYMOLOGICAL NOTES)</strong></p> <p>The study was inspired by the recent monograph Lemko Etymologies (Fałowski, Hojsak, 2020) which analyses more than 520 words from the Lemko ethnolect, mostly lexicon of unclear and unreliable origin, lexicon for which new explanations may be proposed, as well as rare lexemes which had not yet been interpreted etymologically. The present article consists of 18 etymological notes in which the author discusses a fragment of the lexicon included in the monograph (additional arguments in favour of the proposed etymologies, alternative etymological explanations, attempts at interpretation of obscure lexemes). Against the background of recent advances in Slavonic etymology (more emphasis on etymological research into dialectal lexicon), the author also expresses his unequivocal support for the intended project of a comprehensive etymological dictionary of the Lemko ethnolect.</p> Ľubor Králik Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 2022-11-21 2022-11-21 17 2(34) 209 226 10.12797/LV.17.2022.34.14 Historia polonistyki na Uniwersytecie przy Unter den Linden <p><strong>HISTORY OF POLISH STUDIES AT THE UNIVERSITY IN UNTER DEN LINDEN</strong></p> <p>This paper presents the history of Slavonic/Polish Studies at the University of Berlin from 1841 until today. The most important scientific achievements of the successive heads of departments are briefly discussed, with particular emphasis on Polish linguistic research at the Humboldt University. Moreover, attention is paid to the changing statistics of students and various courses of study.</p> Hanna Burkhardt Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 2022-11-21 2022-11-21 17 2(34) 295 315 10.12797/LV.17.2022.34.19 Myśliwski i Wittgenstein. Dwa traktaty o granicach języka <p><strong>MYŚLIWSKI AND WITTGENSTEIN: TWO TREATISES ON THE LIMITS OF LANGUAGE</strong></p> <p>Limit is the key notion in Ludwig Wittgenstein’s Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, and it was expressed in the aphorism that is probably the best-known quotation from the treatise: „The limits of my language mean the limits of my world” (5.6). The subject of the article is comparative analysis of this notion in the presentation of the Austrian philosopher L. Wittgenstein, and of the Polish novelist, Wiesław Myśliwski. Wittgenstein believes that language only refers to the real world, and what is beyond it (e.g. religion, God or ethics) is inexpressible. For Myśliwski everything is expressible in language (he himself says nothing about it). It is because literature is a limitless creator of language and the world.</p> Andrzej Kominek Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 2022-11-21 2022-11-21 17 2(34) 15 27 10.12797/LV.17.2022.34.02 Polisemia systematyczna i współpredykacja <p><strong>SYSTEMATIC POLYSEMY AND CO-PREDICATION</strong></p> <p>The author of the article discusses the polysemy of nouns, distinguishing polysemy motivated by metonymy (called here derivative polysemy), and so-called logical polysemy in which the meanings are so strictly related to each other that one has to perceive them as a part of a complex meaning or a global notional unit. The author discusses the concepts of J. Pustejovsky and A. Cruse, focusing on the polysemy of units meaning institutions. In order to analyse them, the author of the article uses the co-predication test aiming at checking language ambiguity. In the conclusion, she attempts to explain the fortuitousness of the co-predication test in the indicated group of units, changed as compared to the discussed theoretical approaches. Various readings of the words in question are treated as aspects of the general notional structure of one lexical unit (quasi-polysemic aspects) that are more or less linguistically fixed and depend of one’s knowledge of the world which enables combined conceptualization of all the aspects.</p> Anna Czelakowska Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 2022-11-21 2022-11-21 17 2(34) 29 48 10.12797/LV.17.2022.34.03 Zur Anwendung piktographischer Elemente in popkulturellen Kurztexten am Beispiel des Herz-Piktogramms <p><strong>ON THE USE OF PICTOGRAPHIC ELEMENTS IN POP-CULTURAL SHORT TEXTS </strong><strong>ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE HEART PICTOGRAM</strong></p> <p>The article focuses on the use of pictographic elements in short texts of the pop-culture based on the example of the heart pictogram in the utterances which are built according to the pattern: ‘I ♥ ...’