Politeja https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja <p><em>Politeja</em> is published by the Faculty of International and Political Studies of the Jagiellonian University, where a circle has formed of academics perfectly qualified for undertaking such reflection. It seems that it is in this particular unit of the Jagiellonian University that such reflection finds a forum perfectly equipped for an in-depth and solid analysis of phenomena of present day relevance, both cultural and political, given that it has combined units existing for a long time with newly established ones, albeit in both cases comprising experienced researchers capable of looking at the same phenomena from various vantage points.</p> Księgarnia Akademicka Sp. z o.o. en-US Politeja 1733-6716 Front Matter https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/4552 Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-07-14 2022-07-14 19 2(77) Decentralizacja – podstawowe zagadnienia teoretyczne https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/4555 <p><strong>DECENTRALIZATION: BASIC THEORETICAL ISSUES</strong></p> <p>The article examines decentralization as a feature of organizational structures. In order to show the complexity of decentralization, the analysis comprises four perspectives. In the subject perspective, the structural characteristic of decentralization is indicated and its specificity in public organizations is pointed out. The object perspective distinguishes components of the concept of decentralization and forms (types) of decentralization of the state and implementation of public tasks. In the teleological perspective, the objectives of decentralization, its advantages and disadvantages as well as limitations are indicated. The last perspective – processual – allows to demonstrate two additional features of decentralization, i.e., its gradualness and dynamics.</p> Dominik Siekulicki Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-07-14 2022-07-14 19 2(77) 19 33 10.12797/Politeja.19.2022.77.01 Interes i zainteresowanie jako kategorie analizy politologicznej https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/4556 <p><strong>INTEREST AND ATTENTION AS CATEGORIES OF POLITICAL SCIENCE ANALYSIS</strong></p> <p>The concept of interest is used in describing and explaining political activities in various aspects: in terms of motive, intention, calculation. An individual participating in political activity represents a tangle of interests requiring coordination and selection: self-interest (personal and separate), self-interest as its share in the interest of the community, common interest with partners, allies, superior interest of society, group, party, church requiring sacrifices at one’s own expense. Thus, following an interest is a choice in a situation of tension, conflict of interests, not only external, but also internal. Interest materializes in the decisions and actions of the subject on the basis of the fact that at a given moment and in a given case, he is interested in something. The willingness of individuals to participate in the community, to identify with it, to be active and to make sacrifices for the common good, and to perform common tasks, depends on whether it has a sense of influence, a satisfying share of the benefits. An individual takes action if there is a correspondence between what is expected of him and what he himself is interested in.</p> Mirosław Karwat Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-07-14 2022-07-14 19 2(77) 35 72 10.12797/Politeja.19.2022.77.02 Kategorie analityczne konfliktu politycznego w interdyscyplinarnej perspektywie https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/4557 <p><strong>ANALYTICAL CATEGORIES OF POLITICAL CONFLICT IN AN INTERDISCIPLINARY PERSPECTIVE</strong></p> <p>The article takes up selected issues present in research on social conflicts: 1. The impact of theoretical and methodological pluralism of social sciences on the evolution and current state of the theory of social conflict; 2. The importance of the interdisciplinary approach in explaining research problems and constructing the theory of conflict; 3. Sociological, psychological and political aspects of conflict research, including social inequalities, the influence of cognitive and emotional processes on the perception of reality and conflict activities, the origin and regulation of political conflicts related to the processes of exercising power and the diversification of the political structure of society; 4. The complexity of the basic categories of the political conflict analysis scheme: causes, phases, strategies, and methods of operation of entities, types, and effects.