Politeja https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja <p><em>Politeja</em> is published by the Faculty of International and Political Studies of the Jagiellonian University, where a circle has formed of academics perfectly qualified for undertaking such reflection. It seems that it is in this particular unit of the Jagiellonian University that such reflection finds a forum perfectly equipped for an in-depth and solid analysis of phenomena of present day relevance, both cultural and political, given that it has combined units existing for a long time with newly established ones, albeit in both cases comprising experienced researchers capable of looking at the same phenomena from various vantage points.</p> en-US arkadiusz.gornisiewicz@uj.edu.pl (Arkadiusz Górnisiewicz) journals@akademicka.pl (Redaktor) Mon, 19 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0200 OJS http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Identity (Including Collective Identity) https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/2786 <p>Identity has remained a popular concept for many decades, being widely used in scientific research. This reflects not only the importance of the phenomena standing behind this notion, but also wide and deep changes accompanying the transition of societies from industrial to post-industrial, late modern, post-modern, network or information society. Regardless of the disputes about the nature of the new era, researchers agree that identities, including collective identities, play a key role in it, and the fight for the recognition of individual and social actors is an extremely important element of contemporary social processes and relations. The article presents a brief description of the most important points in the debate on identity, concerning its meaning, the subjects of identity, the dimensions of identity and the forms of its manifestations in social reality.</p> Paweł Ścigaj Copyright (c) 2020 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/2786 Mon, 19 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Back matter https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/3537 Copyright (c) 2020 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/3537 Tue, 01 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Identity, Ethnic Conflict and Communal Conflict in Sub- Saharan Africa https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/2796 <p>Ethnic identity is one of the most significant types of identities. Meanwhile, some researchers have recently begun to criticise the term ‘identity’ as being too excessively associated with political ideologies, lacking operational power and being difficult to define precisely. Simultaneously, attention has been drawn to what can be referred to as ‘ethnic revival.’ Ethnic identity is created based on the opposition between what is ‘one’s own’ and what is ‘foreign.’. Even though the category of ‘the Other’ or the ‘foreign’ always appears in the context of identity, it has a special significance in the case of ethnic identity. By such means, the belonging to a particular ethnic group is emphasized, while simultaneously one is cut off from other groups. Conflicts between clans, tribes and ethnic groups have occurred throughout the ages and in all civilisations. There is no single opinion among researchers about how ethnic conflict should be defined. Increasingly, in recent literature of the subject, the distinction between<em> ethnic conflicts</em> and<em> communal conflicts</em> has come to be applied. The article aims to analyse the identity problems expressed in ethnic and communal conflicts in Sub-Saharan Africa. It is based on the critically reviewed literature of the subject, as well as the author’s conclusions from many years of research on the problem of state dysfunctionality, conducted in Sub-Saharan African countries.</p> Robert Kłosowicz Copyright (c) 2020 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/2796 Mon, 19 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0200 The Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP) and the Luso-African identity https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/2797 <p>The article aims at searching for the correlation between the Luso-African identity, understood as a form of cultural identity based on the concept of Lusophony, and The Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP), an international organisation that brings together countries whose official language is Portuguese. The CPLP is considered as an institutional emanation of the idea of Lusophony. However, for almost 25 years since its creation it still receives a lot of criticism. Despite the multiplicity of initiatives that it proposed, for a long time it seemed that the CPLP did not really move beyond the concept phase. Furthermore, until recently the organisation has focused mainly on cultural and political cooperation, leaving behind its enormous economic possibilities and provoking questions about an untapped potential of the CPLP. The paper attempts to reflect on the hypothesis that the limited capacities of the Community of Portuguese Language Countries regarding the African continent are, at least partially, related to the problem with Luso-African identity. The considerations presented in the article are based on the critical reading of the literature of the subject, qualitative analysis of the already existing data (official documents and the press, available statistics), as well as the author’s reflections drawn from observations, interviews and informal talks conducted during field research in Mozambique (2015) and Guinea-Bissau (2016), along with multiple study visits to Portugal (2011-2016), while realizing the research project devoted to the problem of state dysfunctionality in the Lusophone Africa.</p> Joanna Mormul Copyright (c) 2020 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/2797 Mon, 19 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0200 The 2020 U.S. Supreme Court and Political Identity https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/2798 <p>This article aims to determine current political identity of the U.S. Supreme Court by analyzing the process of appointment of its recent Justices and their ideology. The Author claims that ideology and politics play decisive role on Court’s jurisprudence, but that it was Anthony Kennedy’s retirement in 2018 which defined the direction of Court’s adjudication for years to come. The analysis shows important role of the President and Senate in the process of indirect interpretation of the Constitution by the appointment of Justices representing certain ideology.