Intercultural Relations <p><em>Relacje Międzykulturowe – Intercultural Relations</em> (<em>RMIR</em>) is an open-access, semi-annual, peer-reviewed journal publishing articles in English and Polish. In spring each year, a volume is published in Polish, and in autumn, it is published in English. It serves as an interdisciplinary forum for academic scholars and professionals to present the latest theoretical and empirical advancements of various issues related to intercultural relations. The journal publishes, among others, papers on issues such as cultural studies, ethnic and minority-majority relations, migration and intercultural contact, intercultural psychology and pedagogy, globalization and integration processes, multicultural societies, and politics.</p> Księgarnia Akademicka Ltd. en-US Intercultural Relations 2544-2139 Front Matter Copyright (c) 2024 2023-12-28 2023-12-28 7 2(14) Back Matter Copyright (c) 2024 2023-12-28 2023-12-28 7 2(14) Domain-specific versus General Approaches to Multidisciplinary Research on Culture Copyright (c) 2024 2023-12-28 2023-12-28 7 2(14) 7 8 Out of the Melting Pot, into the Fire by Jens Kurt Heycke, Encounter Books, USA, 2023 Aleksandra Zomkowska-Weber Copyright (c) 2024 2023-12-28 2023-12-28 7 2(14) 148 153 10.12797/RM.02.2023.14.10 Exploring Intercultural Insights Through the Critical Incident Research Method <p>The Critical Incident Technique (CIT) has become a renowned approach in qualitative research, offering a systematic framework for exploring interactions, revealing human perception and conduct in different scenarios. The technique analyses significant incidents that emerge from either observations or narrations within specific contexts and helps to scrutinise thoughts, emotions, attitudes or actions. CIT uncovers cultural discrepancies within intercultural communication and has been implemented in various disciplines. Originating from aviation research, CIT has proved to be adaptable to other areas and has thus been successfully integrated into intercultural training and research. Regardless of its utility and popularity, some critics suggest it can oversimplify complexity. Nevertheless, recent publications have demonstrated the ongoing significance of CIT. These publications use linguistic approaches that broaden its horizons, encompassing narrative methodologies and multi-perspective analyses. While CIT provides significant insights, it is important to acknowledge its limitations in terms of subjectivity and generalisability. In conclusion, CIT continues to be a valuable qualitative research approach that enhances our understanding of human behaviour and experiences through the systematic analysis of key events.</p> Gundula Gwenn Hiller Copyright (c) 2024 2023-12-28 2023-12-28 7 2(14) 9 25 10.12797/RM.02.2023.14.01 New Approaches to Developing the Global Skills and Intercultural Competence of Future Teachers (Virtual Exchange and Blended Intensive Programs as Possibilities for Future Research and Higher-Education Internationalization) <p>In a dynamic world, pedagogically oriented universities which are educating future teachers for different types of schools (elementary, middle, high schools) must also adapt and be flexible to the fast-changing environment: cultural, social, religious, political, economic, etc. A new scientific discussion is therefore needed in order to reevaluate the methodologies and ways of collecting data in tertiary education in line with the internationalization of teacher training university education. In the current context of global unrest and uncertainty, it seems inevitable to leverage the potential of current generation of young people – the future teachers in our case and prepare experiential opportunities for them in order to support their global skills (critical thinking, creativity, communication and collaboration, self-regulation and wellbeing, digital literacies, etc.) and intercultural awareness together with soft skills. The aim of the contribution is to reflect on two virtual exchange programs (VEPs) and one blended intensive program (BIP) which were released at Matej Bel University and subsequent methodology that academics in charge used in order to collect and evaluate data from their projects. Multidisciplinary research is a challenging endeavor in pedagogically oriented disciplines, however, it can bring sustainability to initial teacher training. Virtual exchange programs (VEPs) require the teacher/researcher to apply new or modified approaches and gain knowledge which spans multiple research areas. </p> Anna Slatinska Copyright (c) 2024 2023-12-28 2023-12-28 7 2(14) 26 41 10.12797/RM.02.2023.14.02 How Can We Study Educational Inequalities in Different Cultural Contexts? Interdisciplinary Research Methods in Early Childhood Education and Care <p>The increasing diversity in cities and schools is a pan-European experience. Concurrently, the time of subsequent crises (migration/refugee crises) has had severe impacts on the key institutions safeguarding the rights and needs of citizens. This also concerns the youngest generation in the education system, especially in the light of data concerning the still high and even growing rates of child poverty in Europe. Therefore, focusing on finding common solutions to early educational inequalities has become one of the key issues of research in the area of early childhood education. Diversity enables us to learn about conditions that may increase the effectiveness and desirability of early childhood education and care (ECEC) for children at risk, be it due to economic strain, possessing a migration background, disability and so forth. At the same time, however, it poses a methodological challenge due to the different construction of child welfare and education systems, the different policies and social solutions promoted and, last but not least, the different dimensions of the aforementioned diversity, namely ethnic, social or disability. This article discusses methodological challenges and strategies in an international and interdisciplinary project on combined inequalities among children in ECEC settings. The objective is to demonstrate how mixed-methods can be used for interdisciplinary interventions, connecting social research to the broader impact on the community.