. It addresses two basic aspects of its use. The first one is the fact of combining two different semiotic codes: language and an iconic code in one sentence. This quite rare transsemiotic unit is understandable merely on the basis of an established convention, due to which the pictogram of a heart can be effortlessly encoded as `love’. The second aspect, which is also based on the convention, is the replaceability of the elements of a short text. It is especially plausible when the pictogram of a heart is replaced by other pictograms. However, after such a change, the primary meaning of the short text remains legible even if the implemented pictograms have an entirely different meaning.</p> Anna Kapuścińska Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 2022-11-21 2022-11-21 17 2(34) 49 61 10.12797/LV.17.2022.34.04 Intensiwa typu orobić się w gwarze jednej wsi małopolskiej <p><strong>INTENSIVES OF THE TYPE <em>OROBIĆ SIĘ</em> IN THE LOCAL DIALECT OF A LESSER POLAND VILLAGE</strong></p> <p>The subject of the article includes dialectal verb formations with the prefix o- expressing the intensity of action, e.g. ochodzić się – `spend a long lime wandering’, orobić się – `slave away, work hard’, oszukać się – `look for a long time’. The analysis focused on several dozen selected derivatives functioning in the dialect of a village in Lesser Poland. Verbs with the structure o- + verb + się are very productive word-formation types in the dialect under study, as they can be formed from most imperfective verbs. The discussion takes into account the formal, semantic and functional aspects of the described verb formations.</p> Renata Kucharzyk Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 2022-11-21 2022-11-21 17 2(34) 183 193 10.12797/LV.17.2022.34.12 O frazematyce w Słowniku warmińskim Wiktora Steffena <p><strong>ON PHRASEMATICS IN WIKTOR STEFFEN’S SŁOWNIK WARMIŃSKI</strong></p> <p>The aim of the article is describing and analysing phrasematics from Słownik warmiński. There are over two hundreds phrasemes and most of them are placed in quotes or in the author’s comments. The Author described the collected material using Lewicki’s phraseological division into types, including proverbs (e. g. Skumpi dubel traci) and showed sample phrasemes belonging to the thematic fields such as poverty and health, stupidity and wisdom, features of character, drinking alcohol, and violence. The last part of the article concerns the phenomenon of variance in dialects and it shows that a dialect can express the same thing in many different ways (eg. dressing up yourself or someone else excessively).</p> Agnieszka Wełpa-Siudek Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 2022-11-21 2022-11-21 17 2(34) 195 206 10.12797/LV.17.2022.34.13 Od redaktora naczelnego Maciej Rak Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 2022-11-21 2022-11-21 17 2(34) 7 8 Aleksander Wilkoń (1935–2022). Wspomnienie Władysław T. Miodunka Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 2022-11-21 2022-11-21 17 2(34) 9 12 10.12797/LV.17.2022.34.01 Pamięć o Żydach w wielkich słownikach języka polskiego. Rekonesans. cz. II <p><strong>REMEMBRANCE OF JEWS IN GREAT DICTIONARIES OF POLISH LANGUAGE: RECONNAISSANCE</strong></p> <p>Nine centuries of Polish-Jewish contacts in all spheres of life left a mark in Polish. The author of the article decided to check how great and how durable this trace is, looking in the great dictionaries of the Polish language for units considered as carriers of the memory of Jews. The author asks the question which prejudges the fact that a certain unit of language can be considered as a carrier of the memory of Jews. Also, the author attempts to establish in which linguistic forms this Jewish element can be manifested in dictionaries. The trial analysis examined the presence of 240 carriers of memory (“verbal judaics”), sampled from journals, memoir literature and tourist guides published after 2000, in two dictionaries intended for the mass audience: the Dictionary of Polish edited by M. Szymczak, and An Alternative Polish Dictionary edited by M. Bańko. It turned out that these dictionaries recorded only 25% of the collected corps of verbal judaics, often depriving the definitions of these units of the Jewish component. The author reflects on the social consequences of this state of affairs and its relationship with the “collective narcissism” of the Polish society and the historical policy pursued by the Polish state.