Studia Iberica (Studia Iberystyczne) <p><em>Studia Iberica </em>(antes <em>Studia Iberystyczne</em>) es una revista científica revisada por pares cuyas temáticas son los aspectos culturales, lingüísticos y literarios de España, Portugal y los países de América Latina. Publica trabajos de investigación en y sobre las siguientes lenguas: español, portugués, catalán, gallego y las lenguas criollas sobre la base del español y del portugués.</p> Księgarnia Akademicka SRL en-US Studia Iberica (Studia Iberystyczne) 2082-8594 Back Matter Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 22 Front Matter Copyright (c) 2023 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 22 Wprowadzenie Xavier Farré Marcin Kurek Copyright (c) 2022 Xavier Farré 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 22 19 20 Lo invisible puede ser lo más real. La poesía de La Maga – Leonor Carrasquilla Castello <p><strong>THE INVISIBLE CAN BE THE MOST REAL: THE POETRY OF LA MAGA – LEONOR CARRAS- QUILLA CASTELLO</strong></p> <p>In the essay, the author attempts to comprehensively capture the work of contemporary Colombian poet Leonor Carrasquilla Castello, who publishes under the pseudonym La Maga. The key to conceptualize his poetic creation seems to be the category of the invisible. What is inaccessible in direct cognition is for the poet the most important aspect of life and reality. These are elements that cannot be measured but can be experienced, such as faith, conscience, feelings and many others.</p> Bogdan Piotrowski Copyright (c) 2022 Bogdan Piotrowski 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 22 23 48 10.12797/SI.22.2022.22.01 Alejandra Pizarnik: biografia poetycka <p><strong>ALEJANDRA PIZARNIK: A POETIC BIOGRAPHY</strong></p> <p>This article is a modest attempt at translating the work of the Argentinian poet Alejandra Pizarnik (1936-1972), and at the same time an expression of appreciation for the wonderful translator and her translation work. It contains a short biography of the poet with translations of fragments of her correspondence with Ivonne Bordelois and a selection of works from collected poetry (<em>Poesía completa</em>).</p> Ewa Stala Copyright (c) 2022 Ewa Stala 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 22 49 62 10.12797/SI.22.2022.22.02 Lo pequeño es bonito Ewa Nawrocka Maria Filipowicz-Rudek Copyright (c) 2022 Ewa Nawrocka, Maria Filipowicz-Rudek 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 22 5 10 Małe jest piękne Ewa Nawrocka Maria Filipowicz-Rudek Copyright (c) 2022 Ewa Nawrocka, Maria Filipowicz-Rudek 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 22 11 15 El carácter y función del personaje de María Josefa en La Casa de Bernarda Alba, o la locura como recurso dramático <p><strong>THE CHARACTER AND FUNCTION OF MARÍA JOSEFA IN <em>LA CASA DE BERNARDA ALBA</em>, OR MADNESS AS A DRAMATIC RESOURCE</strong></p> <p>This article examines the dramatic function of María Josefa within the structure of <em>La Casa de Bernarda Alba</em>. By portraying her as “mad,” the author portrays her as a character who rebels against the tyranny of her daughter Bernarda. In this construction of the character of María Josefa, there is a certain similarity with those “madmen” and “madwomen” in Spanish Golden Age and English Elizabethan theatre.</p> Urszula Aszyk Copyright (c) 2022 Urszula Aszyk 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 22 65 84 10.12797/SI.22.2022.22.03 Calderonowskie konstelacje znaczeń w polskich przekładach La vida es sueño: „un breve cielo” <p><strong>CALDERONIAN CONSTELLATIONS OF MEANINGS IN POLISH TRANSLATIONS OF LA VIDA ES SUEÑO: „UN BREVE CIELO”</strong></p> <p>The text is devoted to the Polish versions of<em> La vida es sueño</em> in the context of the metaphor „little heaven” („un breve cielo”). Segismundo uses a syllogistic argument based on the concept of microcosm (<em>el pequeño mundo del hombre</em>) to define the beauty of women. Calderón’s dramaturgic strategy is outlined in order to relate it to the stage practice of the Polish theatre. The study is based on the contemporary and historical translations of La vida es sueño into Polish, respectively: Leon Rudkiewicz (1826), Józef Szujski (1882), Barbara Zan (1927), Edward Boyé (1937), Jarosław Marek Rymkiewicz (1969), Marta Eloy Cichocka (2013), Tomasz Jękot (2021).