Studia Iberystyczne <p><em>Studia Iberystyczne</em>, or <em>Iberian Studies</em>, is an open-access scientific journal dedicated to the questions of culture, language and literature of Spain, Portugal and the Latin American countries. The journal publishes original research works on the following language areas: Castilian, Portuguese, Catalan and Galician.&nbsp; The journal is published by the Department of Hispanic Philology and the Department of Portuguese Philology and Translation Studies at the Institute of Romance Philology of the Jagiellonian University.&nbsp;</p> Księgarnia Akademicka SRL en-US Studia Iberystyczne 2082-8594 Front matter Copyright (c) 2021 2021-11-25 2021-11-25 20 Back matter Copyright (c) 2021 2021-11-25 2021-11-25 20 Wkład Alfonsa V Wspaniałomyślnego w upowszechnienie katalońskich zwyczajów kulinarnych w Królestwie Neapolu w XV wieku <p><strong>Contribution of Alfonso V the Magnanimous to the Popularization of Catalan Culinary Customs in the Kingdom of Naples in the 15th century </strong></p> <p>The wars for Naples ended in 1442 with the victory of Alfonso V the Magnanimous, the ruler of the Crown of Aragon (1416–1458). The emergence of foreign authority in southern Italy entailed the transfer of the Catalan culture, language and customs to the area of Italian Mezzogiorno. In this process, Catalan culinary traditions which developed at the end of the fourteenth century also occupied an important place. One of them was a separate sweet snack, referred to by the Catalan term <em>col·lació</em> (<em>collatio</em> in Latin). The organization and celebration of col·lació became an important form of ostentation for the Catalan ruling and financial elites. In this article, the author discusses excerpts from historical sources whose authors include, among others, Antonio Beccadelli, Jordi de Centelles, Vespasiano da Bisticci, Giovanni Pontano, as well as the ambassadors of Barcelona and Portugal and other anonymous authors writing about the times of Alfonso V the Magnanimous. The data provided by these sources clearly indicate that this ruler followed the custom of eating sweet colazione known in Italy at this time and gave it a new meaning at least as early as in the 1440s. Thanks to this ruler of Aragon and new Neapolitan king, the sweet snack became one of the instruments of the ostentation of wealth and prestige for the new rulers of the southern part of Italy and soon after also for other princes and lords of the area.</p> Rafał Hryszko Copyright (c) 2021 2021-11-25 2021-11-25 20 5 33 10.12797/SI.20.2021.20.01 Una broma muy seria <p><strong><em>Una broma muy seria</em>. The Catalan Concept of <em>Tabarnia</em></strong></p> <p>The satirical, imaginary concept of creating Tabarnia has gained popularity in recent years – not so much because of its usefulness, rather it exposes the tense socio-political situation in Catalonia. Therefore, the main objective of this article is not the feasibility of the project but the reasons for creation and its implications. Furthermore, the analysis focuses on the relevance of the concept in the context of the radicalisation process of Catalan independentism.</p> Wioletta Husar-Poliszuk Copyright (c) 2021 2021-11-25 2021-11-25 20 35 56 10.12797/SI.20.2021.20.02 – katalońska powieść kryminalna <p><strong> – the Catalan Crime Novel. Reconnaissance</strong></p> <p>In recent decades, the crime fiction in its many variants and forms, has become one of the most important subgenres of contemporary literature, largely assuming the role of the social novel, which analyses the state of society and raises questions about its moral condition. It can be a literary export product, becoming a component of popular opinion and ideas concerning a country or a region (for example, the Scandinavian crime novel or the Colombian narconovela). In Spain, the crime fiction has been developing intensively since the mid- -1970s, with its first major themes being the Transición and the reckoning with the 20th century history. Over time, Barcelona, due to the work of authors such as Manuel Vázquez Montalbán or Eduardo Mendoza, has become a kind of capital of the crime fiction in Spain. This article is a reconnaissance in the world of the recent crime fiction written in Catalan, and presents its main themes, representatives and specific features. It also discusses the activities aimed at popularising and dissemination of the genre and its knowledge among the Catalan-speaking public.