</p> Wojciech Chlebda Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 2022-11-21 2022-11-21 17 2(34) 65 82 10.12797/LV.17.2022.34.05 Nowa (stara) frazeologia w SMS-ach widzów Szkła kontaktowego <p><strong>NEW (OLD) PHRASEOLOGY IN SMS TEXTS SENT BY VIEWERS OF THE TV PROGRAMME “SZKŁO KONTAKTOWE”</strong><br><strong>(“CONTACT LENS”)</strong></p> <p>The purpose of this article is to describe creative transformations of fixed expressions found in “Szkło kontaktowe” broadcast on the TVN<sub>24</sub> information channel. The presented sample of research material, collected in 2020-2022, consists of 20 items. Linguistic analysis of the collected SMS texts included reconstruction of stem strings in investigated phrases. It also aimed at determining types of structural and semantic transformations and analysis of their extra-linguistic context (textological perspective). Description of the material is predominantly based on theoretical assumptions of standard and pragmatic phraseology. Additionally, some tools of cultural linguistics have been applied, particularly elements of reconstruction related to the linguistic picture of the world, which allows for the reconstruction of a fragment of the contemporary social and political reality reflected in the SMS comments of viewers.</p> Agnieszka Gasz Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 2022-11-21 2022-11-21 17 2(34) 83 96 10.12797/LV.17.2022.34.06 Językowy obraz demokracji w polszczyźnie <p><strong>THE LINGUISTIC IMAGE OF DEMOCRACY IN POLISH LANGUAGE</strong></p> <p>The article attempts to reconstruct the linguistic image of DEMOCRACY in Polish language in accordance with the methodological assumptions of the “Lublin school of cognitive ethnolinguistics”. The material for analysis has been excerpted from three types of sources: dictionaries, surveys and texts. First, a set of fundamental defining features (“basic features”) of the concept of DEMOCRACY has been established, which focused on four aspects: political, social, ethical and economic. Second, using the operation of profiling, the author of the article outlined which sets of features are ascribed to DEMOCRACY in various types of Polish public discourse. Particular attention has been given to the following (basic) features of the analysed concept: power/majority rule, freedom, equality, tolerance and pluralism.</p> Monika Grzeszczak Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 2022-11-21 2022-11-21 17 2(34) 97 109 10.12797/LV.17.2022.34.07 Przejście na ty jako demokratyzacja w języku polskim. Analiza danych ankietowych <p><strong>TRANSITION TO FIRST-NAME BASIS AS DEMOCRATIZATION IN POLISH LANGUAGE: </strong><strong>ANALYSIS OF QUESTIONNAIRE SURVEY RESPONSES</strong></p> <p>The topic of this paper is transition to first-name basis (przejście na ty) in Polish, which one of the most important research topics in the field of Polish linguistic politeness. The transition to first-name basis can be seen as a phenomenon of democratization in language, because, as some of the Polish linguists describe, it creates a sense of equality, which is one of the basic elements of democracy. The results of a multi-stage survey proved that, in general, Polish people positively evaluate the contemporary tendency of faster transition to first-name basis. The analysis of the comments from the questionnaire survey showed that many people consider this tendency as a positive phenomenon in linguistic communication and treat it as an effective way of reducing the unnecessary distance which exists between interlocutors. However, it is worth keeping in mind that there are also negative effects of an inconsiderate decision to move to first-name basis, as mentioned by some of the survey respondents. This study has shown that the combination of several methods allows researchers to take a fresh perspective on the dynamic process of democratization in language and its perception among the users of a given language.</p> Yumeko Kawamoto Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 2022-11-21 2022-11-21 17 2(34) 111 128 10.12797/LV.17.2022.34.08 Kreowanie negatywnego obrazu instytucji religijnych w polskojęzycznej propagandzie radzieckiej okresu międzywojennego (na podstawie czasopisma „Bezbożnik Wojujący”) <p><strong>CREATING A NEGATIVE IMAGE OF RELIGIOUS INSTITUTIONS IN POLISH-LANGUAGE SOVIET PROPAGANDA</strong><br><strong>IN THE INTERWAR PERIOD (BASED ON THE MAGAZINE “BEZBOŻNIK WOJUJĄCY” [“MILITANT ATHEIST”])</strong></p> <p>The main issue discussed in this article is the negative image of religious institutions present in Polishlanguage propaganda in the interwar period. The research is based on the analysis of Polish-language Soviet magazine “Bezbożnik Wojujący”. It was published in USSR between 1929 and 1935. “Bezbożnik Wojujący” had some language variants (for example Georgian, Latvian, Russian, Ukrainian) and its main goal was anti-religious atheist propaganda among national minority communities. The magazine presented religious institutions as obscurantist, hypocritical, aimed at sabotage, and anti-Soviet. The objects of pejorativization included the Orthodox, Roman and Greek Catholic Churches, but also Protestants, members of locals sects, and certain Church initiatives such as the third order and the rosary circles. In the Soviet propaganda, which was based on Leninism, all religions were alien and hostile for working classes.