Studies in Ancient Art and Civilisation <p>Studies in Ancient Art and Civilization were created in 1991 as an irregular series which in the first place served as a forum for the presentation of the Jagiellonian University Institute of Archaeology and studies provided by its researchers. The series was originated by Professor Joachim Śliwa, who was also its first Editor in Chief. In the years 2010–2014 this function was held by Professor Ewdoksia Papuci-Władyka, and since 2015 it has been fulfilled by Professor Jarosław Bodzek. Since vol. 10 (2007) SAAC has become a regular yearly periodical owned and managed by the Jagiellonian University Institute of Archaeology.</p> en-US (Department of Scientific Journals, Ksiegarnia Akademicka Publishing) (Author’s Support) Wed, 22 May 2024 11:45:12 +0200 OJS 60 Front Matter Copyright (c) 2024 Fri, 22 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0100 Umm Tuweyrat <p>During the 2021 season, a team of researchers from the Institute of Archaeology, Jagiellonian University conducted an exploration of an Umm Tuweyrat site located in southern Jordan. The site constitutes a dolmen field located near the modern city of Ash-Shawbak. More than a dozen dolmens and other structures were identified on the site, indicating the use of the area by communities living in the region during the late prehistoric periods. As part of the research carried out on the site, the available areas were explored, all structures were cleaned and digitalized, and geological and material analyses were proceeded. This activity proved that future research on southern Jordanian dolmens has the potential to shed even more light on the rich cultural history of the region and deepen our understanding of the late prehistory.</p> Piotr Kołodziejczyk Copyright (c) 2024 Fri, 22 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0100 Exploitation of Marine Shells at Roman Jerash (Jordan) <p>The Jerash archaeological site holds great significance as one of the most prominent Roman sites in the Middle East. In our research paper, we present an assortment of marine shells discovered in the northern region of the Jerash archaeological site during the University of Jordan’s excavations from 2017 to 2019. We analyze the shells to determine their species. Additionally, we document the human modifications of the shells in order to reconstruct their possible use. The number of shells is small, but their value is heightened by the variety of species represented and the human modifications observed. The most frequently found shell are 12 murex (11 are Bolinus brandaris). Some shells exhibit perforations, which could be attributed to various purposes such as adornments, the production of cosmetics, or souvenirs.</p> Bellal Abuhelaleh, Adnan Shiyyab, Kevin Lidour, David S. Reese Copyright (c) 2024 Fri, 22 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0100 Back Matter Copyright (c) 2024 Fri, 22 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0100 Emulation in Painted Pottery Styles in Egypt in the Prehistoric Period <p>This study examines how the painting technique was introduced into the pottery assemblages of Egypt and Nubia in the prehistoric period. For this purpose, I compare the introduction process of the painting technique in Egypt from the fifth to the first half of the fourth millennium BCE and that in Upper Mesopotamia between ca. 6200-5900 cal BC to establish if they had a similar introduction process or not. If they were different, I tried to clarify how exactly the case of Egypt was different from that of Upper Mesopotamia. This study suggests the possibility that white cross-lined ware (C-ware), and probably also black incised ware (N-ware), were the kinds of ware vessels invented locally in Upper Egypt in the process of introducing the inlay decoration technique using white pigment from the Nubian pottery traits (e.g., caliciform beakers) and introducing the painting decoration technique from the southern Levant, though the painting was made mostly with a reddish pigment in the southern Levant instead of white. The pigment color used for the painting decoration on pottery surfaces in Upper Egypt might have been changed from white (i.e., C-ware) to reddish (i.e., D-ware) even for the purpose of finding more efficient (i.e., less labou -intensive) decoration techniques.</p> Sakura Sanada Copyright (c) 2024 Fri, 22 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0100 Opium Art and Truffle Texts in the Aegean and Ancient Near East <p>From the third millennium BC on, the opium poppy was exploited by the civilizations of the Aegean and Near East. While the terms for it in the ancient languages of the region are still unknown, the distinctive features of the harvest-ready seed pod would seem to find reflection in numerous works of Minoan, Mycenaean, Mesopotamian, and related art. This paper proposes that the corpus of opium imagery is far more extensive than previously recognized, including pins, finials, jewelry, seals, vessels, and weapons. It would also seem that certain elite women played vital roles in ancient opium matters. As for the desert truffle, it thrives in the area’s arid and semi-arid ecosystems, where the opium poppy cannot. We have no truffle art, so far as can be determined, but its suggestive presence in cuneiform documents, among them the seven Mari letters collected here, may signal that it was prized for its ability to engender altered states of consciousness, in addition to its nutritional and pharmaceutical benefits.</p> Karen Polinger Foster Copyright (c) 2024 Fri, 22 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0100 The Origin of the Discovered Urartian Bulla in Ziwiye <p>There are several discovered Urartian artifacts and among them are the bullae. They are sometimes inscribed and sealed with cylinder and/or stamp seals. The impressions sometimes contain an inscription along with a royal, mythical or ritual scene. Royal impressions include the figure and the inscription of King Rusa II. There is an Urartian bulla from Ziwiye with a stamp seal impression representing Rusa’s figure, a parasol over his head and an inscription which resembles the impressions of Ayanis bullae. Additionally, cylinder seal impressions with similar iconography and inscription are discovered in Bastam and Toprakkale. There are previous contributions on the bulla of Ziwiye but none are about its inscription or the detail of the impression in comparison with other bullae. The inscription on the bulla from Ziwiye as Dḫal-di URU (the city of God Ḫaldi). There were several cities of Ḫaldi in the Urartian kingdom but as the impression of Ziwiye bulla resembles to bullae of Ayanis, it is possible that the city this bulla came from was close to or under the control of Ayanis.