Politeja 2023-11-16T13:55:49+01:00 Department of Scientific Journals, Ksiegarnia Akademicka Publishing Open Journal Systems <p><em>Politeja</em> is published by the Faculty of International and Political Studies of the Jagiellonian University, where a circle has formed of academics perfectly qualified for undertaking such reflection. It seems that it is in this particular unit of the Jagiellonian University that such reflection finds a forum perfectly equipped for an in-depth and solid analysis of phenomena of present-day relevance, both cultural and political, given that it has combined units existing for a long time with newly established ones, albeit in both cases comprising experienced researchers capable of looking at the same phenomena from various vantage points.</p> Front Matter 2023-11-10T12:08:06+01:00 2023-11-16T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Back Matter 2023-11-10T14:46:14+01:00 2023-11-16T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Profesor Jan Rowiński. Wspomnienie 2023-11-10T14:39:20+01:00 Dominik Mierzejewski 2023-11-16T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Tajwan w piśmiennictwie Romana M. Sławińskiego 2023-11-10T14:44:07+01:00 Łukasz Gacek Ewa Trojnar 2023-11-16T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Symboliczne wymiary tajwańskiego nacjonalizmu 2023-11-16T13:55:49+01:00 Bogdan Zemanek <p><strong>THE SYMBOLIC DIMENSION OF TAIWANESE NATIONALISM</strong><br /><br />A great majority of Taiwanese people declare themselves to be Taiwanese only (61% in 2022) or Taiwanese and also Chinese (additional 31%), which gives an impression of ethnic and national unity. However, the divisive factors of (sub) ethnic grouping, language diversity and historical consciousness are still present. Taiwanese nationalism, which in its civilian form is organized around present state of Republic of China (ROC) as opposed to the People’s Republic of China (PRC). However, ROC, although <em>de facto</em> an independent state is not <em>de iure</em> a Taiwanese state, as can be seen in its national symbolism. The paper analyses this enthosymbolical dimension of Taiwanese national identity, discussing four main symbolical spheres: the memory of the 2-28 Incident; memory and idealization of the Japanese colonial period; strong presence of local languages, used alongside the official northern mandarin standard; and finally, the presence of the Aborigine people and their cultures. All these spheres are important in Taiwan symbolical space, and their importance is further strengthened by the actions of the state (public commemorations, protecting the cultural relicts of Japanese period, removing the ones connected with authoritarian regime of Chiang Kai shek etc.). However, the author remains doubtful if they have enough emotional and symbolical power to unite Taiwanese in the face of the Chinese threat. Closely related question is the future effect of the recommendations of the report of the Commision of Transitional Justice about the monuments of the KMT period, whose fate is a strongly contested issue, and which needs further research.</p> 2023-11-16T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Teatr tańca Brama Chmur w poszukiwaniu chińskiej i tajwańskiej tożsamości kulturowej 2023-11-16T13:55:46+01:00 Izabela Łabędzka <p><strong>CLOUD GATE DANCE THEATRE IN SEARCH OF CHINESE AND TAIWANESE CULTURAL IDENTITY</strong><br /><br />This paper shows the dynamics of topical, aesthetical and political changes in the world-known contemporary dance group – Cloud Gate Dance Theatre of Taiwan (Yunmen Wuji), created by Lin Hwai-min in 1973. Those metamorphoses are observed in a broad socio political and cultural context, in the rapidly changing reality of Taiwan, Mainland China and the whole world at the turn of the 20th and 21st century. Short analyses of the most iconic dance compositions by Lin Hwai-min make it possible to trace the direction of the changes, starting from search for Chinese cultural identity, through the quest for definition of Taiwanese cultural and national identity, gaining the feeling of being rooted in traditional Chinese aesthetics and finally confirming the importance of local Taiwanese tradition as an equally meaningful source of creative inspiration.</p> 2023-11-16T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Znaczenie „dyplomacji demokracji” dla współczesnego Tajwanu 2023-11-16T13:55:40+01:00 Ewa Trojnar <p><strong>THE IMPORTANCE OF “DEMOCRATIC DIPLOMACY” FOR CONTEMPORARY TAIWAN<br /><br /></strong>Contemporary Taiwan is one of the leading democratic countries in Asia. The authorities in Taipei, under the leadership of President Tsai Ing-wen and the ruling Democratic Progressive Party have actively conveyed this message to the international community through their foreign policy since 2016. The objective of this paper is to examine the concept of “democracy diplomacy” in Taiwan, analyzing both scholarly discourse and observing Taiwan’s foreign policy. This strategic approach greatly bolsters Taiwan’s position among other nations that uphold democratic values, especially in the face of rivalries between major powers.