</p> Adriana Sara Jastrzębska Copyright (c) 2021 2021-11-25 2021-11-25 20 57 75 10.12797/SI.20.2021.20.03 Gospodarcze skutki dążeń niepodległościowych w Katalonii w latach 2010-2020 <p><strong>Economic Effects of the Independence Aspirations of Catalonia in 2010-2020</strong></p> <p>Catalonia is treated by cultural scientists, scientists and economists as one of the best developing regions not only in Spain, but also in Europe. Thanks to a very well-developed economy, it arouses the interest of foreign investors (German, French, Swiss) who decide to establish business contacts and place their capital in this part of Spain, contributing to its economic growth. The same economic awareness of the Catalans (along with the historical awareness and national identity) is at the basis of unwavering aspirations for independence. The events that significantly influenced not only political stability in the last decade, but also the economic situation of Catalonia were two referenda organized in 2014 and 2017. Their correlation with selected sub-sectors of the Catalan economy is shown e.g by macroeconomic indicators such as FDI or IPI, the values of which (especially after 2017) dropped drastically. The decisions of the Constitutional Court on the illegal nature of actions taken by the authorities in Catalonia, court sentences imposing imprisonment on politicians for rebellions and misappropriation of public funds, and finally information chaos, caused uncertainty among business partners, resulting in the deterioration of the economic situation in recent years in this region of Spain. In this article, the economic analysis covers the years 2010-2020, during which the biggest negative event was the “independence referendum” in 2017.</p> Magdalena Alicja Kasper Copyright (c) 2021 2021-11-25 2021-11-25 20 77 103 10.12797/SI.20.2021.20.04 O uzgodnieniu negacji w języku katalońskim <p><strong>Negative Concord in Catalan: N-words, Polar Items and Emphatic Particle</strong></p> <p>In the article, we made a synopsis of the advances in the investigation upon the Negative Concord structure (<em>concordança negativa</em>) in Catalan hitherto made. Speaking of Romance languages, an optional negation of the predicate after an n-word is a trait characteristic only of the Pyrenean continuum. The source of the dialectal diversity in the Negative Concord paradigm is to be searched for – primarily in language contact; historical and social factors have also been considered. A special insight has been offered on the ample class of minimizers, just like n-words subject to the processes of desemanticization and grammaticalization as emphatic particles.</p> Michał Koźmiński Copyright (c) 2021 2021-11-25 2021-11-25 20 105 131 10.12797/SI.20.2021.20.05 Better and Lesser Catalans? <p>The paper analyses the relationships between the teams and supporters of FC Barcelona and RCD Espanyol Barcelona, in which the dispute concerning Catalanness has been and remains the foremost issue. FC Barcelona is widely considered an ambassador of Catalonia, a symbol of Catalanness and the epitome of Catalanism as embodied through football. Espanyol, its local rival, has to face allegations of being a non-Catalan club, or an outgrowth of Real Madrid in Barcelona. While Barça is the club in which one “does politics” and with which one creates Catalonia (<em>fer Catalunya</em>), it is emphasized that Espanyol and its supporters are not involved in politics and the Catalan national effort. A perennial feud continues between the boards and fans of both clubs; historical, identity-related and ethnic arguments are invoked to demonstrate the Catalanness of one side (FC Barcelona) and its incompleteness or even utter absence in the other (RCD Espanyol). The analysis conducted in the paper shows that FC Barcelona’s exclusive Catalanness and right to represent Catalonia is a historical and social fact, but it has been challenged recently by Espanyol through the Catalanization the club undertook in mid-1990s and a series of public campaigns to undermine the hegemony of Barça in the city and the region. Espanyol is the active side in the contest to overcome FC Barcelona’s monopoly on representing Catalonia, while Barcelona itself focuses on retaining its previous status. The study demonstrates that both clubs are in fact polysemous, which means that Espanyol has supporters who feel first and foremost Catalans and espouse Catalan independence, while avowed opponents of the same idea can be found among the supporters of the Blaugrana, although the club is primarily Spanish and not only Catalan.