</p> Magdalena Ślusarczyk Copyright (c) 2024 2023-12-28 2023-12-28 7 2(14) 42 60 10.12797/RM.02.2023.14.03 Allies and Advocates <p>The paper concerns the process of research with the Wroclaw-based Romanian Roma community at its centre. This community can be depicted as radically marginalised as a result of an interplay of various factors. Additionally, the members of this community are exposed to the fallout from cultural prejudice against Roma, which is deeply entrenched in (not only) Polish society. Doing research focused on Roma communities, researchers are bound to interrogate the objectivity of science, the degree of their own commitment and above all their attitude to the group with whom they conduct/co-conduct the research process. In reflecting on my own practice as a researcher, I look to both present the dilemmas involved and some applicable solutions that can bring us closer to being allies in research.</p> Joanna Panciuchin Copyright (c) 2024 2023-12-28 2023-12-28 7 2(14) 61 75 10.12797/RM.02.2023.14.04 Demographic Perspective of Self-reported Health of Senior Citizens in Nepal <p>The health of the elderly (senior Citizen) has become the growing concern as the ageing population increases. Self-reported health is widely used measure of health status through individual. The aim of this study is to identify the major demographic factors of self-reported health among the senior citizen in Nepal. In this study, demographic variables include; Age, sex, marital status, migration status, residence status (rural-urban), and ecological area. This study has utilized data from Nepal Ageing Survey (2015) which is the biggest survey on aging in Nepal till now. Binary Logistic Regression has been used to determine the association between demographic, and self-reported health of elderly. Odds Ratio (OR) is used as a measure of effect. The level of significance is set at 95 percent confidence interval with a p-value of 0.05. The study attempts to examine the role they play in the health status of the elderly (good or bad). The conclusion of the study found significant effect in the health status of the elderly based on age, sex, ecological regions, and settlement status. There is not found significant impact of marital status and migration status on health.</p> Mahendra Prasad Sharma Copyright (c) 2024 2023-12-28 2023-12-28 7 2(14) 76 91 10.12797/RM.02.2023.14.05 Voluntary Guardianship Notarization: China’s Legal Remedy to Support Self-determination and Decision-making for Incapacitated Older Adults <p>In lieu of a comprehensive adult guardianship law, voluntary guardianship notarization has become the main route to support the self-determination, autonomy, and decision-making of incapacitated older adults in China. This article is a first attempt to provide an overview of recent developments and current forms of voluntary guardianship notarization initiatives in mainland China. Besides highlighting the difficulties and challenges faced by the country, this article also outlines the types of guardians under the current legal framework, identifies the social functions of the notary office in adult guardianship socialization, and sets out the emerging initiatives to support decision making for incapacitated older adults.</p> Zi Yan Copyright (c) 2024 2023-12-28 2023-12-28 7 2(14) 92 105 10.12797/RM.02.2023.14.06 Culturally Responsive Artificial Intelligence – Problems, Challenges and Solutions <p>In the contemporary interconnected world, the concept of cultural responsibility occupies paramount importance. As the lines between nations become less distinct, it is incumbent upon individuals, communities, and institutions to assume the responsibility of safeguarding and valuing the landscape of diverse cultures that constitute our global society. This paper explores the socio-cultural and ethical challenges stemming from the implementation of AI algorithms and highlights the necessity for their culturally responsive development. It also offers recommendations on essential elements required to enhance AI systems’ adaptability to meet the demands of contemporary multicultural societies. The paper highlights the need for further multidisciplinary research to create AI models that effectively address these challenges. It also advocates the significance of AI enculturation and underlines the importance of regulatory measures to promote cultural responsibility in AI systems.</p> Natalia Ożegalska-Łukasik Szymon Łukasik Copyright (c) 2024 2023-12-28 2023-12-28 7 2(14) 106 119 10.12797/RM.02.2023.14.07 National and Regional Identity as Factors of Societal Activism <p>The author’s intention is to substantiate the thesis involvement in local and regional activities, identification with the values of the region (tradition, culture, language/dialect) strengthens patriotism, attachment not only to the small homeland, but also the country of origin. This thesis is supported by the biography of an activist and publisher, Marta Liguda-Pawletowa, who pursued ambitious social goals through her emotional bond with Silesia, by book-publishing and distribution of Polish literature in the region.</p> Tomasz Michalewski Copyright (c) 2024 2023-12-28 2023-12-28 7 2(14) 120 131 10.12797/RM.02.2023.14.08 Buying-selling Coffee and Noken as a Way of Proclaiming the Gospel <p>The focus of this research is to answer the question of how the Gospel is preached to people who are Indigenous Papuans in the Modio Parish. This research was made by being directly involved in the inculturation effort. This research uses a qualitative method by carrying out a process of participatory observation and involvement as ‘insiders,’ and the data is analyzed phenomenologically hermeneutics. The results obtained from this research are preaching the Gospel through efforts to develop the people’s economy based on the reality of the people’s attachment to the land and its forest products, especially by buying-selling coffee and noken. The people are involved in this economic development program with enthusiasm because this effort has answered their longing for salvation in accordance with the challenges of everyday life.</p> Biru Kira Emanuel Pranawa Dhatu Martasudjita Copyright (c) 2024 2023-12-28 2023-12-28 7 2(14) 132 147 10.12797/RM.02.2023.14.09 On the Need for New Methodologies in Cultural Studies (?) Monika Banaś Copyright (c) 2024 2023-12-28 2023-12-28 7 2(14) 154 157 10.12797/RM.02.2023.14.11