LingVaria <p>„LingVaria” są półrocznikiem wydawanym od 2006 r. przez Wydział Polonistyki Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego i publikującym artykuły z zakresu językoznawstwa, głównie polonistycznego, ale też z zakresu językoznawstwa ogólnego i slawistycznego. Odbiorcami są językoznawcy, a także doktoranci i studenci o zainteresowaniach lingwistycznych.&nbsp;. Założycielem i pierwszym redaktorem naczelnym LingVariów jest prof. dr hab. Mirosław Skarżyński. Wersją podstawową (referencyjną) czasopisma jest wersja elektroniczna.</p> pl-PL (Department of Scientific Journals, Ksiegarnia Akademicka Publishing) (Author’s Support) Tue, 11 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200 OJS 60 Leksyka przestępcza w trylogii złodziejskiej Sergiusza Piaseckiego <p><strong>Criminal Sociolect in<em> The Criminal Trilogy</em> by Sergiusz Piasecki</strong></p> <p>The author of the article aims at reconstructing the criminal sociolect of the North-Eastern Borderlands in 1918-1919, based on <em>The Criminal Trilogy</em> by Sergiusz Piasecki. The plot of the novels takes place in Minsk Litewski, which, at that time, was full of thieves from all regions of Poland. In the novels, Piasecki recreated the sociolect of thieves living in the North-Eastern Borderlands, using the authentic criminal lexis. The authenticity of this sociolect is confirmed both by the materials provided by Piasecki himself (preface, footnotes and vocabulary of thieves’ language) and by their comparison with other lexicographic scientific descriptions concerning criminal vocabulary from the first half of the twentieth century.</p> Ewa Kubusiak Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Mon, 10 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Regulamin działu forum dyskusyjnego <p><strong>Internet Forum Rules. Structural Determinants of a Genre Pattern</strong></p> <p>The purpose of this article is to describe the genre identity and components of the structural aspect of the genre pattern of internet forum rules, taking into account the newest genological theories related to genre hybridism and genre-formation processes occurring in texts. The methodology of research uses the methods of genological analysis based on the theory of Maria Wojtak. According to this theory, the analysis of the structural aspect is one of the key elements which make it possible to define the genre identity of the text. The research material consists of twenty-two texts from the Sports Internet Forum, which perform the function of regulating and determining the principles of communication on the forum, and which are called the ‘forum rules’ by the users. In its pragmatic aspect, such rules refer to the official genre of regulations, and it may either represent its alternation or adaptation pattern, or function as an independent genre.</p> Kamil Wabnic Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Mon, 10 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Front matter Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Mon, 10 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200 O wybranych zaimkach gwarowych z Polski południowo-wschodniej (przyczynek) <p><strong>Selected Dialectal Pronouns from South-Eastern Poland (Outline)</strong></p> <p>The author of this article discusses the structure, origin and functions of dialectal pronouns which occur in the local dialect of Posada Jaśliska near Krosno. Posada Jaśliska is a village of three cultures: Polish, Lemko and Slovakian. The author describes mutual influences of these three languages on shaping the collection of pronouns, with particular emphasis on the pronouns that are typical of this area or known only in this place: definite ones, such as <em>haw</em> ‘here’ and <em>het</em> ‘very far, somewhere, from somewhere, away’, and indefinite pronouns, such as<em> dakto</em> ‘whoever’, <em>dagdzie</em> ‘wherever’.</p> Tomasz Kurdyła Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Mon, 10 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Gwarowe nazwy kobiet z sufiksem -ula <p><strong>Dialectal Female Names with the Suffix -ula</strong></p> <p>The article discusses female names created with the suffix -<em>ula</em>, taken from the <em>Lexicon of Polish Dialects</em> prepared by the Polish Institute of Sciences (PAN). Despite the possibility of double motivation, it was assumed that most of them were motivated by male names, with only few derived from verbs, adjectives or nouns. Among the formations in question, words with a negative connotation are prevalent, and positive ones (diminutives and terms of endearment) are rare. This is compliant with colloquial Polish in which negative assessment is dominant, too. According to the analysis: 1) the suffix -<em>ula</em> has a feminizing function when it is used to create female names based on common names, and the expressiveness of the name is transferred from the basis to the derivative; 2) the scope of the suffix -<em>ula</em> is limited to Lesser Poland and Silesia; 3) it hardly ever occurs in other dialects.The author of this article discusses the structure, origin and functions of dialectal pronouns which occur in the local dialect of Posada Jaśliska near Krosno. Posada Jaśliska is a village of three cultures: Polish, Lemko and Slovakian. The author describes mutual influences of these three languages on shaping the collection of pronouns, with particular emphasis on the pronouns that are typical of this area or known only in this place: definite ones, such as haw ‘here’ and het ‘very far, somewhere, from somewhere, away’, and indefinite pronouns, such as dakto ‘whoever’, dagdzie ‘wherever’.