LingVaria <p>„LingVaria” są półrocznikiem wydawanym od 2006 r. przez Wydział Polonistyki Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego i publikującym artykuły z zakresu językoznawstwa, głównie polonistycznego, ale też z zakresu językoznawstwa ogólnego i slawistycznego. Odbiorcami są językoznawcy, a także doktoranci i studenci o zainteresowaniach lingwistycznych.&nbsp;. Założycielem i pierwszym redaktorem naczelnym LingVariów jest prof. dr hab. Mirosław Skarżyński. Wersją podstawową (referencyjną) czasopisma jest wersja elektroniczna.</p> pl-PL (Department of Scientific Journals, Ksiegarnia Akademicka Publishing) (Author’s Support) Wed, 18 May 2022 00:00:00 +0200 OJS 60 Back Matter <p> </p> <p> </p> Prawa autorskie (c) 2013 Wed, 18 May 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Rzeczownikowe formacje z pół- w ujęciu historycznym (na materiale słownikowym) <p><strong>NOMINAL FORMATIONS WITH </strong><em><strong>PÓŁ</strong></em><strong>- IN THE HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE (BASED ON LEXICAL MATERIAL)</strong></p> <p>This article is dedicated to derivatives with the <em>pół</em>- unit that appears in general Polish. Such derivatives have already been the subject of researchers of Polish. In this text the author focused on two aspects: the morphological status of those derivatives and their historical development from the eldest times (the Old Polish period) until now. Contrary to appearances, not all derivatives with <em>pół</em>- are compounds. The analysis of their lexical and word-formation meanings leads one to the conclusion that many of them are simple derivatives in which the meaning of the pół- unit is far from the basic meaning, which is why it should be treated as a unit with the function of a prefix formant. Those formant meanings of pół- are of modification (more often) or mutation (more rarely) nature. The historical development of those derivatives is presented on the basis of lexical material. The derivatives have been functioning since the Old Polish times, but they have been changing both in terms of quality and quantity. SStp includes only 37 formations with <em>pół</em>-, but more and more of them appeared in later centuries. The highest increase in their number is noted in SW (almost a half of a thousand derivatives), after which their number has decreased (in SWJP there are 121 of them). Until now this has been a living and productive word-formation type. Three most important kinds of those formations have been distinguished in the historical perspective: 1) compounds with <em>pół</em>- meaning ‘a half’, which are relatively numerous and stable throughout the whole developmental period; 2) small categories (e.g. ‘one of two’, ‘the middle’, ‘a kind’), which are created by a small number of derivatives, but constitute their stem in that they are static in terms of quantity; 3) large and, at the same time, static categories, which are changing over time, i.e. they either significantly grow in number (‘not really’) or significantly decrease the number (‘a half with reference to measurements’ and exocentric compounds).</p> Tomasz Kurdyła Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 Wed, 18 May 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Nie tylko Bulla gnieźnieńska. O znaczeniu dokumentu fundacyjnego Zbyluta (1153) dla polskich badań historycznojęzykowych <p><strong>NOT ONLY </strong><em><strong>BULLA GNIEŹNIEŃSKA</strong></em><strong>: ON THE IMPORTANCE OF ZBYLUT’S FOUNDATION DOCUMENT (ISSUED IN 1153) FOR POLISH HISTORICAL AND LINGUISTIC RESEARCH: PART 2: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN VERSIONS OF THE DOCUMENT</strong></p> <p>This article is the second part of a series. The purpose of the first part was to introduce the Zbylut’s document (its original and copies) into the Polish historical-linguistic research, to verify and supplement the existing transliterations, to show the document as an object of studies, and to select historical information that may prove to be important from the historical-linguistic perspective. The foundation document issued in 1153 by knight Zbylut for the Cistercians in Łekno, called the Zbylut’s document, may be of value to historians of language for at least three reasons: first, it contains onomastic material from the mid-12th century; second, it is available in several versions (including two parallel originals from the mid-12th century and one copy from the end of the same century), which are fully legible and perfectly preserved; and third, it has been carefully studied by a few generations of historians. The results of their research constitute an invaluable and basic context for linguistic analyses. However, the issue of the number of writing hands and the relationship between different versions of the document, which is very important for linguistic research, could not be resolved unequivocally. Until now, it has usually been assumed that the three documents were written by two or three different hands.