</p> Daria Ławrynow Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 2022-11-21 2022-11-21 17 2(34) 129 140 10.12797/LV.17.2022.34.09 O rozwoju dyskursywnej funkcji form rozkazujących (na przykładzie słuchaj) <p>The article aims to present the process of forming the discursive function of the imperative form of the verb słuchać (słuchaj). These changes were presented as an example of the process of pragmaticalization. The analysis referred to contemporary and historical semantic context and the syntactic distribution of the form słuchaj. The author listed the conditions in which the form słuchaj should be acknowledged as a discourse marker. The diachronic viewing of the linguistic data attests that there were two triggers in the development of this new function: the regular (systemic) meaning of the imperative mood and the occurrences detached from the etymological meaning.</p> Magdalena Pastuch Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 2022-11-21 2022-11-21 17 2(34) 143 162 10.12797/LV.17.2022.34.10 Anotacja gramatyczna tekstu staropolskiego – problemy i wyzwania <p><strong>GRAMMATICAL ANNOTATION OF AN OLD POLISH TEXT: PROBLEMS AND CHALLENGES ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p>The paper is focused on grammatical annotation of Old Polish texts The authors discuss the prob-lems faced by the annotator in creating an annotation tool suitable for the analysis of texts written during the period of intensive changes in the Polish language The article presents the main assump-tions of grammatical annotation developed under the grant: The origins of Polish language and reli-gious culture in the light of the medieval apocrypha of the New Testament. A universal tool for the study of Polish apocryphal texts, as well as the system of classes and categories developed in the course of the research on Old Polish apocrypha The functionalities of the tool for the linguistic research are also presented: a grammatical and lexical search engine and a grammatical commentary.</p> Aleksandra Deskur Ewa Nowak-Pasterska Dorota Rojszczak-Robińska Wojciech Stelmach Magdalena Wismont Kinga Zalejarz Olga Ziółkowska Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 2022-11-21 2022-11-21 17 2(34) 163 180 10.12797/LV.17.2022.34.11 Герд Хентшель: Региональные особенности использования украинско-русской смешанной речи (суржика) и влияние диалектов: приставки и предлоги vid / ot <p><strong>REGIONAL PROPERTIES IN UKRAINIAN-RUSSIAN MIXED SPEECH (SURZHYK) AND THE INFLUENCE OF DIALECTS: PREFIXES AND PREPOSITIONS VID / OT</strong></p> <p>Ukrainian surzhyk is a form of mixed Ukrainian-Russian code influenced not only by standard dialects of Ukrainian and Russian, but also by Ukrainian dialects. In the analyses of the kind and intensity of the influence of Ukrainian or Russian on surzhyk, particularly problematic are the cases in which a given structural phenomenon occurs in some Ukrainian dialects and in the standard language, while in other dialects it is identical or very similar to the phenomenon occurring in Russian. Examples of such language units include the prefixes and vid / ot prepositions discussed in this article. Based on the corpus material, in this study the authors used quantitative methods to present the possibility to differentiate the basic tendencies that determine the way and scope of dialectal influences and both standard languages (Ukrainian and Russian). The main conclusion from the analyses of this linguistic phenomenon is the observation according to which a variant originating from the standard Ukrainian language is only preserved in those areas of using surzhyk in which only such variant occurs. In the regions in which both variants occur dialectally, or only the variant identical to Russian occurs, the latter is preserved. In general, it means that in Ukrainian-language areas variants of synonymical forms are reduced in the process of dialect-levelling in surzhyk as a mezolect.