Politeja https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja <p><em>Politeja</em> is published by the Faculty of International and Political Studies of the Jagiellonian University, where a circle has formed of academics perfectly qualified for undertaking such reflection. It seems that it is in this particular unit of the Jagiellonian University that such reflection finds a forum perfectly equipped for an in-depth and solid analysis of phenomena of present-day relevance, both cultural and political, given that it has combined units existing for a long time with newly established ones, albeit in both cases comprising experienced researchers capable of looking at the same phenomena from various vantage points.</p> en-US journals@akademicka.pl (Department of Scientific Journals, Ksiegarnia Akademicka Publishing) journals@akademicka.pl (Author’s Support) Thu, 28 Sep 2023 13:24:25 +0200 OJS http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Front Matter https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/5344 Copyright (c) 2023 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/5344 Thu, 28 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Back Matter https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/5362 Copyright (c) 2023 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/5362 Thu, 28 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Postmonuments? https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/5345 <p>In Sweden, a wave of new monuments can currently be observed, both in terms of what is being monumentalized, and in how it is being executed. This article seeks to understand what is at stake in these processes, which bear similarities to various international examples, by employing the concept of <em>postmonuments</em>. Inspired by Marianne Hirsch’s notion of postmemory, the concept focuses on the temporal and commissioning aspects of the “post,” rather than on the transmission of memory. The three projects discussed were all initiated between 2018 and 2019 and, at the time of writing remain incomplete. The first of these is a discountinued monument commemorating Swedish colonialism, the second is an LGBTQI+ monument soon to be realized, and the third a prospective Antiracist monument.</p> Rebecka Katz Thor Copyright (c) 2023 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/5345 Thu, 28 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Decolonizing Memory and Spaces: Contemporary Narratives about Portugal’s Colonizing Past https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/5346 <p>The article aims to show contemporary artistic interpretations of colonialism in Portugal as expressed by Afro-descendants from former Portuguese colonies. The primary focus of this study is the ongoing debate surrounding two monuments in Lisbon. The first monument, the Padrão dos Descobrimentos, was originally created in 1940 and subsequently rebuilt in 1960 and is still one of the city’s most recognizable landmarks. The second monument, the Memorial to Enslaved People, is currently under development and seeks to give voice to African communities in Portugal. The analysis is grounded in a theoretical framework that incorporates concepts such as postmemory, multidirectional memory, and dissonant heritage. The broader context for this study is the UNESCO Decade of People of African Descent (2015-2024).</p> Karolina Golemo Copyright (c) 2023 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/5346 Thu, 28 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Pomnik, który nie powstał, i ofiary, których nie było? https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/5347 <p><strong>A NON-EXISTENT MONUMENT AND NON-EXISTENT VICTIMS? ON POLISH RIVAL POSTMEMORY</strong></p> <p>The article presents a case study of a yet-to-be-realized queer monument in Warsaw, a project that originated in 2007. The monument was intended to commemorate the alleged non-existence of nonheteronormative victims of both Nazi and communist persecutions. The author examines the controversies surrounding the project and analyzes the responses from the media, politicians and Internet users, who are viewed as various types of mnemonic actors. While acknowledging valid criticisms leveled at the project, the article also explores manifestations of “Polish rival postmemory,” a notion derived from Marianne Hirsch’s concept of “postmemory” and Michael Rothberg’s “multidirectional memory.” To illustrate the mechanism whereby the process of revictimization replaces commemoration, the article also references the concepts of “mnemonic wars” and “mnemonic mobilization.”