</p> <p> </p> Marcin Kuźmicki, Tomasz Mika Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 Wed, 18 May 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Motywacja i sposoby nominacji wybranych oronimów rejonu Czerwonych Wierchów w polskiej części Tatr Zachodnich <p><strong>MOTIVATION AND METHODS OF SELECTING NAMES FOR CHOSEN ORONYMS OF THE CZERWONE WIERCHY AREA IN THE POLISH PART OF THE WESTERN TATRA MOUNTAINS</strong></p> <p>The purpose of this article is to show various ways of expressing the reality which is characteristic of people who have given names of places in the mentioned area. In this article, the attempt was made to reach to the motivational meaning of 207 oronyms from the Czerwone Wierchy area which is located in the Polish part of the Western Tatra Mountains. These names origin from two detailed mountain guides of the Czerwone Wierchy area and they have been assigned to two different groups. The first group is made up of names that have been formed during the onimization process, and the second – of names that have been formed during the transonimization process. Within these groups further subcategories have been distinguished. In this article multipart names were highlighted. They are characterized by complex motivation. The study showed that a large part of the collected names is a group of oronyms, which have been formed during the onimization process with a part of them that origin from other toponyms (77 oronyms). They are localized names and they show a practical approach to the reality. It can be concluded that this feature caused a high popularity of this naming model. In this article, attention has been paid to the necessity of conducting the socio-onomastics survey.</p> Agnieszka Jurczyńska-Kłosok Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 Wed, 18 May 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Sakralne i ludyczne symbole szczygła w języku i kulturze <p><strong>SACRED AND LUDIC SYMBOLS OF A GOLDFINCH IN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE</strong></p> <p>The article is dedicated to symbolic representations of szczygieł (a goldfinch) in Polish language and culture, taking into account the European cultural background. The author presents the process of symbolization of the sacred and ludic profile of a goldfinch as a representative of avifauna based on linguistic data (etymology, phrasematics), text data (literature and folklore), as well as on iconography. References to Western European painting made it possible for the author to present the multiple layers of a goldfinch symbolism and related differences in the way of imaging, developing connotations and conceptualization of symbolic contents. The sacred imagery was dominated by Biblical associations, while in ludic images there was a tendency to present birds as autotelic beings without strictly religious connotations.</p> Ewa Masłowska Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 Wed, 18 May 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Aksjologiczna wartość hymnów państwowych Słowian w ujęciu porównawczym <p><strong>AXIOLOGICAL VALUE OF STATE ANTHEMS OF THE SLAVS IN A COMPARATIVE APPROACH</strong></p> <p>The author suggests a method for determining the set of values of Slavic cultures that is based on the analysis of important cultural texts. Examples of such texts are national anthems. Thirteen hymns of Slavic states and the national anthem of the Lusatians were analyzed. It was found that some of the distinguished semantic components correspond to the sets of Slavic values discussed in literature (LIFE, HEALTH, FAMILY, HOME, EARTH, WORK, LOVE, BEAUTY, HAPPINESS, WISDOM, SINCERITY, FAITHFULNESS, HONESTY, JUSTICE, FREEDOM, HONOUR, FAITH, GOD). It has been shown that as a result of grouping the components into networked clusters of concepts, it is possible to discover basic axiological binary oppositions (LIFE – DEATH, CONSENT – DISCORD), and in the course of linguistic and cultural analysis, relationships between apparently unrelated components can be revealed.