Poliarchia 2020-03-12T12:05:03+01:00 Open Journal Systems Motywy memoratywne dokumentów Kazimierza Konradowica, księcia kujawsko-łęczyckiego 2020-03-12T12:05:01+01:00 Gertruda Drelicharz <p><strong>Memorative Motives of Documents of Kazimierz Konradowic, Duke of Kujawy and Łęczyca</strong></p> <p>The dissertation focuses on the ideological content presented in documents originated in the chancellery of Kazimierz Konradowic who was the duke of Łęczyca and Kujawy, regions of Poland, in the years 1230–1267. The subject of the analysis are memorative motives, i. e. motives concerning on time, memory, oblivion, doubt as well as fragility of the terrestrial matters and the chance to stop the time lapse by asking the divinity for help and intercession. To this day, 71 documents issued in years 1233–1267 by duke Kazimierz have survived. Most of them abound in erudite philosophical and theological reflections about various aspects. This article represents the main part of them that are above‑explained memorative motives.</p> 2019-12-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2018 Nowy populizm penalny na przykładzie przestępstw przeciwko wiarygodności faktur 2020-03-12T12:05:02+01:00 Mateusz Nowak <p><strong>New Penal Populism on the Example of Crime against the Credibility of Invoices</strong></p> <p>The article provides an overview of the populist narrative in the legislative process. The author argues that new penal populism affects more and more complicated branches of law, including a tax law. The author conducts a case study, analysing the new crime in the Polish penal code – the crime against credibility invoices. Populist aspects both in the legislation and in the political discourse surrounding it were discussed.</p> 2019-12-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2018 Wpływ feministycznej krytyki języka na ustawodawstwo i język polityki w krajach niemieckojęzycznych 2020-03-12T12:05:03+01:00 Zbigniew Bierzyński <p><strong>The Influence of Feminist Criticism of Language Usage over Legislation and Language of Politics in German Language States</strong></p> <p>In this article it is assumed that the feminist criticism of language usage had a significant influence over legislation and language of politics in German‑speaking countries, especially in Germany and Austria. This phenomenon is noticed for example in the General Act on Equal Treatment, the Austrian Federal Equal Treatment Act, the General Act of city Wädenswil in Switzerland, statements of German and Austrian political parties and politicians. This impact is shown in specific examples of law texts and statements of politicians. Furthermore, the aim of this article is to present the key points of feminist criticism of German language usage and the key ideas of language respecting both of genders (<em>die geschlechtergerechte Sprache</em>) or of gender‑neutral language (<em>die geschlechtsneutrale Sprache</em>). It is necessary to add that this article is only a short presentation of phenomenon of the feminism’s affect on German language of politics.</p> 2019-12-31T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2018