Politeja 2021-04-26T14:05:42+02:00 Arkadiusz Open Journal Systems <p><em>Politeja</em> is published by the Faculty of International and Political Studies of the Jagiellonian University, where a circle has formed of academics perfectly qualified for undertaking such reflection. It seems that it is in this particular unit of the Jagiellonian University that such reflection finds a forum perfectly equipped for an in-depth and solid analysis of phenomena of present day relevance, both cultural and political, given that it has combined units existing for a long time with newly established ones, albeit in both cases comprising experienced researchers capable of looking at the same phenomena from various vantage points.</p> Front matter 2021-04-23T09:33:23+02:00 2020-10-01T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Testing the Infrastructure of Wiredu’s Non-Party Democracy 2021-04-23T13:02:32+02:00 Emmanuel Ifeanyi Ani <p>Kwasi Wiredu’s proposal of a non-party system of democracy argues that we should have political associations rather than political parties. It advocates cooperation and consensus between these associations and encourages the removal or reduction of some constraints of the multi-party system, such as periodic elections. A critic has argued that this proposal is a recipe for despotism, whilst a supporter has stated that the critic misreads Wiredu’s statements. I attempt to resolve the disagreement by subjecting Wiredu’s non-party infrastructure to a test, a thought experiment that examines the consequences of having this system run by persons with the worst possible intentions. The outcome is that Wiredu’s non-party polity is too poorly equipped to protect us from the damages accruable from the unrestricted rule of such persons. Parties and elections could only be eliminated if supplanted by a political infrastructure that secures a more productive and moral leadership.</p> 2020-10-01T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Aid, Governance and Public Finance Fraud: Evidence from Angola 2021-04-23T13:02:29+02:00 Weronika J. Krawczyk <p>This article examines the process of public finance fraud leading to unjust enrichment of ruling elites in Angola, a resource-rich, yet ironically povertytrapped country, owing to decades of rule of José Eduardo dos Santos. It analyses the phenomenon of political corruption in the Angolan context, translating into mismanagement of public revenues coming from natural resources as a means of attaining private economic benefits and consolidating power. Moreover, by examining cross-border inter-company networks aimed at concealing public assets behind front companies, the author attempts to establish a connection between corruption and illicit financial flows. Ultimately, since political corruption is intrinsically linked to governance, the article looks at the impact of the latter on social development as well as on the effectiveness of development aid granted to Angola. It was written based on secondary resources including existing literature and material evidence. Its findings and conclusions correspond with the overall theory postulated by the academic community, maintaining that natural resources and aid have negative impact on governance, institutional accountability, and in consequence on human development, especially in countries characterised by despotic rule.</p> 2020-10-01T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Mechanizmy rynkowe i interwencja państwa w polityce regionalnej Chińskiej Republiki Ludowej 2021-04-23T13:02:18+02:00 Marek Świstak <p><strong>Market Mechanisms and State Intervention in Diversifying the Regional Development of the People’s Republic of China</strong></p> <p>The article focuses on the importance of market mechanisms and state intervention in the field of regional development policy, in particular on the dominant process of development differentiation. The aim of the article is to verify to what extent market mechanisms are the driving force in China’s regional development policy, and to what extent state intervention is the driving force. It is also important because of the fact that regional policy is an amalgam of the public intervention and presence of market forces, regardless of the country’s political regime. The article identifies the elements that determine the differentiation of regional development due to the operation of market mechanisms and state intervention in China’s regional policy.</p> 2020-10-01T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Stabilność systemu międzynarodowego – wybrane ujęcia i problemy 2021-04-23T13:02:15+02:00 Iwona Krzyżanowska-Skowronek <p><strong>Stability of the International System – Selected Issues and Approaches</strong></p> <p>Classical theoretical concepts offer many possibilities for study the issue of stability of the international system. Therefore, the article presents a brief analysis of the development of this research, but focuses only on selected theoretical models. Despite the constant creation of new concepts and attempts to formalize research on this question, it was not possible to develop common solutions or conclusions. Numerous cognitive problems either resulted from the preliminary assumptions or were a consequence of using simplified research models. That is why theorists, while analyzing the same problems connected with achieving stability at the level of the international system, so often came to different or even opposite conclusions. The aim of this article is to show the diversity of research on stability of the international system, to present some achievements and to try to diagnose the main problems of the discussed theoretical concepts.