</p> Filip Kubiaczyk Copyright (c) 2021 2021-11-25 2021-11-25 20 133 159 10.12797/SI.20.2021.20.06 Vicent Andrés Estellés i Ovidi Montllor <p><strong>Vicent Andrés Estellés and Ovidi Montllor: Creative Dialogue of Poetry and Music</strong></p> <p>This article aims at introducing the Valencian poet Vincent Andrés Estellés and songwriter Ovidi Montllor to the Polish audience. Both artists were able to make their mark in the field of Catalan poetry and songwriting in the 20th century. The works of Estellés and Montllor can successfully be analysed separately and such approach dominates the historical and literary discourse. The author, however, wants to show that in Montllor’s interpretations the Estellés’ poems and the music is interested in the way in such poetry and music are related in the interpretations of performed by Montllor create a whole that could be interpreted as a separate piece of art emancipated from the individual accounts of both artists. Brief recount of both artists’ biographies aims at placing their work in the broader cultural and social context of the Valencia Region in the second half of the 20th century. The similarities as well as the differences between their lives prove to be an interesting starting point for the comparison of their works, both when it comes to topics they choose as well as their reactions to the reality in which they were living. The author attempts to define the place that Estellés occupied in the intellectual panorama of Valencia in the last century, beside such intellectuals as Joan Fuster, among others. Moreover, the author points out the most important topics in poetry of Estellés, such as death, love, political and social opression. Estellés’ poetry was a protest against the cultural discrimination of the Valencian community. The poet stood against the elimination of the culture and language of the region that defined his identity. The resistance against the political regime resulted in a great number of musical arrangements. One of the most prominent songwriters who performed the poet’s works was Ovidi Montllor. As one of the representants of Catalan musical movement, Nova Cançó, Montllor shared a special creative bond with the Valencian poet. Montllor’s interpretations of Estellés’ texts were incomparable, both as stage performances and musical pieces. They allowed the poet’s works to reach a wider audience and become a synonym of the Valencian identity. The songs that came to existence thanks to the collaboration of both artists are sometimes bitter, ironic but also lyrical. They have a special place in the culture of the Valencia region as well as in the minds of the people of Valencia. These pieces of art still inspire young artists of different art forms.</p> Aleksandra Luberda Copyright (c) 2021 2021-11-25 2021-11-25 20 161 175 10.12797/SI.20.2021.20.07 Ruch niepodległościowy w Katalonii i jego znaczenie dla Katalończyków w drugiej dekadzie XXI wieku <p><strong>Independence Movement in Catalonia and Its Significance for Catalans in the Second Decade of the 21st Century</strong></p> <p>The paper focuses on the issues of the independence movement in Catalonia in the second decade of the 21st century. The aim of this study is to explore the evolution of Catalonia’s separatist aspirations in this period in terms of politics and especially society, and thus the position of Catalans towards this phenomenon. A significant element of the author’s considerations is the demonstration and analysis of the specificity and factors determining contemporary Catalan separatism, as well as concerning the context of perceiving Catalans as a nation. The independence process in the second decade of the 21st century, including treatment of events such as the judgment of the Spanish Constitutional Court in 2010, the independence referendum in 2017, or the trial and judgment of Catalan politicians in 2019, taken into account by the author, hold considerable importance for this work. The key part of the paper is to present the issues of the independence movement in the discussed period in terms of society; its emerging role in the Catalan society, and the impact of the activities and actions of Catalans themselves on the politics and development of the region’s separatist aspirations.</p> Przemysław Molenda Copyright (c) 2021 2021-11-25 2021-11-25 20 177 198 10.12797/SI.20.2021.20.08 Odmiana imion i nazwisk katalońskich w języku polskim <p><strong>Inflection of Catalan Given Names and Surnames in the Polish Language</strong></p> <p>The problem discussed in this article is the inflection of Catalan given names and surnames in the Polish language, which has never been fully resolved. In order to fill that gap, author proposes systematic set of rules concerning the inflection of given names and surnames. It is based on the Polish grammar rules, but in relation to the detailed rules of how the proper names are inflected in Spanish, Italian, French, and Hungarian. The proposed solution contains the inflectional Polish paradigm for the Catalan masculine and feminine given names and surnames both in singular and plural.