</p> Leszek Sobkowiak Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-07-14 2022-07-14 19 2(77) 73 85 10.12797/Politeja.19.2022.77.03 Dehumanizacja i depolityzacja https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/4558 <p><strong>DEHUMANIZATION AND DEPOLITICIZATION</strong></p> <p>The paper takes up the issue of “depoliticization” through dehumanization. The starting point is the belief that phenomena of “politicization” and “political” are relatively well recognized in scientific literature, however the problem of depoliticization have not yet been adequately explored. The concept of depoliticization refers to the conditions, criteria, and mechanisms that are key to reducing or depriving a given phenomenon of its political status. Depoliticization does not mean (or at least does not have to mean) an effective removal of the phenomenon from the political sphere, but rather circumstances or actions whose political impact is not obvious. The article focuses on the issue of depoliticization through dehumanization, and more specifically, on how denial of full humanness of groups allows to reduce their status as a political subject, and thus to recognize their claims or interests as not proper or not adequate to political debate. The issues of relations between the processes of humanization and political subjectification as well as dehumanization and political objectification are also discussed.</p> Paweł Ścigaj Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-07-14 2022-07-14 19 2(77) 87 118 10.12797/Politeja.19.2022.77.04 Teoretyczne przesłanki wykorzystania ustrukturyzowanych technik analizy informacji w procesie analizy politycznej https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/4559 <p><strong>STRUCTURED ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES AS TOOLS FOR THE OPERATIONALIZATION OF POLITICAL SCIENCE KNOWLEDGE: THE ROLE OF SELECTED INFORMATION ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES IN THE PROCESS OF POLITICAL ANALYSIS</strong></p> <p>The aim of the article is to outline the theoretical framework for potentially beneficial cooperation between the academic and analyst communities. This goal may be achieved via operationalization of theoretical issues using structured analytical techniques. The article is divided into three parts. The first outlines the theoretical framework for political analysis understood as an effort aimed at analyzing the contemporary problems of the empirical world, including those taking into account forecasting. The second part characterizes what sets apart research activity from analytical activity, emphasizing the mutual interrelations between both. The third part presents the operationalized analytical model for political analysis.</p> Błażej Sajduk Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-07-14 2022-07-14 19 2(77) 119 142 10.12797/Politeja.19.2022.77.05 Modulacja i modulatory relacji politycznych – ujęcie teoriopolityczne https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/4560 <p><strong>MODULATION AND MODULATORS OF POLITICAL RELATIONS: POLITICAL THEORY APPROACH</strong></p> <p>The article aims to explain the phenomenon of modulation of political relations and to present the proposition of theoretical systematization of modulators of political relations. It is based on meta-theoretical analysis of the nature of modulation and modulators. The categories of modulation and modulators seem to have a significant explanatory utility on the ground of political theory as they refer to the problem of regulation, correction, adjustment, and homeostasis of political relations. The paper is an invitation to further studies in the field of political theory on the title issue, indicating possible directions of prospective inquiries.</p> Piotr Obacz Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-07-14 2022-07-14 19 2(77) 143 162 10.12797/Politeja.19.2022.77.06 Personalizm jako perspektywa teoretyczna nauk o polityce https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/4561 <p><strong>PERSONALISM AS AN APPROACH IN POLITICAL SCIENCES</strong></p> <p>Social sciences such as political sciences, psychology, and sociology formulate two types of theories: more general approaches and specific theories build within this domain. The article presents dominant approaches in psychology, sociology, and political sciences. In psychology, the approaches include psychoanalysis, behaviorism, and humanistic psychology. In political sciences, there are seven main approaches: behavioralism, rational choice, institutionalism, feminism, interpretative theory, Marxism, and normative theory. Every approach encompasses many specific theories regarding individual problems. The article defends the idea that we need to accept personalism as an approach in political sciences. There are many studies and theories developed in personalistic approach that legitimate this stance. Next, the article analyzes the dispute over anthropology. The last part contains implications of dignity anthropology to formulate detailed political theories.</p> Janusz Węgrzecki Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-07-14 2022-07-14 19 2(77) 163 177 10.12797/Politeja.19.2022.77.07 The chicken game jako model eksplanacyjno-prognostyczny w polityce https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/4562 <p><strong>“CHICKEN GAME” AS AN EXPLANATORY AND PROGNOSTIC MODEL IN POLITICS</strong></p> <p>The main aim of the article is to present one of the game theory models: chicken game. This model is highly valuable in the processes of analysis and forecasting of the behavior of political decision-makers. Chicken game combines the basic assumptions for game theory based on a rational model and elements of optimizing the results of political games through psychological influence, resisting blackmail, and intimidation of other players. The widespread use of such tactics and strategies justifies a closer and in-depth analysis of this model.