</p> Beata Baczyńska Copyright (c) 2022 Beata Baczyńska 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 22 85 106 10.12797/SI.22.2022.22.04 Motyw wdzięczności w starofrancuskich powieściach Okrągłego Stołu <p><strong>THE MOTIF OF GRATITUDE IN OLD FRENCH ROUND TABLE STORIES</strong></p> <p>The article explores the motif of gratitude in selected Old French Round Table stories, in particular its origins, variants and correlation with the motifs of gift and quest. The influence of the gratitude motif on the language of the characters (seen as a kind of <em>homo gratus</em> figure), marked by the dialogical nature of the gratitude discourse attributed to them, is also discussed.</p> Katarzyna Dybeł Copyright (c) 2022 Katarzyna Dybeł 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 22 107 118 10.12797/SI.22.2022.22.05 Un canvi de perspectiva. La poesia de Czesław Miłosz i la primera recepció <p><strong>A CHANGE OF PERSPECTIVE: CZESŁAW MIŁOSZ’S POETRY AND ITS FIRST RECEPTION</strong></p> <p>In the criticism and studies of Czesław Miłosz’s work, the cycles “The world (naive poem)” and “Voices of the poor people”, from the book <em>Rescue</em> (1945) occupy a place of enormous importance because it opens two lines of the postwar Polish poetry, initiates the so-called polyphony of the Polish author and establishes links with other literary traditions, especially the Anglo-Saxon and T. S. Eliot’s poem <em>The Waste Land</em>. But these elements should not necessarily always be kept in a translation, rather they can lead to other reminiscences. In the article, we study this fenomen based on the theories of Antoine Berman and focused in the first published translation of the Polish author’s poems in Spanish. </p> Xavier Farré Vidal Copyright (c) 2022 Xavier Farré Vidal 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 22 119 134 10.12797/SI.22.2022.22.06 Dues mirades poloneses sobre l’escriptura de Jaume Cabré: les traduccions d’Anna Sawicka i Barbara Łuczak del relat “Opus pòstum” <p><strong>TWO POLISH VIEWS ON THE WRITING OF JAUME CABRÉ: THE TRANSLATIONS BY ANNA SAWICKA AND BARBARA ŁUCZAK OF THE SHORT STORY “OPUS PÒSTUM”</strong></p> <p>In the present study, two translations of Jaume Cabré’s short story “Opus pòstum” (<em>Winter Journey</em>, 2000) published in Polish by Anna Sawicka and Barbara Łuczak, respectively, are analyzed. In accordance with the dominant that sets the orientation of the reading of the story, it will focus, on the one hand, on the expressions that denote movement (displacement, gesture) and spatiality, and, on the other, on the radical changes of tone and register that colloquialisms and vulgarisms imply. To proceed with the comparative analysis of the ST and the two TT, a series of translation techniques will be used, but the descriptive perspective of the analysis of literary translations specific to the theory of polysystems will also be applied, and specifically of the so-called “Manipulation School.” The study shows that each of the translators executes a different strategy (domestication, Sawicka; foreignization, Łuczak), but that both are complementary in terms of the potential readings of the text if we take into account Cabré’s position within the literary system and the aesthetic ideologies that have conditioned it.</p> Alfons Gregori Copyright (c) 2022 Alfons Gregori 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 22 135 156 10.12797/SI.22.2022.22.07 El concepto de la guerra justa en el Dotzè de Francesc Eiximenis <p><strong>THE CONCEPT OF THE JUST WAR IN <em>DOTZÈ</em> BY FRANCESC EIXIMENIS</strong></p> <p>The article presents the concept of the just war elaborated by Francesc Eiximenis (1327/32-1409), writer and Franciscan friar, one of the most important medieval authors of the Catalan language, exposed in the twelfth book (the Dotzè) of the Christian encyclopaedia <em>Lo Crestià</em>, dedicated to political-social issues.