</p> 2020-10-01T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Znaczenie Dunaju w europejskiej sieci dróg wodnych 2021-04-23T13:01:52+02:00 Agnieszka Małgorzata Kastory <p><strong>The Role of the Danube River in the Trans-European Waterway Network</strong></p> <p>In the 20th century, the Danube Region was subject to numerous and far-reaching political transformations, which had a negative impact on the expansion of the Danube waterway transport, affected mainly by political, economical and military crises that took place in the 1990s. Nowadays, only 9% of all river cargo is shipped via the Danube River. The European Union makes an effort to increase this number up to 30%, and to ensure the river’s permanent inclusion in the Trans-European Transport Network, with an ongoing process of adjusting the Danube shipping law to the regulations applicable to other European rivers. Nonetheless, the implementation of the EU Strategy for the Danube Region has little effect on the transportation growth in the Danube Basin so far – due to insufficient support from the European Union, the Danubian countries’ unwillingness to carry out expensive investments, and difficulties related to the process of redirecting the existing trade routes.</p> 2021-04-01T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Die Programmentwicklung und die Strategie der FDP in der Ostpolitik in den Jahren 1969-1974 im Lichte der neuen Quellen des Archivs des Deutschen Liberalismus 2021-04-23T13:02:12+02:00 Janusz Józef Węc <p><strong>The Program Evolution and the Strategy of the FDP in Ostpolitik in 1969- 1974 in the Light of New Resources of the Archive of German Liberalism</strong></p> <p>The main objective of the article is to analyze the program activities and the strategy of the Free Democratic Party (FDP) in the Eastern policy (Ostpolitik) of the Federal Republic of Germany in the years 1969-1974. The author has used in this work new resources from the archive of German Liberalism in Gummersbach, which is of great importance. This enabled him to present a new assessment of the influence of the FDP on the Eastern policy of the Federal Republic of Germany during the period presented.</p> 2020-10-01T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Die Entwicklung des Konzepts von Hans-Dietrich Genscher in der bundesdeutschen Entspannungspolitik in den Jahren 1974-1989. Herkunft – Instrumente – Auswirkungen 2021-04-23T13:02:09+02:00 Janusz Józef Węc <p><strong>The Evolution of the Concept of Hans-Dietrich Genscher in the German Détente Policy in the Years 1974-1989. Genesis – Instruments – Impact</strong></p> <p>The main aim of this article is to present the genesis, instruments and real influence of the concept of the “realistic” détente policy of the German Minister of Foreign Affairs Hans-Dietrich Genscher on the foreign policy of the German federal government in the years 1974-1989. The author formulates a thesis that Genscher’s concept had very significant influence on the program activities of the FDP as well as on the practical foreign policy of the SPD/FDP governments (1974-1982) and CDU/CSU/FDP governments (1982-1989), whereby the year 1985 was an important turning point in this evolution.</p> 2020-10-01T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Unia Europejska a zapomniany konflikt o Naddniestrze 2021-04-23T13:02:07+02:00 Bogdan Koszel <p><strong>The European Union and the Forgotten Conflict over Transnistria</strong></p> <p>The European Community/European Union was not formally involved in the resolution of the Transnistria conflict. It was believed that success would be possible with the help of an OSCE mission with active Russian participation. The EU considers the rebellious Transnistria as an integral part of Moldova. It sought to support its pro-Western course through the PCA and the Association Agreement. Moldova’s lack of prospects for EU membership and strong Russian influence in the country perpetuate existing divisions. In Europe, hardly anyone remembers the frozen conflict over Transnistria. After a brief period of armed struggle in the early 1990s, it did not accumulate any more international tension and attracted no more attention from the international public opinion.