</p> Aleksandra Kumala Copyright (c) 2023 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/5347 Thu, 28 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Proces uzgadniania pamięci w kontekście „wojny pomników” na Ukrainie w latach 2014-2022 https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/5348 <p><strong>THE PROCESS OF MEMORIAL RECONCILIATION IN THE CONTEXT OF THE “WAR OF MONUMENTS” IN UKRAINE IN 2014-2022</strong></p> <p>The years 2014-2022 witnessed dynamic changes in Ukraine’s social, political and symbolic landscape. In its conflict against Ukraine, the Russian Federation employed methods of hybrid warfare that extended into the realms of communication, ideology, and historical discourse. In response, Ukraine sought to emphasize the distinctiveness and divergence of its symbolic sphere. Decommunization efforts included renaming streets and systematic removal of monuments associated with the communist era. The full-scale war that commenced after February 24, 2022, added deeper meaning to this process. The removal of monuments now extends beyond those commemorating figures and events from the communist period (decommunization), and extends to the tsarist and post-1991 Russian periods (deimperalization and derussification). The current article examines the dynamics of the monument removal process and the government’s endeavors to organize and institutionalize spontaneous public action. Prior to February 2022, decommunization in Ukraine focused on the Ukrainian collective memory, but now the “war of monuments” is directed against Russia. The analysis draws upon Michael Rothberg’s concept of multidirectional memory.</p> Katarzyna Jędraszczyk Copyright (c) 2023 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/5348 Thu, 28 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0200 (Post)pamięciowy aktywizm https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/5349 <p><strong>(POST)MEMORY ACTIVISM: MEDIA RESISTANCE PRACTICES AFTER RUSSIA’S INVASION OF UKRAINE</strong></p> <p>The military aggression of Russia against independent Ukraine has starkly exposed the naivety of the expression “never again,” which has been repeated for over eighty years. The bestiality exhibited by Russian soldiers and the cynical propaganda emanating from the Kremlin since the beginning of the invasion have resulted in both literal and symbolic resistance from the free world and a surge of international solidarity with Ukrainians, both online and off. Notably, there has been an increase in subvertising campaigns targeting brands that have failed to withdraw their products from Russia, as it signifies support for Russian war crimes. Vladimir Putin, often juxtaposed with Hitler as “Putler,” has emerged as a prominent figure on numerous posters, and murals and the butt of memes, while the Kremlin’s foreign policy has explicitly been labeled as Rashism. Active media users have creatively altered, reinterpreted, and enriched cultural texts, generating new content and meanings. The current article examines several examples of visual communication expressing resistance to the Russian regime and its war crimes, along with highlighting the involvement of institutions, brands and media that support it.</p> Sławomir Doległo Copyright (c) 2023 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/5349 Thu, 28 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Rozmowa o współczesnej tożsamości polskich Żydów https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/5350 <p><strong>DIALOG ABOUT THE MODERN IDENTITY OF POLISH JEWS: AROUND THE POSTMEMORY NARRATIONS IN DOCUMENTARY BY MIKOŁAJ GRYNBERG THE PROOF OF IDENTITY</strong></p> <p>The 2021 documentary <em>The Proof of Identity</em> marked the directorial debut of Mikołaj Grynberg. In this film, the director attempts to depict the unique experience of being a Polish Jew, while also exploring the intricate nature of an essentially dual (Polish-Jewish or Jewish-Polish) identity. The aim of this article is to elucidate the framework employed by both the director and his characters in recounting their search for a proof of identity, which entails coming to terms with personal (and familial) memory. The article delves into the “conflicts” and “negotiations” that arise in the interviewed individuals’ considerations of identity within the context of postmemory. Central to the film is the director’s fundamental question: What does it mean to be a Jew in present-time Poland? An integral aspect of these considerations is the examination of the fact that the author, who is primarily known as a writer, chose the form of documentary, with the interview as its special type.