</p> Rozalia Sasor Copyright (c) 2022 Rozalia Sasor 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 22 157 170 10.12797/SI.22.2022.22.08 Miła nie taka miła – satyryczne elementy w cantigas de amigo <p><strong>WHEN A FRIEND IS NOT SO FRIENDLY – SATIRICAL ELEMENTS IN<em> CANTIGAS DE AMIGO</em></strong></p> <p>Even though the<em> cantiga de amigo</em> is an emblematic element of Galician-Portuguese poetry, and we even have several translations of songs belonging to this genre in the Polish language, they remain quite poorly studied, and their picture is sometimes greatly simplified. The purpose of this article is to draw attention to those songs about a lover that contain satirical-humorous elements, to propose some changes in their genological classification, and to draw attention to the heterogeneous nature of the love lyric of Galician troubadours. The article is accompanied by poetic and philological translations of Galician-Portuguese songs never translated into Polish.</p> Jakub Merdała Copyright (c) 2022 Jakub Merdała 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 22 171 202 10.12797/SI.22.2022.22.09 Małe jest wielkie, czyli karaibski model dla świata <p><strong>SMALL IS BIG, OR THE CARIBBEAN MODEL FOR THE WORLD</strong></p> <p>The discussion of Patrick Chamoiseau’s novel <em>Texaco</em> is used by the author as a presentation of the Caribbean model. On the example of Texaco, one of the districts of the capital of Martinique, a panorama of the social history of the descendants of slaves up to the present situation is shown. It is a specific family saga, an anthem in honor of resistance and the struggle for survival through the solidarity of the inhabitants of the favela. At the same time, the Martiniquan author’s novel is an interesting narrative experiment, recreating the tradition of an oral story, combined with a diary, reporter’s notes and elements of magical realism. The complexity of the presented world is expressed by the complexity of narrative structures. Despite the inevitable images of the tragic fate of the inhabitants, their history, the tone of hope for the emergence of a new social order, the Caribbean order, which can be used as a model for the world by building mutual compromise on relations, prevails.</p> Katarzyna Mroczkowska-Brand Copyright (c) 2022 Katarzyna Mroczkowska-Brand 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 22 203 230 10.12797/SI.22.2022.22.10 Walka Karnawału z Postem. Karnawalizacja obrazu rodziny w Śmierci i pogrzebie Mamy Grande i Stu latach samotności Gabriela Garcíi Márqueza <p><strong>CARNIVAL VS. LENT: THE CARNIVALIZATION OF THE FAMILY IMAGE IN GABRIEL GARCÍA MÁRQUEZ’S <em>DEATH AND FUNERAL OF MAMMA GRANDE</em> AND <em>ONE HUNDRED YEARS OF SOLITUDE</em></strong></p> <p>This article presents a socio-critical analysis of the family image in two works by Gabriel García Márquez: the short story <em>Death and Funeral of Mamma Grande</em> and the novel <em>One Hundred Years of Solitude</em>. In the literary cosmos of Macondo, the social microstructure that is the family is at the center around which a discursive image of the world is constructed. In this perspective, the strategy of carnivalization becomes particularly important, allowing for a subversive portrayal of the dominant ideological projects and axiological patterns present in Colombian realities, and more broadly speaking, Latin American ones. The creation of family portraits reveals a “carnivalesque worldview” rooted in popular laughter culture. Parody, grotesque realism, and carnival laughter are tools for criticizing dogmatic and hierarchical orders of power and official culture language.</p> Ewa Nawrocka Copyright (c) 2022 Ewa Nawrocka 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 22 231 256 10.12797/SI.22.2022.22.11 Baskijsko-katalońskie paralele kulturowe <p><strong>BASQUE-CATALAN CULTURAL PARALLELS</strong></p> <p>In this article, we discuss several threads that show parallels in the relations between the Basques and the Catalans. Apart from sharing similar geographic and historical conditions, there are other significant similarities between the two nations, including the “new song” movement and mutual gestures of solidarity between artists and intellectuals during Francoism, efforts to protect language and media policies, promotion of the language through relay races, cycling races, and the popularity of football, traditional human tower building at festivals, poetry improvisation competitions, special Marian devotion, traditional celebration of the summer solstice, Pyrenean cuisine products, and the successes of the “New Kitchen.” Moreover, both nations share a red headgear that has acquired rebellious symbolism.