</p> Aleksandra Niewiara Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 Wed, 18 May 2022 00:00:00 +0200 New speakers versus old speakers. O akwizycji języka niemieckiego dwóch pokoleń na Mazurach <p><strong>NEW SPEAKERS VERSUS OLD SPEAKERS: ABOUT GERMAN LANGUAGE ACQUISITION IN TWO GENERATIONS IN MASURIA</strong></p> <p>This article presents part of the results of a field study carried out in Masuria in Summer 2018, in the framework of the international Beethoven 2 project: “Generational language differentiation: morphosyntactic changes resulting from Polish-German language contact in the speech of bilingual persons” financed by Narodowe Centrum Nauki (National Science Centre), project no. 2016/23/G/HS2/04369, affiliated with the Institute of Slavic Studies, Polish Academy of Science. The author focuses on two different linguistic situations connected with acquisition of German language by <em>new speakers</em>, or adults who learn a language during organized educational classes, in relation to <em>old speakers</em>, or those who learnt the language in their childhood, in the context of their homes or families. The members of both groups were born in Masuria, which was part of East Prussia before World War II, and was incorporated into Poland after 1945. The language change in that territory has had an important effect on the acquisition process of the Polish and the German languages, and on the language biographies of the speakers. However, the notion of <em>generation</em> included in the title of this paper does not necessarily have to refer to changes in the diachronic approach, but can also address synchronically occurring conditions, as both <em>old</em> and <em>new speakers</em> can be representatives of various generations of the same family or members of the same community and of similar age.</p> <p> </p> Anna Jorroch Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 Wed, 18 May 2022 00:00:00 +0200 „Ratuję od zupełnego unicestwienia ślady naszej przeszłości, które zacierają się, nikną z dniem każdym” <p><strong>“I AM SAVING THE REMAINS OF OUR PAST, WHICH FADE AND DISAPPEAR WITH EACH PASSING DAY, FROM COMPLETE DESTRUCTION”: VANDALIN SHUKEVICH’S MANUSCRIPTS AS A NOVEL SOURCE FOR THE STUDY OF LANGUAGE CONTACTS AT THE BALTO-SLAVIC BORDERLAND</strong></p> <p>The paper is a pilot publication of a project on language contacts in a poorly studied area of the Baltic-Slavic border. The author presents the specifics of the egodocuments of Vandalin Shukevich (1852–1919), an autodidact scientist from the Nacha of the Lida district. The egodocuments were identified in the national historical archive of the Republic of Lithuania in 2021. The author presents their research potential in the study of linguistic contacts in the peripheral dialectal area of the Balto-Slavic border. She proves that the analysis of the dialectal material extracted from the manuscripts will introduce new knowledge about historical multilingualism, the Balto-Slavic language contacts, the development of local dialects, the state of the north-eastern Polish language at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, and about the history of the Polish science. The results of the analysis will also be relevant for the present, introducing novel data on geolects and the dynamics of the development of cross-border language contacts in the poorly studied area of the Balto-Slavic borderland.</p> Katarzyna Konczewska Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 Wed, 18 May 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Jan Baudouin de Courtenay, Czy historia i filologia mogą umiejętnie rozwiązać swoje zadanie bez ścisłego związku z filozofią, a mianowicie z filozofią historii i filozofią języka? <p><strong>JAN BAUDOUIN DE COURTENAY: CAN HISTORY AND PHILOLOGY COMPETENTLY ADDRESS THEIR TASK WITHOUT A CLOSE CONNECTION WITH PHILOSOPHY, NAMELY PHILOSOPHY OF HISTORY AND PHILOSOPHY OF LANGUAGE?</strong></p> <p>The thesis by Jan Baudouin de Courtenay published here is probably the oldest of the texts by the Polish linguist. The text was submitted in 1864 as a part of the logic and philosophy course taught at the Warsaw Main School by Henryk Struve. It clearly shows an attempt by the young researcher to embark on a scholarly path, which turns out to be far from the one Baudouin de Courtenay took later in his academic activity. The future linguist argues here in defence of linguistics as a so-called physical science (a natural skill, as he often calls it in his dissertation), thus contrasting it with philology and history.</p> Mateusz Kowalski Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 Wed, 18 May 2022 00:00:00 +0200 W stronę frazeologii percepcyjnej <p><strong>TOWARDS PERCEPTUAL PHRASEOLOGY: TESTING THE KNOWLEDGE AND ASSESSMENT OF PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS BY STUDENTS OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES</strong></p> <p>The authors discuss the most important assumptions of the research project on the knowledge, reception and practical application of phraseology by representatives of various social groups of nativespeakers, as well as the results of the first stage of the research carried out among students of humanities and social sciences. The notion of “perceptual phraseology” is treated as a part of perceptual linguistics which examines how the attitudes of language users and their perception of various forms as correct or incorrect affect their language behaviour. The aim of the project is to examine: a) the perception, knowledge and ability to assess the compliance of phraseologies with the dictionary norm; b) the ability to use them in specified social situations; c) social variables determining the level of knowledge of the phraseology of the Polish language by educated social classes. In addition to the results of the analyses in the collective and individual dimension, the results of the verification of preliminary hypotheses and conclusions for the subsequent stages of the research were presented, during which focus interviews will be conducted, and other social and professional groups will also be included.