</p> Rozalia Sasor Copyright (c) 2021 2021-11-25 2021-11-25 20 199 217 10.12797/SI.20.2021.20.09 La problemàtica de “les relacions vida-imatge, cinema-cultura i escriptura literària-escriptura cinematogràfica” en l’obra de Jaume Fuster <p><strong>The Issues of “the Relationships Life–Image, Cinema–Culture, Literary Writing– Cinematographic Writing” in the Work of Jaume Fuster</strong></p> <p>The development of Catalan crime fiction was interrupted several times due to some unfavourable socio-political conditions of the Franco dictatorship regime. However, the end of the dictatorship allowed complete immersion into popular literary genres and one of the most notable authors of this period is Jaume Fuster. Thanks to his literary project, he introduced certain narrative elements derived from the dominant systems to normalise the Catalan language and culture and, at the same time, he referred to the genre tradition in other artistic manifestations such as cinema. This article presents an analysis of <em>Tarda, sessió contínua, 3.45</em> (1976) where one can find three types of relationships indicated by the same author. As a consequence, it turns out that the intertextual aspect of the novel facilitated the process of consolidating crime fiction in Catalonia.El desenvolupament de la tradició catalana de la narrativa negra i policíaca va ser interromput diverses vegades per les condicions sociopolítiques desfavorables del règim franquista. No obstant això, el final de la dictadura va permetre una incursió completa als gèneres populars i un dels escriptors més destacables d’aquest període és Jaume Fuster. Gràcies al seu projecte literari, va ser capaç d’introduir certs elements narratius derivats dels sistemes dominants per a la normalització de la llengua i cultura catalanes, referint-se al mateix temps a la tradició del gènere en altres manifestacions artístiques com el cinema. Aquest article presenta una anàlisi de Tarda, sessió contínua, 3.45 (1976) en què s’estudia tres tipus de relacions indicades pel mateix autor. En conseqüència, resulta que l’aspecte intertextual de la novel·la va facilitar el procés de la consolidació del gènere negre i policíac als Països Catalans.</p> Magdalena Wegner Copyright (c) 2021 2021-11-25 2021-11-25 20 217 237 10.12797/SI.20.2021.20.10 Święta Eulalia z Barcelony – początki kultu pierwszej patronki miasta <p><strong>Saint Eulalia from Barcelona – Beginnings of the Cult of the First City Patroness</strong></p> <p>Saint Eulalia, who was martyred at the beginning of the 4th century, was the first – and until the 13th century the only one – patron saint of Barcelona. Although pilgrims from around the world still keep venerating her relics, which already in the 9th century were reposed in the city’s cathedral, her figure is problematic in many respects. Written sources are late and archaeological records are equivocal. This paper, reconsidering all kinds of sources, attempts to organise the information they contain and join the scholarly discussion on the “true” beginnings of the Saint Eulalia cult in Barcelona.</p> Anna Zimnowodzka Copyright (c) 2021 2021-11-25 2021-11-25 20 239 255 10.12797/SI.20.2021.20.11 Spanish Style Walking Sticks in the Collection of the National Museum in Krakow <p>The collection of the National Museum in Krakow includes over ninety walking sticks from different parts of Europe, Asia and Africa, dated from the 18th century to the second half of the 20th century. Most are kept in the Department of Decorative Arts, Material Culture and Militaria, in the collection of which artefacts manufactured in Spain constitute a relatively small percent. Therefore, from this group it is worth presenting two walking sticks, previously unpublished, connected with the culture and art of the Iberian peninsula. The staffs described in this article represent two categories. The first of them is an elegant clothing accessory carried by a man who took care of his appearance. A note in the documentation of the donation indicates the cane had once belonged to Lucjan Siemieński (1807–1877), a Polish poet. Although its handle was made in Eibar or Toledo, as a whole the cane might have been made and used outside Spanish borders. Regardless of the how and where the cane was bought by Siemieński, it seems it can be dated to the third quarter of the 19th century. The second of the staffs, linked more with the local folklore, provides information about the place where it was made. The inscription visible on the bottom ferrule suggests the staff was made in 1881 in Saint-Jean de-Luz, a town on the Atlantic coast in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region, France, several kilometres from the border with Spain, a part of the Basque province of Labourd (Lapurdi). Both the construction and decoration signify that is a makila (makhila), a cane characteristic of the Basque men’s costume.</p> Monika Paś Copyright (c) 2021 2021-11-25 2021-11-25 20 259 274 10.12797/SI.20.2021.20.12