</p> Maciej Mączyński Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Mon, 10 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Od redaktora naczelnego Maciej Rak Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Mon, 10 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Od redakcji Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Mon, 10 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Oralność czy mówioność? O śladach mowy w tekstach staropolskich <p><strong>Orality or Spoken Language? Traces of Speech in Old Polish Texts</strong></p> <p>The article is dedicated to traces of speech in old Polish texts. The main aim of the article is to show how the scope of reference of key terms and the formulation of research assumptions influence the interpretation of particular phenomena as spoken or oral. The article consists of two parts. The first part is meta-scientific, and it is dedicated to the research on <em>spoken language</em> and the research on<em> orality</em> in old texts. The author analyses terms used by researchers, and the scope of reference of those terms. Also, the author suggests a distinction between the terms<em> orality</em> and <em>spoken language</em>. In the second part, the Old Polish linguistic material is analysed according to the previously formulated research assumptions.</p> Aleksandra Deskur Prawa autorskie (c) 2013 Aleksandra Deskur Thu, 10 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0200 O pewnej osobliwości w wydaniu kaliskich rot sądowych, która może stać się przestrogą dla badaczy oraz edytorów tekstów dawnych <p><strong>On a Peculiarity in Judicial Oaths of Kalisz, which May Become a Warning for Researchers and Editors of Old Texts</strong></p> <p>The main purpose of the article is to show the problems that editors of Old Polish texts have to face. The pretext for showing these problems was a court note (card 67 recto), which was mistakenly published twice in the same edition (WRS – H. Kowalewicz and W. Kuraszkiewicz). Moreover, it was elaborated in two different ways (the same manuscript fragment is interpreted as the work of two different writers; the boundaries of the judicial record are indicated differently; the transcriptions of both versions also differ). Almost half a century later, all these errors were reproduced in the Electronic Repository of Greater Poland Oaths, although a dozen or so years earlier an edition by T. Jurek was published, in which the errors from the WRS edition were corrected. Unfortunately, the edition by T. Jurek also contains some solutions that make it impossible to use it in an entirely scientific manner (excessive modernization of the spelling).</p> Marcin Kuźmicki Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Mon, 10 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Językowe wykładniki intencji prawodawcy w Kodeksie Działyńskich <p><strong>Linguistic Exponents of the Legislator’s Intention in the <em>Działyński Code</em></strong></p> <p>The article presents syntactic methods of expressing the legislator’s intentions in the medieval legal document called <em>Kodeks Działyńskich</em> (<em>the Działyński code</em>). The intention is understood by the authors as ‘the goal towards which the action of the legislator is directed’. This type of element of a legislative text does not appear in modern legal texts, apart from the Code of Canon Law. However, in the oldest texts, the purpose of which was to change a functioning custom into binding law, the justification for introducing certain regulations was very important. We also pay attention to the information about the legislator, which is included in the text. The information is expressed by <em>pluralis maiestaticus</em> forms of performative verbs. Three types of syntactic structures serve to express the intention of the legislator: subordinate clauses introduced by the conjunction:<em> aby</em>, participial sentence equivalents based on the verb <em>chcieć</em>, and prepositional phrases with prepositions: <em>na</em>, <em>ku</em> and <em>dla</em>. These structures usually occur in preposition to the superior predicate. The fragments excerpted from the text are characterized by a considerable degree of cohesiveness, not only in terms of meaning but also in structure. A sentence or a participal construction in the semantic relation of the goal functions in a broader context, therefore it becomes necessary to introduce reference indicators and anaphorical elements such as repetitions, pronouns and pronominalization.</p> Romana Łapa, Agnieszka Słoboda Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Mon, 10 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Konstrukcja objaśniająca rozumiej w staropolskich tekstach z kodeksu Wawrzyńca z Łaska <p><strong>The Explaining Structure <em>rozumiej</em> (‘understand’) in Old Polish Texts from the Code of Wawrzyniec from Łask</strong></p> <p>The aim of the article is to show functional divergence of the explaining structure: <em>rozumiej</em> (‘understand’) in the Old Polish apocryphal works from the code of Wawrzyniec from Łask: <em>History of the Three Kings and The Gospel of Nicodemus</em>. This structure was used to introduce new contents to a sentence (explaining a pronoun or a noun/verb). There were two main functions of this structure in analysed texts: organisation of the text, and a didactic role. The analysis leads to some conclusions about possible origins of these elements (it seems that they did not come from glosses or from the last copyist), and shows the need for further research of metatexts in Old Polish literature.