</p> Barbara Weżgowiec Copyright (c) 2023 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/5350 Thu, 28 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Odkrywanie żydowskiej tożsamości w powojennej Austrii na przykładzie filmu Śpiące psy Hanny Andreasa Grubera https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/5351 <p><strong>REDISCOVERING JEWISH IDENTITY OF POST-WAR AUSTRIA IN ANDREAS GRUBER’S <em>HANNA’S SLEEPING DOGS</em></strong></p> <p>The trauma of the Holocaust, despite being dismissed for many years, has profoundly shaped the identity of successive generations of Jews. The main character of the film <em>Hanna’s Sleeping Dog</em>s (<em>Hannas schlafende Hunde</em>, 2016, Andreas Gruber) inherits the trauma of the tragic events of World War II, even though she initially remains unaware of her Jewish heritage. Upon discovering the family secret, the nine-year-old Johanna embarks on a journey to unravel her true identity. This task proves challenging in Austria, where anti-Semitism still prevailed in the 1960s, and “the myth of Hitler’s first victim” dominated the public discourse. The article aims to identify the stylistic devices employed in depicting the struggle between memory and (post)memory of tragic events. It also focuses on how Gruber narrates the story of trauma passed down from generation to generation and examines the representation of Jewish figures in his films. In addition, the film is analyzed within a sociocultural context to highlight its relevance to public discussions about Jewish identity in post-war Austria.</p> Olga Wesołowska Copyright (c) 2023 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/5351 Thu, 28 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0200 (Post)pamięć konstruowana cyfrowo https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/5352 <p><strong>(POST)MEMORY DIGITALLY CONSTRUCTED: SURVIVORS’ INTERACTIVE BIOGRAPHY – OPPORTUNITIES AND THREATS</strong></p> <p>The purpose of the article is to provide a critical discussion of the USC Shoah Dimensions in Testimony project initiated and implemented by the USC Shoah Foundation. The article specifically focuses on the opportunities and threats presented by the ongoing dynamic development of the foundation’s project. Drawing on Marianne Hirsch’s concept of postmemory, which explores the spatial and temporal distance that separates successive generations from traumatic events, the article examines whether interactive biographies of survivors can be regarded as objects of postmemory that “preserve” (?) witnesses and their stories for future generations. In addition, the article analyzes how such virtual autobiographical identity narratives allow survivor to externalize their experience and transfer memory to the recipients of their testimonies. Ethical considerations regarding the “use” of near-holographic recordings of survivors are also discussed. Based on the collected research material, the article further explores how memory mediated by these objects affects the perception of past events.</p> Sylwia Papier Copyright (c) 2023 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/5352 Thu, 28 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Pamięć o ofiarach zagłady Romów i Sinti a współczesny stosunek do zmarłych w społecznościach polskich Romów – podobieństwa i różnice https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/5353 <p><strong>REMEMBRANCE OF THE ROMA AND SINTI HOLOCAUST VICTIMS IN COMPARISON TO CONTEMPORARY ATTITUDES TOWARDS THE DECEASED IN POLISH ROMA COMMUNITIES – SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES</strong></p> <p>Many contemporary scholars of Roma communities consider the extermination of the Roma during World War II as foundational to their contemporary collective identity. The commemoration of the Holocaust, which claimed the lives of over half a million European Roma and Sinti individuals, accounting for approximately 70% of their population, has now evolved into a transnational tradition that involves culturally diverse Roma communities around the world. This article aims to compare the commemoration of Holocaust victims with contemporary rituals associated with honoring the deceased in Polish Roma communities. By examining the similarities and differences between these practices, the article seeks to explore their underlying origins. In doing so, it contrasts the experience of postmemory, inherited from previous generations, with the current remembrance of the deceased in present-day contexts.