</p> 2023-11-16T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Dyplomacja klimatyczna Tajwanu – w drodze do neutralności klimatycznej 2023-11-16T13:55:38+01:00 Łukasz Gacek <p><strong>TAIWAN’S CLIMATE DIPLOMACY: ON THE WAY TO CLIMATE NEUTRALITY<br /></strong><br />The aim of this paper is to present the Taiwan’s policies and actions relating to climate change. Despite the exclusion from the <em>United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change</em> (UNFCCC), Taiwan has voluntarily ratified global climate conventions and has implemented a number of legislative, technical and organizational measures to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gasses and reach net zero carbon emissions by 2050. Tackling both climate change and minimizing its effects is a priority for Taiwan. In order to achieve the sustainable development goals Taiwan treats renewable energy as a critical solution in combating climate change and ensuring energy security by adding diversity to an overall electricity mix.</p> 2023-11-16T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Imigranci z Azji Południowo-Wschodniej w polityce zagranicznej Tajwanu 2023-11-16T13:55:35+01:00 Tobiasz Targosz <p><strong>SOUTHEAST ASIAN IMMIGRANTS IN TAIWANESE FOREIGN POLICY<br /><br /></strong>This article, through the analysis of the situation of permanent and labor immigrants in Taiwan, will try to show the different facets of Taiwanese foreign policy aimed at the Southeast Asian region. Announced by President Tsai Ingwen, the so-called New Southward Policy focuses on talent cultivation and industrial, commercial, cultural, educational and tourism exchanges. Its direct consequence is the exponentially increasing number of ASEAN nationals on the island, who come to Taiwan lured by the high standard of living and opportunities for high wages. From the perspective of the Taiwanese government, a special role is played by the second generation of immigrants from Southeast Asia, who are presented in popular discourse as the future of an island plagued by typical problems of developed countries such as low birth rates and gentrification.</p> 2023-12-20T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Rekonstrukcja strategii Stanów Zjednoczonych wobec Tajwanu podczas prezydentury Josepha Bidena 2023-11-16T13:55:33+01:00 Filip Grzegorzewski <p><strong>RECONSTRUCTING THE US STRATEGY TOWARDS TAIWAN DURING THE PRESIDENCY OF JOSEPH BIDEN</strong></p> <p>Adopting the model of neoclassical realism and elements of the American-centric nationalist paradigm, the paper examines both systemic factors stemming from the Sino-American power rivalry and internal ones referring to the populist traditions of American foreign policy. The main goal of America regarding Taiwan was to use its relationship with the island in its policy of containment of China by emphasizing Taiwan’s right to decide its future and preventing China from taking over the island by force. Along with deepening bilateral cooperation, the administration used multilateral mechanisms to promote the concept of peace and security across the Taiwan Strait as an essential element of the global order, which increased the number of countries interested in maintaining the status quo. Russia’s aggression against Ukraine heightened concerns about the possibility of PRC’s attack on Taiwan, prompting the Biden administration to intensify pressure on Taipei to accelerate military reform. However, the accentuation of closer relations between Washington and Taipei was interpreted by China as a provocative crossing of more “red lines,” leading to an intensification of repressive measures against Taiwan and the consolidation of bellicose rhetoric directed against both Washington and Taipei.</p> 2023-11-16T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Nowe konteksty w polityce Polski, Czech i Litwy wobec Tajwanu w następstwie agresji Rosji na Ukrainę 2023-11-16T13:55:29+01:00 Marcin Przychodniak <p><strong>NEW CONTEXTS IN THE POLICY OF POLAND, THE CZECH REPUBLIC AND LITHUANIA TOWARDS TAIWAN FOLLOWING RUSSIA’S AGGRESSION AGAINST UKRAINE</strong></p> <p>The article presents the actions of Poland, Lithuania and the Czech Republic towards Taiwan in the context of Russian aggression against Ukraine over the course of last year. Although each of these countries supports the subjectivity of Taiwan in the face of the political escalation of China’s activities, their reaction is varied, especially with regard to further relations with the People’s Republic of China. At the same time, each of the countries recognizes the importance of developing relations with Taiwan in the face of US policy, as well as the continued involvement in supporting Ukraine or strengthening NATO’s eastern flank. Therefore, no significant changes should be expected in these countries’ approach to Taiwan, although Lithuania and the Czech Republic will be among the strongest promoters of, for example, a greater involvement of the EU in relations with Taiwan.