</p> Jacek Ziółkowski Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-07-14 2022-07-14 19 2(77) 179 203 10.12797/Politeja.19.2022.77.08 Teoria demokracji a polaryzacja. Czy spolaryzowane społeczeństwo może być demokratyczne? https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/4563 <p><strong>THEORY OF DEMOCRACY AND POLITICAL POLARIZATION: CAN A POLARIZED SOCIETY REMAINS DEMOCRATIC?</strong></p> <p>Polarization is a totalizing political tool. While the us versus them division has long fueled political competition, polarization is taking systemic struggle to the next level. Polarization divides the political landscape into two camps, where a compromise can only be found within a given group. The political scene in 21st century Europe is polarized. However, how does this situation affect European values and democratic principles of the rule of law, which protect the stability of democratic systems? Is a polarized state a place where citizens can fully enjoy the benefits of democracy? Can a polarized society reconcile political conflict with democratic values? The article analyzes the phenomenon of political polarization in theoretical terms related to the democratic principles, both classical and those of the contemporary liberal democracies. At the same time, using the example of Poland and other countries, the effects of polarizing actions and their impact on the internal political scene and the social situation are shown.</p> Sonia Horonziak Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-07-14 2022-07-14 19 2(77) 205 229 10.12797/Politeja.19.2022.77.09 Pomiędzy syndromem ekonomicznego progresywizmu a dekompozycją procesów politycznych https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/4565 <p><strong>BETWEEN THE SYNDROME OF ECONOMIC PROGRESSIVISM AND DECOMPOSITION POLITICAL PROCESSES</strong></p> <p>The article discusses the issue of the modernizing practices’ crisis, which arises at the very foundations of the political order. Changes in world development expose nuances and ambivalences of contemporary politics. Technical development of information transmission, transport, telecommunication and computerization as well as the globalization of financial flow, and an increasing number of foreign investors all create new conditions for changes on the levels of economy and politic system. The coronavirus pandemic compels us to reassess the main risks faced by the world and individual countries. The pandemic has set new requirements for sectors that have a direct impact on living conditions: education, healthcare, labor, recreation, the motivation system, etc.</p> Janusz Golinowski Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-07-14 2022-07-14 19 2(77) 231 252 10.12797/Politeja.19.2022.77.10 Polscy parlamentarzyści wobec pandemii COVID-19 https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/4566 <p><strong>POLISH MPS’ RESPONSE TO THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC: AN EXAMPLE OF SCIENTIFICATION OF POLITICAL DEBATE?</strong></p> <p>As compared to other complex social processes, scientification of public discourse is a phenomenon which is not well described in social sciences. Frequently, the idea of scientification is understood as methodological changes within social sciences which bring them closer to natural sciences and, in this sense, is related to traditional Positivist approach. In the article, the meaning of the term has been changed in order to describe a situation in which public political discourse is being transformed in such a way that, in effect, it resembles scientific discourse. This change in understanding the meaning of the idea of scientification has been presented on the example of an analysis of Polish MPs’ statements at the beginning of the Covid-19 pandemic in Poland in 2020.</p> Marta Hoffmann Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-07-14 2022-07-14 19 2(77) 253 272 10.12797/Politeja.19.2022.77.11 Koncepcja praktyk repartycji https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/4567 <p><strong>THE IDEA BEHIND THE PRACTICE OF REPARTITION: THE REASONS FOR ITS SYSTEMATIC APPLICATION IN POLISH POLITICS</strong></p> <p>The article discusses the practice of repartition, political tools and measures used by politicians as means to achieve their political objectives. Repartitions meet social expectations, can mobilize voters, and demonstrate the involvement of politicians with social problems. They also aim to question the validity of the legal system, and to refuse to accept its inequalities. They postulate the rejection of dominating hierarchies, the instances of discrimination, injustice and wrongdoings. Essentially antithetical, they show two parties between which the unjust privileges manifest, and postulate their abolition. Repartitions often politicize cleavages by focusing on inequality. It is through such relations that repartitions become attractive and useful, as they refer to the experiences that individual people can relate to. Therefore, repartitions also constitute a diagnostic tool that can help assess the depth of inequalities, social expectations, and the public mood. The aim of this article is to discuss the essence of the practice of repartition, a new analytical category used to create and explain politics, seen here as closely related to the phenomenon of societal cleavages.