</p> Agnieszka M. Caban Copyright (c) 2023 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/5353 Thu, 28 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0200 W-drukowane https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/5354 <p><strong>IM-PRINTED: THE SPECIFICITY OF POST-MEMORY WORK IN WITOLD ZARĘBA’S GRAPHIC COMPOSITION <em>NON OMNIS MORIAR</em></strong></p> <p>The text provides an analysis of Witold Zaręba’s graphic composition <em>Non omnis moriar</em>. This artistic project draws upon photographs spanning the years 1860 to 1918, postcards used during wartime, or preserved fragments of Austro- Hungarian army uniforms. Through these elements, the artist weaves a visual narrative about the world extending between a soldier’s duty and the compassion exhibited by the nursing sisters attending to the wounded on the World War I fronts. The analysis of Zaręba’s project is approached from three perspectives: a particular interpretation of Marianne Hirsch’s concept of postmemory, the notion of “memory acts” as proposed by Constantine de Saint-Laurent, and the idea of counter-monument as expounded by James E. Young. The intended outcome of this analysis is to address the question of how an artist assumes the role of an “heir” while simultaneously becoming a “worker of memory.” Furthermore, the study seeks to identify an alternative approach to commemoration that deviates from the prevalent forms of monumentalized remembrance observed within public space.</p> Marta Anna Raczek-Karcz Copyright (c) 2023 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/5354 Thu, 28 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Konfrontacja różnych pamięci w przestrzeni scenicznej na przykładzie spektakli biograficznych z Teatru Śląskiego (Leni Riefenstahl. Epizody niepamięci i What the heil?!) https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/5355 <p><strong>CONFRONTING DIVERSE MEMORIES ON STAGE: BIOGRAPHICAL PLAY AT THE SILESIAN THEATRE IN KATOWICE (<em>LENI RIEFENSTAHL. EPIZODY NIEPAMIĘCI</em> AND <em>WHAT THE HEIL</em>?!)</strong></p> <p>In recent Polish theater, numerous projects have drawn inspiration from biographies. These practices not only reflect the prevailing biographical trend in culture but also indicate that theater serves as a “memory machine,” playing a socially important role in establishing connections between the past and the present. Drawing on the examples of two plays staged at the Silesian Theatre in Katowice, namely <em>Leni Riefenstahl. Epizody niepamięci</em> [Leni Riefenstahl. Episodes of Non-memory] (2016) and <em>What the heil?!</em> (2022), and employing the concepts of cultural memory (A. Assmann, J. Assmann), postmemory (M. Hirsch) and multidirectional memory (M. Rothberg), this study examines the conventions employed in r e c o n s t r u c t i n g t h e p a s t wi t h i n t h e th e at r i c a l spa c e . Furthermore, it delves into t h e dynami c s o f va r i - o u s f o rms o f memo r y (e.g. cultural memory, communicative memory, individual memory) in theatrical representation.</p> Beata Popczyk-Szczęsna Copyright (c) 2023 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/5355 Thu, 28 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0200 „Wojny pamięci” w literaturze rosyjskiej. Twórczość Siergieja Lebiediewa https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/5356 <p><strong>“MEMORY WARS” IN RUSSIAN LITERATURE: SERGEI LEBEDEV’S WORKS</strong></p> <p>Sergei Lebedev’s tetralogy – <em>Oblivion</em> (2010),<em> The Year of the Comet</em> (2014), <em>People of August</em> (2015), and <em>The Goose Fritz</em> (2018) – is considered a multigenerational novel. This genre of literature can be seen as a medium for collective memory, offering an avenue for reinterpreting the experiences of past generations as an alternative to official historical narratives (referred to as “first memory”). The primary focus of this article centers on Lebedev’s oeuvre in the context of the ongoing “memory wars” within Russian culture. Lebedev’s works are characterized by an intensified historical consciousness that revolves around the key events of the 20th century. However, the objective is not an inquiry into historical truth<em> sensu stricto</em>, but rather an exploration of post-trauma, which is Russians’ unwanted and rejected heritage. Consequently, the past becomes a catalyst for contemplating the current condition of Russian society. Lebedev’s work encourages deeper reflection on the causes of the “memory wars” and the consequences of divisions between individual and collective memory.</p> Martyna Kowalska Copyright (c) 2023 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/5356 Thu, 28 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Antagonistic, Cosmopolitan and Agonistic Memory Modes in Postmemorial Third-Generation Holocaust Narratives of Lithuanian Diaspora Writers https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/5357 <p>This article examines the challenges of coming to terms with Holocaust perpetratorship as depicted in postmemorial third-generation Holocaust literature by Lithuanian diaspora writers Rita Gabis, Julija Šukys, and Silvia Foti. It also outlines the mnemonic strategies used to reconcile contradictory historical narratives from the perspectives of both the victims and the perpetrators. The analysis demonstrates the authors’ approaches to portraying victims and perpetrators, their choices in framing conflicting historical accounts, and their exploration of individual actions within the context of collective national identities. The main variations observed in the structuring of conflict stem from differences in writing styles, levels of personal connection to familial history, and collective experiences of suffering. These variations are also intertwined with the deliberate silence surrounding the individual-historical narrative which the collective voluntarily retreated into.