</p> 2020-10-01T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Possibilities of Applying the Chinese Social Credit System to Combat Terrorism 2021-04-23T13:01:49+02:00 Dominika Dziwisz <p>2011 saw the start of the pilot phase of the Social Credit System. The societies of democratic states interpreted it as an extreme example of human rights violation. In turn, what is usually forgotten is that the SCS is not the first citizen assessment system, because similar systems have been successfully functioning since 1960s in democratic countries. Scientific analyses of SCS operations are usually limited to its negative consequences. There are fewer attempts by governments of democratic states to assess the use of elements of SCS and algorithmic data analysis, for example in order to increase the level of security of citizens. As a result, this article presents the research hypothesis that elements of the SCS may be successfully applied also in democratic states for the purpose of more effective combating of terrorism. With modern methods of analyzing Big Data sets, it is possible, for example, to accelerate recognition of terrorist networks, support identification of sources of radicalization in online communities and increase the effectiveness of anti-terrorist strategies in order to protect citizens against contemporary terrorist threats. For such a system to be as effective as possible, it should take over some assumptions of the SCS which are explained in this article: Firstly, it should be centralized and controlled by the state. Secondly, the information obtained and processed should be used solely for the purposes of the state security policy, i.e. in the scope smaller than in the case of China. Thirdly, the data should be obtained from multiple sources, public and private ones, in order to increase the accuracy of predictions. Fourthly, the violation of the principles of social coexistence might result in specific penalties, and compliance therewith – in rewards.</p> 2021-04-01T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Politoligwistyka dyplomatyczna 2021-04-23T13:02:05+02:00 Błażej Popławski <p><strong>Diplomatic Politolinguistics. The Analysis of the Perception of Sub-Saharan Africa in the Exposé of the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the Second and Third Polish Republics</strong></p> <p>The aim of the article is to present the image of sub-Saharan Africa in the exposé of the ministers of foreign affairs of the Second andThird Republics of Poland, in the context of changes in the ideological imaginary of the Polish diplomacy. The introduction describes a political linguistic perspective which was adopted in the work, treating the discourse of political actors as one of the main determinants of the political universe. Then the “parliamentary custom” of delivering an exposé was characterised. The next part discusses the perception of the colonial and imperial idea in the Second Polish Republic. Research on the information provided by the chiefs of the diplomacy after 1989 was focused on the description of the transfer of democracy to the South, the clash of civilizations, and securitization in the international relations.</p> 2020-10-01T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Fenomen studiów nad Chinami w Instytucie Bliskiego i Dalekiego Wschodu Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego 2021-04-23T13:02:03+02:00 Łukasz Gacek Ewa Trojnar <p><strong>The Phenomenon of China Studies at the Institute of the Middle and Far East of the Jagiellonian University</strong></p> <p>Modern China became the phenomenon eagerly investigated by wide circles of observers. This trend is associated with a growing number of academic fields with the Asiatic profile on the level of university education. Such characteristics is completely reflected in studies conducted at the Institute of the Middle and Far East of the Jagiellonian University. The purpose of this research is to comprehend a phenomenon of the current interest in Asia developed in Poland, with an example of China, among students of fields at the Institute with the Chinese profile. In recent years, the Institute of the Middle and Far East of the Jagiellonian University became the largest academic institution in Poland conducting this type of studies in nonphilological fields. Research proved that studies on China match the need of educating persons who both know Chinese and have specific knowledge about this country. Uniqueness of the field of study and created professional chances appeared to be equally important.</p> 2020-10-01T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Ekonomia polityczna i problemy badań relacji między ekonomią a polityką 2021-04-26T14:05:42+02:00 Piotr Dardziński <p><strong>Political Economy and Problems of Research on Relations between Economics and Politics</strong></p> <p>The article presents a concise analysis of the development of the concept of political economy from the moment it appeared in the 17th century to the present day. The purpose of this analysis is to indicate the need to return to broader research on the relationship between politics and economics. Thanks to such research, it would be possible to understand better the nature of political and economic crises, such as, i.e. the financial crisis in 2008. According to the author, research on the political economy should be related to the concept of the common good. This approach enables a holistic understanding of reality.</p> 2020-10-01T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Maceina: powrót do Ojczyzny 2021-04-23T13:01:58+02:00 Arvydas Šliogeris 2020-10-01T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Marcin Florian Gawrycki, Celebryci i polityka 2021-04-23T13:01:55+02:00 Tomasz Olczyk 2020-10-01T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Back matter 2021-04-23T12:05:08+02:00 2020-10-01T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020