</p> Dorota Masłej Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Mon, 10 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Nie tylko Bulla gnieźnieńska <p><strong>Not Only <em>Bulla Gnieźnieńska</em>. On the Importance of Zbylut’s Foundation Document (Issued in 1153) for Polish Historical and Linguistic Research. Part 1: Research Object</strong></p> <p>The list of sources used in the research of the oldest period of development of the Polish language is very short. Only<em> Bulla Gnieźnieńska</em> exists in the common consciousness. Meanwhile, the foundation document issued in 1153 by knight Zbylut for the Cistercians in Łekno, called the Zbylut’s document, may be of value to historians of language for at least three reasons: first, it contains onomastic material from the mid-12th century; second, it is available in several versions (including two parallel originals from the mid-12th century and one copy from the end of the same century), which are fully legible and perfectly preserved; and third, it has been carefully studied by a few generations of historians who have carefully considered and resolved many issues related to the circumstances of creating the originals and the copies. The results of their research constitute an invaluable and basic context for historical and linguistic analyses. The aim of the article (the first one in a series) is to introduce the Zbylut’s document (its originals and copies) into the Polish historical-linguistic research, to verify and supplement the existing transliterations, to show the document as an object of studies, and to select historical information that may prove to be important from the historical-linguistic perspective. Further work is aimed at conducting historical-linguistic research on Polish language material, providing transcription (with linguistic justifications) of Polish words and formulating research perspectives. Further works are aimed at carrying out historical and linguistic analyses of Polish language materials, preparing transcriptions of Polish words with their justifications, and formulating research perspectives.</p> Tomasz Mika Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Mon, 10 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200 O kształtowaniu się staropolskiej formuły Jakoby rzekł <p><strong>On Shaping the jakoby rzekł Formula in the Old Polish Language</strong></p> <p>In the 15th century, a commenting formula:<em> jakoby rzekł</em> appeared in Polish as a calque of the Latin: <em>quasi dicat</em>. Its accumulation can be seen in those old Polish apocrypha that are multi-source and focused on theology, not just events. The <em>jakoby rzekł</em> formula occurs almost exclusively in dialogue and introduces a paraphrase of the quoted statement of a Biblical character. It serves various purposes: theological exegesis, especially explaining controversial issues and, sometimes, simplifying theological content, making the figure of Jesus more familiar, or changing the emotional attitude of the reader; also, it introduces explanations of foreign terms. The formula:<em> jakoby rzekł</em> became especially popular in the 16th-century religious texts. They include all functions of the formula noticed in the medieval materials. The formula was used in the Polish language until the 19th century.</p> Dorota Rojszczak-Robińska Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Mon, 10 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Szeregi składniowe w staropolskich apokryfach Starego i Nowego Testamentu (na przykładzie Historyi barzo cudnej o stworzeniu nieba i ziemie i Rozmyślania przemyskiego) <p><strong>Syntactic Sequences in Old Polish Apocrypha of the Old and New Testament (Based on Historya barzo cudna o stworzeniu nieba i ziemie and Rozmyślanie przemyskie)</strong></p> <p>Researchers of Old Polish texts notice that they contain stylistic devices called syntactic sequences, a particular type of which are synonymous sequences. The aim of the article is to characterize synonymous sequences in Polish medieval Biblical-apocryphal writings, and to indicate their importance for the stylistics of Old Polish literature. Furthermore, the author of the article wants to find out why the copyists/authors of the texts decided to use such sequences in those writingss. The basis for the analysis includes some examples of syntactic sequences from The Przemyśl Meditation (Rozmyślanie Przemyskie) and The Marvellous Story on the Creation of Heaven and Earth (Historya barzo cudna o stworzeniu nieba i ziemie) by Krzysztof Pussman. However, the author of the article does not focus on the genetic aspects of text analysis. He is not interested in the origin of the sequences. What is important for him is to determine the function of the word connections in question, and to identify the reasons for using them in the translation.