</p> Greta Štikelytė Copyright (c) 2023 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/5357 Thu, 28 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Przechwycić traumę, czyli Aleksandra Petrova opowieść o serbskim cierpieniu https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/5358 <p><strong>TO SEIZE THE TRAUMA: ALEKSANDAR PETROV’S STORY ABOUT THE SERBIAN SUFFERING</strong></p> <p>The paper focuses on Aleksandar Petrov’s novel <em>Kao zlato u vatri</em>, originally published by this Serbian author in 1998. The novel’s main characters represent diverse ethnic groups inhabiting the Balkans ( Jews, Serbians, Russians), and their fortunes intertwined with the tumultuous events of 20th century history, namely WWII and the Yugoslav Wars of the 1990s. The primary objective of the article is to address the question of whether it is feasible to apply Michael Rothberg’s model of multifaceted memory in a scenario involving distinct memory communities (such as Serbs, Croatians, and possibly Jews), characterized by a specific proximity (primarily territorial, historical and rooted in past coexistence within one national entity) and where relations are predominantly shaped by unresolved past grievances and mutual accusations of guilt.</p> Sabina Giergiel Copyright (c) 2023 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/5358 Thu, 28 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Drugie życie Ksawerego Pruszyńskiego: wokół hiszpańskiej recepcji W czerwonej Hiszpanii https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/5359 <p><strong>THE SECOND LIFE OF KSAWERY PRUSZYŃSKI: SPANISH RECEPTION OF <em>EN LA ESPAÑA ROJA</em></strong></p> <p>The article presents the context of the Spanish edition of the Ksawery Pruszyński’s collection of reportages, <em>En la España roja</em>, written during the writer’s trip to Spain as a press correspondent in 1936, in the early months of the civil war. Despite the passage of time, Pruszyński’s observations still hold interest and offer insight to the Spanish reading public. The aim of the article is to examine how the ongoing debates surrounding the Spanish Civil War, intertwined with postmemorial discourses, influence both the publisher’s presentation of the book and its reception by critics. To accomplish this, the paratexts of the Spanish edition of Pruszyński’s work will be discussed.</p> Małgorzata Gaszyńska-Magiera Copyright (c) 2023 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/5359 Thu, 28 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0200 “Born into a Broken World:” The Holocaust Carrier https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/5360 <p>In this article, a second-generation author explores the conflicts and challenges of post-war Jewish identity and the inheritance from her father, through the medium of literature by and about sons and daughters of Holocaust survivors.</p> Susan Jacobowitz Copyright (c) 2023 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/5360 Thu, 28 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0200 Mój ból jest większy niż twój https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/5361 <p><strong>MY PAIN IS GREATER THAN YOURS: THE PROCESS OF COMMEMORATING KL PLASZOW</strong></p> <p>This article presents an accompanying description of the process involved in commemorating the former labor and concentration camp, Plaszow. The actors involved primarily differ in the function they desire to attribute to the memorial, while the strong emotions accompanying them are primarily a consequence of the process’s underlying cause – death ingrained in the post-camp landscape. Engagement in the process evokes suffering, which limits the possibilities for dialogue surrounding commemoration. Recently, the appointment of a caretaker for the site of memory, the KL Plaszow Museum, has proven to be the most influential factor in the dynamics of the process. Given that the museum is an enduring institution, there is now a strong need to explore new forms of mediation that facilitate understanding. In the author’s view, specialists in culture studies, with their expert competencies, can serve as neutral intermediaries bridging the diverse expectations of the actors.</p> Marta Śmietana Copyright (c) 2023 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/5361 Thu, 28 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0200