Studies in Ancient Art and Civilisation https://journals.akademicka.pl/saac <p>Studies in Ancient Art and Civilization were created in 1991 as an irregular series which in the first place served as a forum for the presentation of the Jagiellonian University Institute of Archaeology and studies provided by its researchers. The series was originated by Professor Joachim Śliwa, who was also its first Editor in Chief. In the years 2010–2014 this function was held by Professor Ewdoksia Papuci-Władyka, and since 2015 it has been fulfilled by Professor Jarosław Bodzek. Since vol. 10 (2007) SAAC has become a regular yearly periodical owned and managed by the Jagiellonian University Institute of Archaeology.</p> Księgarnia Akademicka Publishing Ltd. en-US Studies in Ancient Art and Civilisation 1899-1548 Front Matter https://journals.akademicka.pl/saac/article/view/4540 Copyright (c) 2021 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-12-19 2021-12-19 25 The Rattles from Tell El-Farcha https://journals.akademicka.pl/saac/article/view/4541 <p>Vessel rattles were one of the first sound-producing tools made from clay. Throughout history, they were developed in many ancient cultures, convergently in many places around the world. To obtain a complete picture of the sounds produced by clay rattles, the short-time Fourier transform analysis is used. On top of that, to determine the full spectrum of their acoustical possibilities, numerical reconstruction of sound is done. The results provide us an opportunity to explore the soundscape of the past.</p> Katarzyna Tatoń Ireneusz Czajka Copyright (c) 2021 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-12-19 2021-12-19 25 7 22 10.12797/SAAC.25.2021.25.01 Lidded Jar from Grave No. 40 at Tell El-Murra Cemetery https://journals.akademicka.pl/saac/article/view/4542 <p>The goal of the article is to provide data about a lidded jar discovered in a Tell el-Murra (Nile Delta) grave from the Early Dynastic period. Through the publication of the morphological and technological analysis of the lidded vessel and the details of the place of its discovery, the author would like to make a contribution to the understanding of this kind of jars, known mostly from Upper Egypt and Nubia.</p> Magdalena Kazimierczak Copyright (c) 2021 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-12-19 2021-12-19 25 31 45 10.12797/SAAC.25.2021.25.02 Re-Examination of Predynastic Pottery from Minshat Abu Omar (Nile Delta, Egypt) https://journals.akademicka.pl/saac/article/view/4543 <p>A type of electromagnetic radiation known as X-rays has been known in ceramic research since the 1930s. X-radiography is applied mainly to investigate clay fabric and to identify manufacturing details. In clay fabric identification, the method could be used to determine size, proportions, type and even general mineralogy of inclusions or tempers. Moreover, it can be successfully applied to identify, verify or better understand primary forming techniques as well. The purpose of this paper is to investigate Egyptian Predynastic pottery production by means of X-radiography in order to determine the primary forming techniques used for making four small ceramic vessels: bag-shaped jars and lemon-shaped jar from the cemetery at Minshat Abu Omar in the Eastern Nile Delta. The vessels are now in the collection of the Poznań Archaeological Museum and X-radiography was chosen as the study method because of its non-destructive nature allowing to penetrate the walls of vessels from the museum collection. Two primary forming techniques (pinching and coil-building) were identified during the analysis. The studied vessels were made of two segments by hand. Pinching was used to build the belly, while the shoulder, neck and rim were made by coiling. The application of two different forming techniques as well as the effort invested in joining coils and vessel segments imply that their makers were fairly skilled in their craft. The vessels reveal these ‘secrets of the trade’ only when exposed to X-rays.</p> Agnieszka Mączyńska Copyright (c) 2021 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-12-19 2021-12-19 25 55 68 10.12797/SAAC.25.2021.25.03 Two Fragments of Early Dynastic Flint Bangles from Tell El-Murra in the Context of Finds from Ancient Egypt https://journals.akademicka.pl/saac/article/view/4544 <p>The aim of this study is to present two fragments of flint bangles discovered in the remains of the settlement excavated at the site of Tell el-Murra (north-eastern Nile Delta). This group of artefacts, related to the Proto- and Early Dynastic periods, is known from several sites of Ancient Egypt, but their total number is still modest. The items from Tell el-Murra may contribute to the discussion on the method of production and distribution of this type of items.</p> Katarzyna Lajs Copyright (c) 2021 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-12-19 2021-12-19 25 73 82 10.12797/SAAC.25.2021.25.04 The Beginning of Messambria Pontica https://journals.akademicka.pl/saac/article/view/4545 <p>The foundation of Messambria Pontica has been debated for more than a century. Some questions still remain unanswered while some answers need revision due to the developments in research. Among these questions are the date of Messambria’s foundation, the composition of its ἄποικοι, the identity of its historical founder, the polis’ relations with local Thracian tribes, etc. Recent studies on various topics that concern these questions, including new archaeological evidence, provide some possible interpretations of already known sources. Generally speaking, these interpretations both challenge and confirm some of the ideas that have gained acceptance in the literature. Interpretations discussed in this article concern when the apoikia was founded, what the impact and nature of the ἔποικοι was, what the name of Messambria means, and what its larger tribal environment looked like based on the latest archaeological research.