Intercultural Relations <p><em>Relacje Międzykulturowe – Intercultural Relations</em> (<em>RMIR</em>) is an open-access, semi-annual, peer-reviewed journal publishing articles in English and Polish. In spring each year, a volume is published in Polish, and in autumn, it is published in English. It serves as an interdisciplinary forum for academic scholars and professionals to present the latest theoretical and empirical advancements of various issues related to intercultural relations. The journal publishes, among others, papers on issues such as cultural studies, ethnic and minority-majority relations, migration and intercultural contact, intercultural psychology and pedagogy, globalization and integration processes, multicultural societies, and politics.</p> Księgarnia Akademicka Ltd. en-US Intercultural Relations 2544-2139 Front Matter Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-21 2022-12-21 6 2(12) Introduction Monika Banaś Dariusz Juruś Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-21 2022-12-21 6 2(12) 7 9 Symbol and Language in Action Public Discourse in Poland in the Context of Uncertainty and Unrest <p>The paper critically analyses forms and structure of public discourse in Poland in the context of recent crises and uncertainty. By focusing on language, symbols and metaphors used by dominant media, the author draws attention to processes and trends emerging in contemporary cultural-political narratives in Poland in 2020–2022. The analysis invites for a broader and deeper study of strategies used by post-media delivering infotainment instead of objective information.</p> Monika Banaś Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-21 2022-12-21 6 2(12) 136 142 10.12797/RM.02.2022.12.10 The Being of Values <p>In this paper I present three main approaches to the problem of the being of values by discussing objectivism, subjectivism and relationism referring to historical positions. I conclude that axiological discourse, when reduced to the horizontal dimension, leads to the relativisation of all values, the process of blurring the boundaries to their eventual annihilation.</p> Dariusz Juruś Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-21 2022-12-21 6 2(12) 11 26 10.12797/RM.02.2022.12.01 The Position of Human Rights in Slovak Education with a Focus on Youth <p>Young people are often considered as a driver of democratic progress and development in a country. Thus, civic education alongside freedom of speech, human rights, the rule of law, etc. should constitute cornerstones in advanced societies. The aim of this article is to evaluate the prevalence of the concept of human rights and European values in materials used for civic education in Slovakia. The authors conducted a comprehensive content analysis of 289 domestic and foreign materials and publications used in secondary education schools. While researching the content, we also consulted teachers to identify the main challenges for civic education. The research results show that the human rights and European values are growing in importance and gaining stronger positions in civic education in Slovakia.</p> Jana Pecníková Daniela Mališová Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-21 2022-12-21 6 2(12) 27 40 10.12797/RM.02.2022.12.02 Values: Stretching and Embracing the Unembraceable <p>In this paper, I attempt a linguistic analysis of how lexeme <em>values</em> is used in academic sources. Without criticising the extensive use of this notion, I address the gap between what <em>values</em> are supposed to mean and what they can mean in a broader scholarly discourse. I start by discussing the lexicographic understanding of <em>values</em> and proceed to analyse scholastic literature where the meaning of <em>values</em> may be stretched. Within this approach, I question if the effective use of <em>values</em> is feasible in the future due to the increasingly controversial nature of the term and try to motivate a discussion of terminological precision in academic sources.</p> Ruslan Saduov Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-21 2022-12-21 6 2(12) 41 53 10.12797/RM.02.2022.12.03 European Capital of Culture 2028: For Which Identities and Values? French Bids for the Title in 2028 <p>The general objectives of the European Capitals of Culture are to safeguard and promote the diversity of cultures in Europe and the common features they share, while strengthening the sense of belonging to a common cultural space. The growing appeal of the title of European Capital of Culture, especially after the success of Lille (2004) and Marseille (2013), both in France, has led to numerous bids in the country, despite the high cost of preparation and implementation. Amiens, Bastia, Bourges, Clermont-Ferrand, Lens-Lievin, Nice, Reims, Roubaix, Rouen and Saint-Denis have already announced their candidacy to the title of European Capital of Culture in 2028, often in connection with their region. The article analyses the cultural and development projects of these cities and territories according to the criteria of European values and identities.