</p> 2023-11-16T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Od Havla do Pavla: ciągłość i zmiana w relacjach czesko‑tajwańskich w kontekście bezpieczeństwa ontologicznego 2023-11-16T13:55:26+01:00 Bartosz Kowalski <p><strong>FROM HAVEL TO PAVEL: CONTINUITY AND CHANGE IN CZECH-TAIWANESE RELATIONS IN THE CONTEXT OF ONTOLOGICAL SECURITY</strong></p> <p>For two decades after the fall of Communism, the Czech Republic’s values-based policy toward Taiwan was decisively shaped by President Václav Havel’s political philosophy. In contrast, after 2012, Taiwan began to be gradually marginalised in Czech foreign policy as proponents of closer cooperation with China came to power. However, the end of the next decade brought another turn in CzechTaiwan relations. This article analyses continuity and change in Czech foreign policy through the lens of ontological security theory, pointing out that Taiwan (as well as China) has become an important element of Czech (inter)national identity after 1989.</p> 2023-11-16T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Somaliland i Tajwan – współpraca państw nieuznawanych w cieniu rozgrywki geopolitycznej mocarstw w Rogu Afryki 2023-11-16T13:55:22+01:00 Robert Kłosowicz <p><strong>SOMALILAND AND TAIWAN – THE COOPERATION OF UNRECOGNIZED STATES IN THE SHADOW OF THE GEOPOLITICAL GAME OF SUPERPOWERS IN THE HORN OF AFRICA</strong></p> <p>Separated by thousands of kilometers and very different cultures, histories, and economies, Taiwan and Somaliland appear to have little in common. Like Taiwan, Somaliland was created in the aftermath of a civil war. The consequences of those conflicts continue to shape the political status of both countries. Since the declaration of independence from Somalia in 1991, Hargeisa, like Taipei, has been trying to secure its existence, because both states cannot count on international recognition, and their independence is contested by the states from which they seceded. Despite being forced to exist on the periphery of the international community, both de facto states still try to be active participants in global affairs. Relations between unrecognized states are also an element of the game between the main players in this region, the US and China. Washington, concerned about Beijing’s political and economic expansion in the Horn of Africa, is trying to limit it, and one of the elements of this policy is indirect support for the strategically located Somaliland through its ally from Taipei.</p> 2023-11-16T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Czynnik tajwańsko-chiński w strategii i polityce Francji wobec Indo-Pacyfiku 2023-11-16T13:55:19+01:00 Tomasz Młynarski <p><strong>THE TAIWANESE-CHINESE FACTOR IN FRANCE’S STRATEGY AND POLICY TOWARDS THE INDO-PACIFIC</strong></p> <p>The aim of this article is to provide a synthetic overview of France’s involvement into the Indo-Pacific region, in the context of the protection of important national interests related to the possession of overseas territories. This article analyses impact of the French-Chinese bilateral cooperation on relations with Taiwan. The author points out that France has recognized the government of the PRC as the only representative of China since 1964 and does not maintain diplomatic relations with Taiwan, emphasizing that this is a permanent position, initiated by General de Gaulle, and cooperation between Paris and Taipei is developed in accordance with the “one China policy.” The second aspect of the analysis of France’s policy and strategy towards the Indo-Pacific region was embedded in the broader framework of political, economic relations and military alliances with Asian countries as an element of promoting a multipolar order and stopping Chinese expansionism in the Indo-Pacific area and strengthening its own geopolitical position against the background of China’s rivalry with United States.</p> 2023-11-16T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Różne oblicza dyplomacji demokracji Tajwanu 2023-11-10T14:26:50+01:00 Agata Wiktoria Ziętek 2023-11-16T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Wyjątkowość Tajwanu 2023-11-10T14:37:43+01:00 Robert Rajczyk 2023-11-16T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023