</p> Ivo Topalilov Copyright (c) 2021 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-12-19 2021-12-19 25 87 105 10.12797/SAAC.25.2021.25.05 Brain-Mind-Body-Sign-World: Crossing the Borders https://journals.akademicka.pl/saac/article/view/4546 <p>The paper discusses the possible meeting areas between oriental studies, archaeology, and cognitive linguistics. The point of departure is study of Chris Gosden (2008) in which he shows a possible cooperation between archaeology and neuroscience when the interactions among brain-body-world are taken into account. On the example of a sword from the Iron Age, he shows the mutual influences of the brain-body-culture complex on the one hand, and the materials used in craft. I will follow his line of reasoning and show the use of the concept of gold processing in thinking about cognition as it is attested in the early Indian texts. The example analyzed in the paper is a description of a Buddhist meditation attested in the Pāli Canon (c. 4th-1st centuries BCE). With the use of cognitive linguistics models of mental processes, I will show how the triangle brain-bodyworld can be enlarged with two more elements, namely, the mind and signs.</p> Joanna Jurewicz Copyright (c) 2021 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-12-19 2021-12-19 25 107 122 10.12797/SAAC.25.2021.25.06 The Horned Horse in the Coinage of Seleucus I Nicator https://journals.akademicka.pl/saac/article/view/4547 <p>The motif of the horned horse on the coins of Seleucus I is characteristic for the coinage of the first Seleucid king. Its meaning is still unclear in spite of many attempts to interpret it. The horned horse is associated with Dionysos, or Alexander the Great. Most of the coins featuring this motif were minted in the Iranian part of the empire of Seleucus I and this fact suggests that it should be interpreted in the context of Iranian culture in which a horse featured significantly and could symbolize royal power and authority. Horns as an iconographic element were characteristic of Babylon and were typical attributes of gods and kings in their representations. This publication focuses on the interpretation of the motif of the horned horse and horseman within the context of the Iranian religion and Achaemenid royal tradition and its influence on Seleucus’ ideology of power.</p> Robert S. Wójcikowski Copyright (c) 2021 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-12-19 2021-12-19 25 123 142 10.12797/SAAC.25.2021.25.07 Sacral Inventories and Archaeological Reality in the Isis Sanctuaries oustide Egypt (Late Hellenistic and Roman Periods) https://journals.akademicka.pl/saac/article/view/4548 <p>What kind of material can be found in Isiac sanctuaries, that is, those devoted to Isis, and her companion Sarapis, as well as the synnaoi theoi, Anubis and Harpocrates? To answer this question, we can study the sacral inventories, but they are few. Sundry information is also to be found in literary and epigraphical texts (especially dedications) and iconography, but all these sources have to be linked with the material discovered in sanctuaries. Three main groups of material can be identified: first of all, the statue and everything connected to it (such as garments and jewels); then, the material used to worship the god or goddess during everyday worship or on different feasts; finally, objects used to create a special atmosphere peculiar to a mystery cult.</p> Jean-Louis Podvin Copyright (c) 2021 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-12-19 2021-12-19 25 145 156 10.12797/SAAC.25.2021.25.08 Gallic Amphorae in Rome (and Ostia) during the Middle Imperial Age: Data Revision and Reflections from the Finds at the ‘Terme Di Elagabalo’ in Rome https://journals.akademicka.pl/saac/article/view/4549 <p>Starting from the unpublished amphorae discovered in the Middle Imperial contexts (dating 2nd-early 3rd centuries AD) found in the building known as the ‘Terme di Elagabalo’ in Rome, this paper analyses the presence of Gallic containers in Rome and Ostia. The finds from that site will be combined with the ones deriving from several published contexts in Rome with similar dating and compared with those discovered in Ostia (the traditional comparison for the Capital) in order to update the data about their presence in both cities during the chosen chronological period. This paper will also analyse ancient sources that mention Gallic products in order to reflect not only upon their quality, but also their purchasers and consumers, with brief considerations derived from theories in social sciences.</p> Edoardo Radaelli Copyright (c) 2021 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-12-19 2021-12-19 25 161 178 10.12797/SAAC.25.2021.25.09 Amphores tardo-antiques fabriquées sur le Littoral Sud de la Région De Murcie (Espagne) https://journals.akademicka.pl/saac/article/view/4550 <p>The natural riches of the Murcia Region in Spain were of interest to Phoenician sailors. In the Bahía de Mazarrón, unique Fencian ships were found. Apart from metal ores and alumina, the southern coast of Murcia abounded in fish processing establishments, which took on special importance since the 4th century AD. And for this reason workshops for the production of containers called spatheia were set up on the coast. Particularly active were the workshops of Puerto de Mazarrón, La Azohía, El Mojón, Águilas. The article presents a study of amphorae from these workshops found in Bahía de Mazarrón. They are stored in the Museo Arqueológico in Murcia and the Municipal Museum Factoría Romana de Salazones in Puerto de Mazarrón, where the author conducted her research.</p> Iwona Modrzewska-Pianetti Copyright (c) 2021 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-12-19 2021-12-19 25 183 194 10.12797/SAAC.25.2021.25.10 Back Matter https://journals.akademicka.pl/saac/article/view/4551 Copyright (c) 2021 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-12-19 2021-12-19 25