</p> Iwona Piechnik Copyright (c) 2022 Iwona Piechnik 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 22 257 286 10.12797/SI.22.2022.22.12 Fanfiction jako przypis – amatorska twórczość literacka na marginesie popkultury <p>Fanfiction as a Footnote – Amateur Literary Work on the Margins of Pop Culture Fanfiction, amateur literature based on the works of pop culture, has been an important part of the activity and culture of fans of different fictional works - books, comics, films and series - since the 1970s. Its marginal nature is visible in the very method of publication and distribution - it is unofficially and anonymously placed on niche websites. It does not profit anyone or enjoy the recognition of anyone, except for a small circle of other fans. It can be understood as a footnote to pop culture, as it is primarily a testimony of reception, a work that exists only in relation to the original that inspired it, and to other fanfictions. The paradox of this phenomenon is that this imitation does not exclude creativity and transformation of meanings, and the intellectual distance needed to create and receive it coexists with emotional intensity.</p> Dorota Pudo Copyright (c) 2022 Dorota Pudo 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 22 287 314 10.12797/SI.22.2022.22.13 Wzywam Cię, przyjdź! Hiszpania między sacrum a profanum <p><strong>I SUMMON YOU, COME! SPAIN BETWEEN SACRED AND PROFANE</strong></p> <p>The article adopts the form of an itinerary on selected aspects of Iberian identity shaped over the centuries in a diverse cultural mosaic of races and nations inhabiting the Iberian Peninsula. The research material illustrating the relationship between the sacred and the profane in particular periods of Spanish history (antiquity, the Middle Ages, the Renaissance, the Baroque) comes from selected works of Roman, Arabic, Hebrew, Sephardic and Spanish literature, fragments of which have been quoted in Polish translations.</p> Piotr Sawicki Copyright (c) 2022 Piotr Sawicki 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 22 315 334 10.12797/SI.22.2022.22.14 O hiszpańskości Wiktora Hugo (1802-1885): kilka refleksji <p><strong>ON THE SPANISHNESS OF VICTOR HUGO (1802-1885): SOME REFLECTIONS</strong></p> <p>In the literary world of Victor Hugo’s imagination, Spain served as a melting pot, continuously providing nourishment for both his personal mythology and creative endeavors. As a child, Hugo spent approximately a year in Spain and found the country to be fascinating “beyond the Pyrenees.” Historically and geographically close, yet different and almost exotic, Spain became a powerful and seductive source of inspiration for the artist’s imagination. In subsequent collections of poetry, dialogues, monologues, and novels, Spain is present as a word, sound, image, a place of dramatic action, or literary fiction. The frequent anthropomorphization and personification of Spain in Hugo’s works create the impression of a beloved, close, yet lost, living person. This article examines the dynamics of this fascination, which is ever-present in Hugo’s works, and how it was modified by tragic events in the writer’s life.</p> Barbara Sosień Copyright (c) 2022 Barbara Sosień 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 22 335 352 10.12797/SI.22.2022.22.15 Consideraciones en torno al brindis como acto social y comunicativo -un brindis por Anna- <p><strong>CONSIDERATIONS AROUND TOAST AS A SOCIAL AND COMMUNICATIVE ACT -<em>A TOAST TO ANNA</em>-</strong></p> <p>Through the present work we intend to make an approximation to the phenomenon of the toast, both from a sociocultural perspective (because if we take the classical tradition as a reference it is easily observable that it was articulated around the <em>convivalia</em>, a phenomenon that has reached our days, ramified in multiple articulations