</p> Wojciech Stelmach Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Mon, 10 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Staropolski imiesłów czynny jako predykatywny atrybut <p><strong>Old Polish Present Participle as a Predicative Attribute</strong></p> <p>The author of the article shows that Old Polish (present) participles are transitional categories – they combine the syntactic features of an attribute and a predicate. She also tries to answer the question of how to recognize their nature. Is one of the functions dominant or are they equal? It is also important to reflect on how the choice of terminology used for syntactic description affects the way of perceiving and interpreting linguistic phenomena. The author considers the functionality of terms which already exist in the research tradition and are designed to name the double function of a participle. She also proposes the term: “predicative attribute” (in Polish: “<em>predykatywny atrybut</em>”) referring to the functional syntax of Stanisław Karolak. She shows that an entire separation, in a syntactic description, of the two syntactic functions performed by a participle, is ahistorical and incorrect as it suggests the existence of something which was unclear and only emerging.</p> Olga Ziółkowska Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Mon, 10 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Z etymologii łemkowskich <p><strong>Lemko Etymologies. Part VI</strong></p> <p>This article constitutes the sixth part in the series related to Lemko etymologies. In this part, the authors present the words beginning with the letters <em>П</em> and <em>Р</em>:<em> пага</em>, <em>пажерити</em>, <em>памула</em>, <em>пандзір</em>, <em>папуля</em>, <em>пацалуватий</em>, <em>перайки</em>, <em>п(е)реквинтувати си</em>, <em>пыркій</em>, <em>погармиґувати ся</em>, <em>погынцатися</em>,<em> подышір</em>, <em>поперхливый</em>, <em>попыртаный</em>, <em>порамотати</em>, <em>порплі</em>, <em>постружниця</em>, <em>пофафрындити</em>, <em>похыхму</em>, <em>пошкрібок</em>, <em>пошпотити ся</em>,<em> префынкати</em>, <em>приґвамчыти</em>, <em>приячка</em>, <em>прогайнувати</em>, <em>псятвоч</em>, <em>раканя</em>, <em>рамак/рамач</em>, <em>рапавий</em>, <em>репчыти</em>, <em>римно</em>, <em>рынявий</em>, <em>розбырдати</em>, <em>розпаідити(ся)</em>. The authors attempt to determine the origin of these words, taking into account the data provided in etymological, historical and dialectal dictionaries of Slavic languages and dialects, as well as of neighbouring non-Slavic languages. Thus, they have outlined a broad comparative background, offering their supplementation or correction of the previous etymological conclusions.</p> Adam Fałowski, Wiktoria Hojsak Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Mon, 10 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Coś innego to coś innego niż co innego. O tym i rzeczach podobnych <p><strong><em>Coś innego</em> (Something Else) Is Different than <em>co innego</em> (Something Different). These and Similar Issues</strong></p> <p>The article discusses the opposition between Polish pronouns ending with -<em>ś</em> and corresponding pronouns which lack this exponent. Such an opposition can be noticed in the combinations of units of both types with the expressions:<em> inny/indziej</em> (else/other), (e.g. <em>ktoś inny</em> : <em>kto inny</em>, <em>coś innego</em> : <em>co innego</em>, <em>gdzieś indziej</em> : <em>gdzie indziej</em>, <em>kiedyś indziej</em> :<em> kiedy indziej</em>, etc.), as well as in some modal contexts (e.g. <em>Potrzebuję kogoś do pomocy</em> vs.<em> Potrzebuję kogo do pomocy</em>, i. e. ‘I need someone to help me’). The author of the article claims that pronouns in such pairs do not possess the same meaning, as they differ semantically and, in some cases, also pragmatically. The semantic difference between them comes down to the key contrast between the subject being spoken of and what is said about the subject. In the contexts under consideration, the pronouns ending with -<em>ś</em> are indexes used to denote objects in the world, while those belonging to the other type only pretend to occupy the positions of the predicate arguments, which are neither specified nor implemented. The article also considers the possibility of treating the analyzed types of expressions not as sets of separate lexemes, but rather as products of adequate operations that should be properly described.</p> Magdalena Danielewiczowa Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Mon, 10 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Telewizyjne orędzie do narodu jako narzędzie komunikacji kryzysowej <p><strong>Television Address to the Nation as a Tool of Crisis Communication</strong></p> <p>Since the coronavirus pandemic began, the institutions of the Polish state have been using various communication methods to minimise the potential impact of the crisis. Such methods include press conferences, social campaigns, and messages broadcast on TV and in the Internet. In addition, the most important people in the country (the President of the Republic of Poland, the Speaker of the Sejm and the Speaker of the Senate) have decided to use their right to speak to the nation in the form of TV addresses. The aim of this article is to analyse the rhetorical and argumentative layer of these speeches, and to describe the most important persuasive strategies used by the politicians to mitigate the negative effects of the crisis of the image of the country.