</p> Maryam Dara Copyright (c) 2024 Fri, 22 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0100 Animal Mummies in the Collections of the National Museum in Krakow and the Princes Czartoryski Museum <p>The collections of the National Museum in Krakow and the Princes Czartoryski Museum include four Egyptian animal mummies, whose radiological and tomographic examinations were carried out twice, in 1999 and 2021, in the Department of Radiology of the Jagiellonian University Medical College. The paper will present two aspects of the examinations, crucial for the knowledge of the artifacts. On the one hand, these are provenience research that allow to determine the history of the acquisition for the collection of both museums. On the other hand, medical examinations provided the answer to the question about the authenticity and value of the objects. Images of the inside of the mummies allowed to correlate the shape of the mummies with the animal species – in our case, a cat, Marsh Harrier, Kestrel – and to clarify the biological data on birds. X-rays also revealed the imitation of the ichneumon mummy, which, considering the species of the animal and the history of its acquisition for the Princes Czartoryski Museum, had always been a unique specimen among Egyptian artifacts.</p> Dorota Gorzelany-Nowak, Jarosław Wilczyński Copyright (c) 2024 Fri, 22 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0100 A Motif of Parrots in Dionysian Contexts on Selected Examples of Hellenistic and Roman Mosaics <p>This paper provides an overview of the mosaics in which parrots are represented as a motive accompanying Dionysian themes. Based on the written and iconographic sources, the author argues that a parrot was an intrinsic element of the visual language conveying ideas of earthly happiness and eternal bliss, as well as the Hellenistic concept of tryphé.</p> Anna Głowa Copyright (c) 2024 Fri, 22 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0100 Ancient Tokens from the Archaeological Museum of Syracuse <p>Called symbola by the Greeks and tesserae by the Romans, ancient tokens have played an essential role in daily life as small ‘monetiform’ objects used to get access to festivals, temples, private buildings (e.g. baths) and banquets. Produced and distributed as a means to obtain special rights ‘in exchange,’ tokens have been massively discovered within archaeological excavations or traced anew in world-wide museum collections arousing interest amongst scholars. Sicily represents a remarkable case study to understand how token production and distribution occurred in small ancient communities. Starting from the final results of the recent ERC project Token Communities in the Ancient Mediterranean project (University of Warwick, 2016-21), my contribution aims to present a novel set of clay tokens currently preserved at the Paolo Orsi Archaeological Museum in Syracuse. First, the article outlines the token production in Sicily benefitting from available data recently collected. Second, it assesses the Syracuse’s tokens mostly focusing on their findspot area, iconography and recurring types (in particular, Hermes and the ox). The article also includes a detailed catalogue of finds reporting all measurements and data.</p> Antonino Crisà Copyright (c) 2024 Fri, 22 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0100 The Kilt and the Tunic of Anubis <p>A collective burial from the early 2nd century AD, reusing the Theban Tomb 32, built in the Egyptian New Kingdom, offers a unique opportunity to learn about the practices of funerary workshops of the time. The particularity of this family group related to an archon named Soter lies in the fact that it allows the dating of their funerary assemblages in absolute and relative terms, as well as elements of their iconography. This circumstance is helpful for the study of these objects as well as other contemporary or nearby items. To illustrate the potential of this approach, we will focus on the image of the god Anubis when he accompanies the deceased to their judgement before Osiris.</p> Jónatan Ortiz-García Copyright (c) 2024 Fri, 22 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0100 Dating of Three Sasanian Bowls from the National Museum of Iran <p>Three Sasanian Silver Bowls at the National Museum of Iran, known collectively as the “dancer-musician scenes,” have been considered as one of the museum’s most iconic works for the past 70 years. Only bowl No. 1 has been examined by numerous Western and Iranian scholars. Based on the catalog of the exhibition “7000 Years of Iranian Art Exhibition” in Vienna (2001-2002), these dishes have been tentatively dated to 8-9th centuries CE. All subsequent exhibitions have followed the same pattern. In addition, the dark heart-shaped decorations on two dishes have been called minā (enameling) in most of the previous publications. The importance of these three bowls (and also the famous Sasanian silver cup) has been the main reason for their selection for technical analysis, X-Ray fluorescence (XRF), and spectroscopy. However, a well-known Sasanian cup (called also “a silver musician-dancer” piece) was only subjected to a semi-quantitative investigation using XRF analysis. The XRF has been extremely helpful in determining a more exact dating for the three bowls indicated above, but it has also raised serious concerns about the dark heartshaped embellishments. Moreover, the dating of the artifacts has been called into doubt by an XRF study of Arabo-Sasanian coins (early Islamic periods) and a comparison of the metal compounds of these objects with those of the three dishes. Additionally, the authors of the present article have proposed niello for the dark ornamentation on the bowls based on these two technical evaluations. Indeed, spectroscopy was not able to answer the main question about the heart-shaped decorations on bowls No. 1 &amp; No. 2, but it has opened a new venue to challenge the term minā, which was widely used in printed works. However, these two chemical analyses expose the possibility that the items may have been created in a workshop of the same artist (or a group of artists).</p> Daryoosh Akbarzadeh, Shiba Khadir Copyright (c) 2024 Fri, 22 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0100