and formulations, but which maintains the original essence related to the fact of paying homage to a specific person in meetings or gatherings of various kinds, whether more formal or more familiar), as well as from a linguistic perspective that will cover various fields of analysis clearly delimited: pragmatics, since this act initially constitutes an element that has been included in the manifestations of courtesy or, eventually, impoliteness, as well as comparative linguistics between the Spanish and Polish languages. However, we would like to show that, ultimately, this article constitutes a modest tribute to Professor Anna Sawicka, an eminent figure of Spanish and Catalan letters at the Jagiellonian University of Kraków, and all the research carried out in it is not but our way of expressing our most sincere gratitude.</p> Marta Wicherek R. Sergio Balches Arenas Copyright (c) 2022 Marta Wicherek, R. Sergio Balches Arenas 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 22 355 374 10.12797/SI.22.2022.22.16 Valores y usos de la interjección guau en la lengua española <p><strong>VALUES AND USES OF THE INTERJECTION <em>GUAU</em> IN THE SPANISH LANGUAGE</strong></p> <p>The article analyzes the different uses of the interjection <em>guau</em>, which is a loanword from the English language. The analysis is based mainly on the statements collected in the Corpus of Spanish of the XXI Century (CORPES). The discursive functions and pragmatic values of <em>guau</em> in Spanish are examined.</p> Agata Komorowska Copyright (c) 2022 Agata Komorowska 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 22 375 396 10.12797/SI.22.2022.22.17 La estructura modal poder + infinitivo en la documentación notarial medieval de Galicia <p><strong>THE CONSTRUCTION PODER + INFINITIVE IN MEDIEVAL GALICIAN NOTARIAL DOCUMENTS</strong></p> <p>The main aim of the present paper is to analyse some peculiarities of modal uses of the structure <em>poder</em> + infinitive in medieval notarial documentation (13th-15th c.) from Galicia. By means of an analysis based on data extracted from the corpus <em>Tesouro Medieval da Lingua Galega</em>, the study investigates the influence of the legal character of the database on the distribution of the three basic modal values, i.e., the dynamic, deontic and epistemic ones and on the verb forms in which the structure in question is found.</p> Barbara Mazurek Copyright (c) 2022 Barbara Mazurek 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 22 397 414 10.12797/SI.22.2022.22.18 Z Lechistanu nad wody Bosforu – o etnonimie ‘Polak’ w języku judeohiszpańskim <p><strong>FROM <em>LEHISTAN</em> TO THE WATERS OF BOSPHORUS: ABOUT THE ETHNONYM ‘POLISH’ IN JUDEO-SPANISH</strong></p> <p>The aim of this paper is to investigate the existing Judeo-Spanish ethnonyms with the original meaning of ‘Polish’ and the semantic changes that they have undergone. We focus especially on the lexeme <em>lehli</em> (etymologically derived from<em> Lehistan</em>, that is, the denomination of Poland in Ottoman Turkish), which now is used mainly to designate Ashkenazi Jew. We contrast the lexicographical information with real usage examples and opinions of Ladino native speakers.</p> Marta Pawłowska Copyright (c) 2022 Marta Pawłowska 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 22 415 434 10.12797/SI.22.2022.22.19 «¡Diga! ¿Ah, es usted? Encantado siempre». Notas sobre el origen de la expresión diga en comunicaciones telefónicas <p><strong>«¡DIGA! ¿AH, ES USTED? ENCANTADO SIEMPRE». NOTES ON THE ORIGIN OF THE EXPRESSION <em>DIGA</em> IN TELEPHONE COMMUNICATIONS</strong></p> <p>The study delves into the origin of the Spanish interjective expression <em>diga</em> (lit. ‘please speak’), with the formal variant <em>dígame</em> (lit. ‘please speak to me’), highly conventionalized, used in the Spanish spoken in Spain in response to a phone call. Through the electronic corpus <em>CORDE</em> and <em>CREA</em> the author tries to find both the linguistic and extralinguistic reasons that led to its sudden pragmaticalization.</p> Andrzej Zieliński Copyright (c) 2022 Andrzej Zieliński 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 22 437 450 10.12797/SI.22.2022.22.20