</p> Rafał Mazur Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Mon, 10 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Witold Taszycki a polska onomastyka <p><strong>Witold Taszycki and Polish Onomastics</strong></p> <p>The author of the article discusses the merits of Witold Taszycki, professor of the Jan Kazimierz and Jagiellonian universities (1898–1979), from the perspective of a contemporary Polish onomastician of the middle generation. The author mainly focused on Taszycki’s way of organizing the environment and planning team research on Polish names of people and places. It is justified to think that it was Taszycki, not so much with his own works in the field, but especially through selecting and educating the staff, who, to the greatest extent, determined the present form and research directions of this discipline in Poland.</p> Zbigniew Babik Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Mon, 10 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Witold Taszycki und die Sorabistik <p><strong>Witold Taszycki and Sorbian Studies</strong></p> <p>Witold Taszycki was one of the best-known Polish experts in Sorbian studies of his time. He became enthusiastic about Sorbs at a young age. In 1916 he joined the Maćica Serbska. Twice, in 1922 and 1923, he visited Lusatia. His most important linguistic work, explicitly devoted to Sorbian and directly related to his habilitation process, deals with the position of the Sorbian language within the West Slavic linguistic area. After analysing selected historical phonetic features, he divides this main group of Slavic into two original subgroups: Lechitic-Sorbian and Czech-Slovakian. His other major philological-linguistic works on Sorbian language remain unfinished, including the edition of the <em>Wolfenbüttel Lower Sorbian Psalter</em> and the hymnal and the catechism of Albinus Mollerus. Taszycki wrote several reviews of works written by other experts in Sorbian studies. Some of these reviews are quite critical. Taszycki was also interested in Sorbian culture and literature. In particular, he dealt with the reception of Sienkiewicz’s works among the Sorbs and published an annotated edition of letters by Jan Arnošt Smoler and Michał Hórnik to Kraszewski. In addition, as a university lecturer, he gave several lectures on Sorbian and the Sorbs. His knowledge of Sorbian has also been incorporated into his general onomastic works.</p> Fabian Kaulfürst Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Mon, 10 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Witold Taszycki w dyskusji o pochodzeniu polskiego języka literackiego <p><strong>Witold Taszycki in the Discussion on the Origin of the Polish Literary Language</strong></p> <p>The article presents the position of Witold Taszycki in the debate, which was the most intensive in 1940s and 1950s, on the origin of the Polish literary language. Taszycki was a supporter of the extreme thesis according to which the literary Polish originated from Lesser Poland, where it developed in the mid-16th century. In opposition to the Greater Poland theory, the extreme views of Witold Taszycki on the time and place of shaping the Polish literary language resulted not only from the author’s beliefs, but also from a different terminology and research method used by the researcher.</p> Agata Kwaśnicka-Janowicz Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Mon, 10 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Zagadnienia poprawności językowej w pracach Witolda Taszyckiego <p><strong>Language Correctness in the Writings of Witold Taszycki</strong></p> <p>The author of the article presents a brief description of the activities of Witold Taszycki related to language correctness and the culture of Polish language. These activities are included in the scholar’s several fields of work, such as: a) working on establishing and describing the principles of Polish spelling and punctuation, as well as some detailed aspects of these areas; b) participating in the Commission for Creating the Names of Places, and then directing the commission’s works; c) analysis of shaping the Polish literary language and language standard, as well as reconstructing the process of struggling of Polish with the influence of foreign languages in the course of separating the status of Polish as a language that is entirely functional. The results of such activities include spelling dictionaries which contain the descriptions of the principles of punctuation and spelling, statements related to names of places and areas, books on the culture of the Old Polish language, as well as many other texts. They constitute a lasting contribution of Witold Taszycki into shaping the culture of the word and the language identity of Polish people.</p> Mirosława Mycawka Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Mon, 10 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Jaki jest właściwie zakres dialektologii historycznej? (Uwagi z perspektywy dialektologa) <p><strong>What Does Historical Dialectology Actually Include? (Remarks from the Perspective of a Dialectologist)</strong></p> <p>The article refers to the contemporary status of Polish dialects and, at the same time, it is a voice in the debate on the scope of historical dialectology. The reference point for the works of W. Taszycki and other, later historians of language, was (and still is) the heritage of K. Nitsch, while, for dialectologists, his texts only offer a historical and/or normative value (in case of revitalization activities) as an example of language used in villages about a hundred years ago. In the publications related to historical dialectology it is assumed that the status of local dialects described by Nitsch is still valid. Dynamic changes that take place in the Polish village require revising this view and, as a result, correcting the scope of historical dialectology which, from the modern perspective, includes the works that describe dialects from the first half of the 20th century.