</p> Олеся Палинська Герд Хентшель Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 2022-11-21 2022-11-21 17 2(34) 229 253 10.12797/LV.17.2022.34.15 Czynniki rozwoju języka polskiego w Chinach <p><strong>FACTORS AFFECTING THE DEVELOPMENT OF POLISH LANGUAGE IN CHINA</strong></p> <p>The main issue of the paper is the analysis of the key factors which affect the development of the Polish language in China. Each of these factors has been discussed in this article against the background of language policy and power of Polish language in mainland China. The author, starting with a review of important concepts on this subject, tries to indicate the factors determining the creation of new Polish studies faculties and Polish studies centres in mainland China. Political and economic factors, the task-oriented approach of Chinese institutions in combination with a far-reaching profit planning strategy, factors related to regional cooperation between Poland and China, as well as sentimental and historical ones are considered to be the most significant aspects. The author tries to find a common denominator for the actions of Polish public diplomacy and often arbitrary decisions of the Chinese authorities in promoting Polish language in China. He points out some challenges and threats related to the dynamic development of Polish in China.&nbsp;</p> Andrzej Ruszer Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 2022-11-21 2022-11-21 17 2(34) 319 340 10.12797/LV.17.2022.34.20 Lucjan Malinowski i Słownik staropolski <p><strong>LUCJAN MALINOWSKI AND SŁOWNIK STAROPOLSKI</strong></p> <p>The objective of the article is showing the role played by Lucjan Malinowski (1839-1898) in the preparation of Słownik staropolski (Dictionary of the Old Polish Language). Using the materials documenting the creation and activity of the Academy of Learning, he shows one of the aspects of activities taken up within the institution. The idea of preparing Słownik staropolski (1953-2002) is connected with professor L. Malinowski. The author of the article shows Malinowski’s contribution to the undertaking in the context of his role played in the history of the Academy of Learning and the University of Kraków.</p> Ewa Deptuchowa Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 2022-11-21 2022-11-21 17 2(34) 257 270 10.12797/LV.17.2022.34.16 Lucjan Malinowski jako historyk języka <p><strong>LUCJAN MALINOWSKI AS A HISTORIAN OF LANGUAGE</strong></p> <p>The main merit of Lucjan Malinowski is the initiation of scientific linguistics in Kraków. His research was related to dialectology and history of Polish language. The authors of the article discussed his historical and linguistic analyses. They referred to: a) publishing Old-Polish texts; b) publishing materials excerpted from the old texts; c) collecting materials for the dictionary of the Old-Polish language; d) lexicographic studies; e) language of writers.</p> Bogusław Dunaj Mirosława Mycawka Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 2022-11-21 2022-11-21 17 2(34) 271 278 10.12797/LV.17.2022.34.17 Dziedzictwo Lucjana Malinowskiego – krakowska szkoła dialektologiczna <p><strong>HERITAGE OF LUCJAN MALINOWSKI – KRAKÓW DIALECTOLOGICAL SCHOOL</strong></p> <p>Systematic studies in dialectology have been carried out by Kraków linguists since 150 years. They were initiated by Lucjan Malinowski in the book: Beiträge zur slavischen dialectologie. I. Ueber die Oppelnsche Mundart in Oberschlesien. (1. Heft: Laut- und Formenlehre) (1873). L. Malinowski’s best student was K. Nitsch who is called the father of Polish dialectology. Neogrammarian primacy of voice rights, which Malinowski came across in Jena, resulted in the fact that at first (until 1920s) Kraków dialectologists focused on phonetics and inflection of dialects of particular villages. Such an atomizing approach was overcome by K. Nitsch who prepared some works covering the whole Polish dialectal area. By removing the social and cultural factor from the research range, neogrammarians (including L. Malinowski) influenced the fact that the Kraków dialectological school adopted the retrospective point of view and opened to sociolinguistics and ethnolinguistics as late as in 1980s. Therefore, we can conclude that L. Malinowski’s scientific influence and his work was very lasting and very important.&nbsp;</p> Maciej Rak Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 2022-11-21 2022-11-21 17 2(34) 279 291 10.12797/LV.17.2022.34.18 Back Matter Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 2022-11-21 2022-11-21 17 2(34)