</p> Fabrice Thuriot Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-21 2022-12-21 6 2(12) 54 67 10.12797/RM.02.2022.12.04 The Importance of Old and New Symbolism in Modern Scottish National Identity <p>This paper considers the use of myths and symbols, and the culture and values that underpin contemporary Scottish Identity. Symbols and myths play very important role in contemporary Scottish national identity, and many have a centuries- old tradition and are clearly associated with Scottishness, while others, created much later, are an important element of national belonging for Scots. Interestingly, some of these symbols and myths are so prominent and expressive that they are associated with Scottishness around the world. Others, on the other hand, are less recognisable worldwide, but have significant efficacy in Scotland. The importance of symbols that underpin, define and re-enforce Scottish national identity cannot be understated. They are evidence of pride in being Scottish and of belonging to the Scottish nation. Symbols and myths enable Scots, both old and new to express their national belonging. Furthermore, they provide an important element of national cohesion and a sense of national identity in turbulent times. We consider the issue of the song, dress, land and flag of the nation, and how they contribute to a sense of Scottishness at home (and abroad) today.</p> Murray Leith Joanna Aleksandra Radowicz Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-21 2022-12-21 6 2(12) 68 85 10.12797/RM.02.2022.12.05 Double identity in Czesław Miłosz’s The Captive Mind <p>In The Captive Mind, Czesław Miłosz describes two mechanisms of intellectual enslavement, namely Murti-Bing pills and Ketman. Although these mechanisms are similar, in reality they function somewhat differently. I believe that the former, Murti-Bing pills, leads to more significant enslavement than the latter, namely Ketman. This is because the former blurs the distinction between fiction and reality, while the latter can coexist with the awareness of the deceitful nature of communist propaganda and even with a cynical attitude. Both mechanisms generate a double identity, albeit each in a different way. It seems, moreover, that while Miłosz describes universal phenomena occurring in different societies and at different times, these are particularly intense precisely in the communist totalitarian state.</p> Wojciech Rechlewicz Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-21 2022-12-21 6 2(12) 86 96 10.12797/RM.02.2022.12.06 Homo Viator <p>This research starts from the premise that in the 21st century shifting personal identities can be better understood in relation to other identity markers (such as traditional heritage, ethnicity, the historical past etc.). My overall objective in this paper is to place the concept of migration (Homo Viator, the man on a journey) in its broader cultural context and to address issues of diversity and permissiveness. Since we live in a globalised world with very different beliefs, societal ideals, moral values and community structures, our investigation on the topic is conducted within a pluralistic framework and from an interdisciplinary perspective. Given that we must face the difficulties in establishing a universal peace-building process through a comparative analysis of the man on a journey in the so called “Eastern” and „Western” civilisation area, such an approach will provide a well-grounded evaluation of the abovementioned trends, according to global standards, criteria and principles.</p> Desislava Damyanova Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-21 2022-12-21 6 2(12) 97 107 10.12797/RM.02.2022.12.07 Exclusion and Marginalisation as a Barrier to the Integration of Immigrants in European Culturally and Ethnically Diverse Societies <p>The integration of immigrants and refugees (especially since the migration crisis) has become the axis of socio-political discourse around the world. As the acceptance of new arrivals by host societies has come to question, the countries of the European Union (especially the so-called old Union) have found themselves at a crossroads. On the one hand, they want to adhere to their traditions and values such as tolerance and openness to “strangers,” while on the other hand, more and more often – as shown by statistics – a disturbingly large percentage of Europeans do not accept the growing number of foreigners (especially of Muslim origin) within their countries. This article points to the disturbing, growing phenomena of racial discrimination, unequal treatment, and exclusion which prevent immigrants and refugees from finding their way in a new reality, largely hampering their integration into new societies. The above statement also constitutes the research hypothesis presented in this text.</p> Violetta Gul-Rechlewicz Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-21 2022-12-21 6 2(12) 108 122 10.12797/RM.02.2022.12.08 A Sociological Analysis of the Social Role of Female Artists during COVID-19 <p>During the pandemic, artists have created new works, initiated political actions and civil activism, supporting the health prevention policy with the “I stay at home” campaign, but also organizing, at a later stage, protest movements, in defence of the right to perform one’s work, broadening the criticisms to a macro vision: in defence of the environment and the weakest groups, against violence against women, increased by 30%, for aid to immigrants, in denouncing urban marginality (street art), and the depopulation of small towns. The lack of attention on the part of politics, in Italy, and in other European countries, has then generated real opposition movements, an exemplary case being the song “Danser encore,” whose lyrics expressed a protest against government-imposed restrictions, and which turned into flash mob events in many countries. The depoliticization of contemporary art, of which Yves Michaud wrote, is a past concept, because we can see artistic movements shifting towards the safeguarding of universal rights and duties, up to the latest interpretations of what justice is and how to overcome social inequalities according to the visions of Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum.</p> Milena Gammaitoni Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-21 2022-12-21 6 2(12) 123 135 10.12797/RM.02.2022.12.09 Back Matter Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-21 2022-12-21 6 2(12)