</p> Paweł Laidler Copyright (c) 2020 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/2798 Mon, 19 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Administrative and Territorial Organization of the State as a Tool of Ethnic Politics:The Example of the Republic of Croatia https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/2799 <p>The article focuses on the issue of Croatia’s ethnic policy towards minorities at the level of administrative and territorial organization. It attempts to answer the question whether and to what extent the ethnic and territorial conflict in the 1990s influenced the processes of transformation of the administrative and territorial organization of the state. The Croatian state, given as an example, at the time of declaring its independence in 1991 had to face the threat of territorial disintegration from the Serb minority living in its territory. The Italian minority was also suspected of such tendencies, but it soon turned out that these suspicions were groundless. The Serbian community could, however, threaten the unification of the state, which initially happened as a result of an armed conflict. After its end, fears did not diminish, especially in the face of the changes in territorial borders that took place until the end of the first decade of the 21st century. The threat could be reduced using one of the tools, which was the local government administration and the shape of its territorial units. The Author analyses this issue basing on the projects of Croatian experts dealing with the issues of administrative and territorial organization of the last three decades and at various stages of Croatian statehood, data on demographic changes and laws regulating the functioning of local and regional local governments as well as regulations concerning the position of national minorities in the state.</p> Mirella Korzeniewska-Wiszniewska Copyright (c) 2020 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/2799 Mon, 19 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0200 More than a Storm in a Teacup? British Nationals in Poland in the Time of Brexit https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/2800 <p>The paper will present and analyse the results of qualitative research conducted by Stephen Davies with British nationals residing in Poland. The research questions explore their attitudes towards Britain and Brexit, as well as their future plans connected with their place of residence. The dominant themes of the paper are the questions of belonging and attachment. The analysis is preceded by a short introductory section which presents the context of the Brexit processes, as well as the results of research into EU migrants in the United Kingdom and British nationals living in different parts of the European Union.</p> Stephen Davies, Małgorzata Kułakowska Copyright (c) 2015 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/2800 Mon, 19 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Ideological Identifying as a Determiner of the Polish People Political Collective Identity https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/2802 <p>The aim of the article is to examine whether and to what extent a socio-political division into left- and right-wing is a factor that significantly influences the formation of the Polish political collective identity. The author of the article attempted to present the leftist and rightist identities in relation to defining characteristics of collective identity. Then, a theoretical model was empirically verified based on the findings of the author’s own research conducted in 2019.</p> Tomasz Godlewski Copyright (c) 2020 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/2802 Mon, 19 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Authenticity as a Test of Identity https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/2788 <p>The identity of subjects participating in social processes or the daily functioning of social structures is a result of many factors – such as their representativeness and social typicality, the social programming of their personalities and activities, but also their personal experiences and individual characteristics. Formal expressions and testimonies of identity associated with the sense of belonging to a group, ideological belonging, are unreliable. An objectified and effective test of the real identity of an individual as a member of society, citizen, employee, follower of certain views, is the model of authenticity in participation. The components of this model include the criteria of authenticity of existence, authenticity of bonds and social structures, authenticity of the status of participants, authenticity of their needs, authenticity of attitudes, actions and works. Authenticity in this meaning is not the same as simply being authentic, or factual, genuine, original or consistent in reference to the original, or as a testimony’s conformity with the facts. It is a combination of such traits as autonomy, autotelic quality, consistency, functionality of the relationship between the whole and its elements, while, in relation to human consciousness and activity – sincerity, spontaneity, adequacy in relation to one’s own needs and nature.</p> Mirosław Karwat Copyright (c) 2020 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/2788 Mon, 19 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Class Resentment and Leadership: Manipulation of Negative Emotions in Political Leadership Practices https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/2789 <p>The aim of this paper is to discuss the emotional plane in the context of the formation of leadership asymmetry, especially the instrumental use of grudge and resentment by a leader in the process of political leadership. The starting point to explaining the instrumentalisation of the affective sphere in politics, interpreted as a source of political leadership, will be the critical argumentation in relation to the assumptions of the theory of rational choice about the stability and predictability of political process. This article attempts a critical look at the rationality of leadership practices in politics, where it is emphasized that the individual and collective structures – including collective identities – of beliefs on which the leadership process is formed, consolidated and based, are not permanent, but increasingly dependent on irrational manipulative strategies. Hence, this paper will analyse the mechanism of creating or reactivating negative emotions by the leader in a given cultural and structural environment as the reasons for the emergence and legitimacy of supra-individual resentment or the functioning of class resentment, which translates into the escalation of hostility in a stratified society, as well as into followers’ receptivity; more broadly – into the form and shape of effective political leadership.