</p> Piotr Borowiec Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-07-14 2022-07-14 19 2(77) 273 293 10.12797/Politeja.19.2022.77.12 Teoria krytyczna jako narzędzie kreowania działania politycznego na przykładzie partii Podemos https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/4568 <p><strong>CRITICAL THEORY AS A TOOL FOR CREATING POLITICAL ACTION ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE PODEMOS PARTY</strong></p> <p>The main objective of the article is to analyze the theoretical basis of the creation of political activity based on the case of the Spanish party Podemos, which can be treated as a theoretical construct transferred to political reality by means of tools derived from the research experience of its creators, especially Pablo Iglesias Turrión and Íñigo Errejón Galván. By interpreting reality on the basis of theories derived from the post-Marxist paradigm, an entity has been created with nationwide influence that affected the nature and direction of political activity taken by both politicians and citizens. The study aims to demonstrate the validity, feasibility, and conditions of applying solutions based on theoretical aspects.</p> Weronika Górnicka Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-07-14 2022-07-14 19 2(77) 295 310 10.12797/Politeja.19.2022.77.13 Nowa lewica w Rosji https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/4569 <p><strong>THE NEW LEFT IN RUSSIA: BORIS KAGARLITSKY: PRACTICE AND THEORY</strong></p> <p>This article examines the essential ideas of the theory and practice of New Left politics in the work of the well-known scientist and politician Boris Kagarlitsky. Since he is actively involved in the political life of the New Russian Left, the exposition of theoretical issues is impossible without placing them in the context of the socio-political situation of contemporary Russia. The collapse of the USSR and the socialist bloc revived the ideas of the ‘free market’ and liberalism. Today the liberal capitalist system is in crisis; this does not lead to a renaissance of leftwing forces, though. The forces of the Left at the beginning of the 21st century proved to be completely incapable of offering a coherent political program. Even the obvious resistance of the Left to Neo-Liberalism and its reforms in the social sphere, medicine and education has not become a consolidating factor in the new politics. The article attempts to examine how the New Left in Russia answers the question of what it means to build a society that is qualitatively different from capitalism: what nineteenth-century ideologists called socialism.</p> Dymitr Romanowski Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-07-14 2022-07-14 19 2(77) 311 328 10.12797/Politeja.19.2022.77.14 The Orchard of Neoclassical Realism – Weathered Tree, Graft or Seedling? https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/4570 <p>The aim of this article is to assess the progressiveness of neoclassical realism (NCR) in the context of neorealism’s development. By appealing to the idea of Lakatos research programs, it shows possible ways of NCR’s development and projects its possible futures. The article proceeds in three parts. The first one juxtaposes literature concerning Lakatos’s notion of scientific progress in IR with the philosopher himself and consequently shows how trying to operationalize his methodology in social science is not the way to go. The paper refers to both Elmans’ (2002, 2003) and Schweller’s (2003) proposals, pointing out that the first attempt at a detailed operationalization of Lakatos’s idea is not possible in social sciences, and that the second, relying on a commonsense approach, also proved insufficient to apply Lakatos’s criteria in practice. The second part of the article identifies the theoretical contents of NCR: hard core as well as its positive and negative heuristic, whereas the third one presents how Lakatos’s philosophy inspired the authors to develop three metaphors – weathered tree, graft, and seedling – that help to convey something about the present version of NCR and its possible futures. Conclusions draw the readers’ attention to the question whether and which of the presented metaphors shows the progressive promise of NCR’s progress as understood in Lakatos’ terms.</p> Magdalena Kozub-Karkut Mateusz Filary-Szczepanik Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-07-14 2022-07-14 19 2(77) 329 355 10.12797/Politeja.19.2022.77.15 Back Matter https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/4571 Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-07-14 2022-07-14 19 2(77) Mistrz-erudyta: Michał Jaskólski (1946-2022) https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/4553 Bogdan Szlachta Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-07-14 2022-07-14 19 2(77) 7 15 Wstęp https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/4554 Copyright (c) 2022 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-07-14 2022-07-14 19 2(77) 17 18