</p> Maciej Rak Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Mon, 10 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Pejzaż semiotyczny Profesora Bogusława Dunaja Kazimierz Ożóg Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Mon, 10 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Wkład Profesora Bogusława Dunaja do polskiego językoznawstwa Maciej Rak Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Mon, 10 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Back matter Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Mon, 10 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Opisy interiekcji w wybranych XIX-wiecznych słownikach języka polskiego <p><strong>Descriptions of Interjections in Selected Polish Dictionaries from 19th Century</strong></p> <p>The author of the text analyses interjections present in three Polish dictionaries from the 19th century: the dictionaries by S.B. Linde, J.S. Bandtkie and A. Osiński, which are a part of a larger linguistic collection created in order to study and describe historical Polish interjections. The article takes into account the internal diversity of the historical class of interjections in the light of the lexicographers’ attempts to describe such units. Our attention is drawn to the lack of graphical normalization of interjections in the dictionaries, as well as the inconsistency of their marking and definition on the one hand, and the wide range of functional variants on the other. Differences in the manner of presentation of interjections in these dictionaries are also taken into account. Moreover, the author emphasizes the fact that they include a large number of animal-related (hunting) interjections. The study of the dictionary materials confirmed that their authors did not work out a method of a lexicographical description of these linguistic units.</p> Marek Kaszewski Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Mon, 10 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Funkcjonalność pojęć temporalnych w dyskursie prawnym i urzędowym <p><strong>Functionality of Temporal Concepts in Legal and Public Administration Discourse</strong></p> <p>The article is dedicated to the concept of time in the context of its potential to organize legal interactions. The subject of the study includes time markers in Polish legislative, official and court documents. The aim of the article is to describe the temporal terminology used in legal and official communication, and to find pragmatic characteristics that make it possible for the concept of time to organize extralinguistic reality in many different aspects. The author of the article analyses both fixed language constructs and language units with an open and occasional structure.</p> Joanna Kowalczyk Prawa autorskie (c) 2013 Mon, 10 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Językowy i tekstowy obraz Mazura na podstawie twórczości Stefana Rudanskiego <p><strong>Linguistic and Textual Image of Mazur in Poetry by Stepan Rudans’kyy</strong></p> <p>The main issue discussed in this article is the linguistic and textual image of<em> Mazur</em> in the poetry by Stepan Rudans’kyy. Rudans’kyy invented his own poetic form called “spivomovka”, which was inspired by Ukrainian folklore. Those humorous poems mainly focused on describing local types of Podolia ethnic groups, such as Cossacks, Ruthenians, Russians (<em>Moskal</em>), rabbis, Polish colonists (<em>Mazur</em> –<em>[Mazovian]</em>, <em>Lach</em>). The creation of <em>Mazur</em> in poems by Rudans’kyy was largely influenced by the image of <em>Mazur</em> in the Ukrainian and Polish folklore. The linguistic and textual images of the character are created by <em>Mazur</em>’s replies, as well as descriptions of his activity. <em>Mazur</em> is characterized by the following features: sincerity, simplicity, naivety, superficial religiousness and cheerfulness. Through presenting the characteristics of <em>Mazur</em>, the author also draws our attention to the important issue of the lack of code that would be common to the interlocutors, both in terms of linguistics and culture.</p> Daria Ławrynow Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Mon, 10 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200 „Rozkosz dla zmysłów”, czyli język kart dań <p><strong>“Delight for the Senses” or the Language Used in Menus</strong></p> <p>This article is about language used in menus. The recently changing approach to cooking and eating is also reflected in language that describes food. Restaurant menus are a clear example of this. It is because eating, i. e. experiencing the taste of dishes, does not only take using our tongue, but it also involves using language. Some restaurant owners are aware of the relationship between taste and word, which is reflected in the way some dishes are described in menu cards offered to customers. The purpose of the article is to analyse menus of selected restaurants and to show some linguistic tricks used by restaurant owners to encourage customers to eat in their restaurants.</p> Lidia Przymuszała Prawa autorskie (c) 2021 Mon, 10 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200