</p> Filip Pierzchalski Copyright (c) 2020 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/2789 Mon, 19 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Creating a Collective Identity in The Digital Age: The Perspective of Behavioural Economics https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/2790 <p>This paper comprises four related parts. The first part presents hypotheses regarding the forms of creating a collective identity in the age of digitization and the adopted theoretical assumptions, including conceptualization of concepts. The concept of Daniel Kahneman’s thinking systems is quoted, which was used to analyse the presented phenomenon in relation to the political decisionmaking process. The second section is a presentation of the research problem as a concept that is equivalent to the category of behavioural economics. Next, we explain the pattern of the transition from the left-wing identity policy to its right-wing response. The final part represents an analysis of the Internet collective identity in relation to political risk and profit, while the epilogue presents the political implications of the use of collective identity by measurement tools and consulting entities managing the flow, collection and compilation of data.</p> Łukasz Młyńczyk Copyright (c) 2020 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/2790 Mon, 19 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Somebody Else’s Problem as a Practice in the Identity Discourse https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/2791 <p>The article presents the characteristics of various types of collective identities: hard, programmatic, soft, pluralistic, and proposes an outline of the concept of reflective identity as essential for democratic public discourse. Moreover, the practice of invalidation in the public discourse has been analyzed. Articulated invalidation and silent invalidation have been articulated as two communicative practices and their characteristics. The article presents the social and psychological reasons for invalidation as a practice of public discourse.</p> Ewa Maria Marciniak Copyright (c) 2020 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/2791 Mon, 19 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Identity of Political Players in Game Theory https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/2793 <p>The process of modelling political phenomena, subject to the methodological principles of science, creates problems at various levels of reconstructing reality. The problems result from the application of these principles in isolation from the basic goal, which is the adequacy of the model in relation to real phenomena. This adequacy is considered primarily from the point of view of the possibility of explaining the observed phenomena. The presented analysis concerns the problem of assumptions made in relation to players in game theory and their relation to the social world, but first of all, from the point of view of the relationship between subjectivity, identity and the ability to make decisions by political players based on the semantic interpretation of the world of politics.</p> Piotr Łukomski Copyright (c) 2015 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/2793 Mon, 19 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0200 The Populist Identity of the Promoters of Alternative Medicine https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/2794 <p>In this paper, the author compares phenomena of political populism and alternative medicine on the ground of – similar in structure and content – narrations (and identities created on their basis) of propagators and followers of these ideas/ social praxis. The main thesis of the paper is the assumption that <em>the narrative and identity mechanisms of alternative medicine are analogous to those of political populis</em>m. The author tries to prove it in the context of their relation to their counterparts in the mainstream of power/knowledge, with the assumption that these are dialectical relations understood in a specific manner. The oppositions of populism–liberal democracy and alternative medicine–conventional medicine are real, but in the broader sense, they complement and need each other to preserve the cores of the system, which implicates ineffectiveness of those alternative discourses. This article presents examples of anti-elitism and conspiratorial thinking both in political populism and in alternative medicine. It turns out that populism and unconventional medicine are so closely connected that alternative medicine, in its attitudes, refers not only to medical statements, but also to political ones.</p> Jakub K. Górka Copyright (c) 2020 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/2794 Mon, 19 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Anti-Politics and Civic Identity: How to Revitalize the Public Sphere in a Democracy? https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/2795 <p>Contemporary democracy requires rethinking on the normative level and certain changes in the institutional and cultural dimensions. To this end, we should start by revising our perception of the public sphere and the role that citizens have to play in it. First of all, it should be emphasized that the public sphere is composed of various citizens’ forums, which should be effectively included in the political decision-making process. New institutional solutions must ensure the free flow of information between citizens and take into account different, even minority points of view, because democracy, if it is not to be exclusive, cannot be limited only to formal representation and closed, top-defined forms of discourse. In fact, people are unequal in terms of their civic competences, both in terms of their individual characteristics, as well as their social position, and democracy should neutralize these inequalities. These problems cannot be solved on purely theoretical grounds. Indeed, the clash of different views and arguments in the political debate is a constitutive element of politics, and therefore they have to be negotiated in practice by actual citizens. The lack of such solutions and, consequently, the experiences enabling the development of civic competences, not only result in a crisis of democracy, but also lead to the negation of the very essence of politics.</p> Marcin Tobiasz Copyright (c) 2020 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/2795 Mon, 19 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Front matter https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/3536 Copyright (c) 2020 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://journals.akademicka.pl/politeja/article/view/3536 Tue, 01 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0200