</p> Michał Głuszkowski, Magdalena Grupa-Dolińska, Aleksandra Miaskowska Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 Wed, 18 May 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Estetyczne akty mowy jako przedmiot pragmalingwistyki: status, funkcje, formy <p><strong>AESTHETIC ACTS OF SPEECH AS A SUBJECT OF PRAGMALINGUISTICS: STATUS, FUNCTIONS, FORMS: PART 2</strong></p> <p>Aesthetic speech acts, i.e. affect-creating speech acts that are produced by the sender to make the receiver have an aesthetic experience, may be fulfilled in four different ways. They are produced by means of semantic content which is conventionally associated with beauty or ugliness. They may also be fulfilled through operations on the form and structure of a speech act. The next way is to produce them using a context that contains objects of aesthetic value. The last type of aesthetic speech acts arises when they are uttered in a specific, aesthetic manner.</p> <p> </p> Aleksander Kiklewicz, Sebastian Przybyszewski Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 Wed, 18 May 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Kognitywne modele metafory wizualnej: teoria, metodologia, analizy <p><strong>COGNITIVE MODELS OF VISUAL METAPHOR: THEORY, METHODOLOGY, ANALYSES</strong></p> <p>The aim of the article is to present cognitive studies on visual metaphor: selected theories, methods and analyses. An overview of literature shows a growing interest in this area of research worldwide, especially in the light of the “visual turn”. Compared to the scholarly output of foreign researchers, publications of Polish authors are scarce and their results are not systematized. The discussion of the current state of research on visual metaphor is therefore motivated, on the one hand, by knowledge gap, and on the other, by the need to popularize and systematize this area of study in Poland.</p> Grzegorz Kowalski Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 Wed, 18 May 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Czy (i jak) warto jeszcze badać staropolskie latynizmy i grecyzmy? <p><strong>IS IT STILL WORTH RESEARCHING GREEK AND LATIN LOANWORDS IN OLD POLISH? </strong><strong>(AND HOW SHOULD WE DO IT?)</strong></p> <p>The paper focuses on Greek and Latin loanwords in Old Polish language. It attempts to show what has already been done and what still needs to be done in this important issue. Three main aspects are discussed: (1) definitions of the terms<em> loanword</em>, <em>Latinism</em>, <em>Hellenism</em>, and the problem of direct and indirect borrowing; (2) the current state of investigation of Greek and Latin loanwords in Old Polish; (3) the Old Polish Christian terminology – the problem of chronology and borrowing channels of Greek and Latin Christian words to Old Polish. The final part of the paper contains a brief research history i.e. it describes the most important works in chronological order.</p> Jan German Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 Wed, 18 May 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Pamięć o Żydach w wielkich słownikach języka polskiego. Rekonesans <p><strong>REMEMBRANCE OF JEWS IN THE GREAT DICTIONARIES OF THE POLISH LANGUAGE: RECONNAISSANCE: PART 1</strong></p> <p>Nine centuries of Polish-Jewish contacts in all spheres of life left a mark in Polish. The author of the article decided to check how significant and how durable this trace is, looking in the great dictionaries of the Polish language for units considered as carriers of memory of Jews. The author asks the question which prejudges the fact that a certain unit of language can be considered as a carrier of the memory of Jews and wonders in which linguistic forms this Jewish element can be manifested in dictionaries. The initial analysis included 240 carriers of memory (“verbal judaics”), sampled from journals, memoir literature and tourist guides edited after 2000, as well as two dictionaries intended for the mass audience:<em> the Dictionary of Polish</em> edited by M. Szymczak and <em>Another Dictionary of Polish</em> edited by M. Bańko. It turned out that these dictionaries recorded only 25% of the collected corps of verbal judaics, often depriving the definitions of these units of the Jewish component. The author reflects on the social consequences of this state of affairs and its relationship with the “collective narcissism” of the Polish society, and on the historical policy pursued by the Polish state.</p> Wojciech Chlebda Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 Wed, 18 May 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Osobiście w zdaniu i w strukturze tematyczno-rematycznej wypowiedzenia <p><strong>UNITS WITH THE FORM </strong><em><strong>OSOBIŚCIE</strong></em><strong> IN SENTENCES AND IN THE THEMATIC-RHEMATIC STRUCTURE OF UTTERANCES</strong></p> <p>The author of this article claims that in Polish there are three independent language units containing the form <em>osobiście</em>. They differ both functionally and formally. Only one of these units (<em>osobiście</em><sub>1</sub> ‘in a personal manner’) is an ordinary adverb operating on the syntactic level, that is, entering into syntactic and semantic relations with other components of a given sentence. The other two units are operators of the thematic-rhematic structure. They organize the content of utterances they participate in and comment on it. <em>Osobiście</em><sub>2</sub> (‘personally’) is inherently thematic; it can function as the main theme of a given utterance or stands next to the theme making this element easier to identify. The unit <em>osobiście</em><sub>3</sub> (‘in person’) is, in turn, primarily rhematic or precedes the rheme as its thematized exponent. <em>Osobiście</em><sub>2</sub> and <em>osobiście</em><sub>3</sub> are two types of dictum, on the one hand – thematic comment and on the other – rhematic. These expressions have much in common with the units of the form sam. Besides <em>osobiście</em><sub>1</sub>, <em>osobiście</em><sub>2</sub> and <em>osobiście</em><sub>3</sub>, there is also in Polish the idiom <em>znać</em> / <em>poznać</em> [kogoś] <em>osobiście</em> ‘know / get to know someone personally’.</p> Magdalena Danielewiczowa Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 Wed, 18 May 2022 00:00:00 +0200 No nie mów! Słownik pragmatemów?! Rozważania nad leksykograficznym opisem wyrażeń pragmatycznych w ujęciu kontrastywnym (na przykładzie polskich ekwiwalentów francuskiego pragmatemu Tu m’en diras tant!) <p><strong>CONSIDERATIONS ON THE LEXICOGRAPHIC DESCRIPTION OF PRAGMATEMES IN A CONTRASTIVE APPROACH (BASED ON THE EXAMPLE OF POLISH EQUIVALENTS OF THE FRENCH PRAGMATEME<em> TU M’EN DIRAS TANT!</em>)</strong></p> <p>This article deals with the lexicographic description of pragmatemes in a contrastive approach. In the first part, the author briefly reviews definitions of the denomination “pragmateme” in Polish and French-language linguistic literature, finally opting for a prototypical understanding of this term. The following chapters are devoted to presenting the concept of the projected multilingual dictionary of pragmatemes. Having outlined the main principles of the dictionary’s macro- and microstructure, the author proceeds to a detailed discussion of the dictionary entries for two Polish equivalents of the French pragmatic formula <em>Tu m’en diras tant!: Co ty nie powiesz! and No nie mów!</em>.</p> Michał Hrabia Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 Wed, 18 May 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Wpływ wieku i płci na realizację samogłosek [i], [y] w gwarze Mazowsza bliższego <p><strong>AGE AND GENDER EFFECT IN PHONETIC PRODUCTION OF [I], [Y] IN THE NEAR MAZOVIA DIALECT</strong></p> <p>In the present study, acoustic measures of first and second formant frequencies of [i], [y] in the contexts of hard consonants were obtained from spontaneous texts produced by 18 talkers representing both genders and living in the Near Mazovia. The differences between [i], [y] and the effect of gender and age on F1, F2 of these vowels were examined. The influence of standard Polish on [i], [y] was also described. It was found that none of the respondents identify [i], [y], both the age and gender have an effect on F1, F2 [i], [y], and the changes in F1, F2 of the vowel [y] in the group of men are the result of influences of standard Polish. New tendencies were also noticed – fronting of [i] in the middle and younger generation of men and women, and backing of [y] in the middle and younger generation of women.</p> Justyna Garczyńska Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 Wed, 18 May 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Od redaktora naczelnego Maciej Rak Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 Wed, 18 May 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Profesor Janusz Strutyński (1932–2021). Wspomnienie Małgorzata Pachowicz Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 Wed, 18 May 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Front Matter Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 Wed, 18 May 2022 00:00:00 +0200