Sowiniec <p>Półrocznik „Sowiniec” jest naukowym czasopismem historycznym, którego tematyka skupia się na ostatnich dwóch stuleciach historii Polski, w szczególności zaś na polskich zmaganiach niepodległościowych. Wieloletnia walka Polaków o odbudowę niepodległego Państwa Polskiego naznaczona była kilkoma powstaniami narodowymi oraz olbrzymim wysiłkiem w czasie dwóch wojen światowych. Za ostatni zryw wolnościowy zwykło się też uważać ruch skupiony wokół NSZZ „Solidarność”, który znacznie przyczynił się do erozji systemu komunistycznego w tej części Europy, otwierając drogę do niepodległości. Tytuł periodyku nawiązuje do kopca usypanego w Krakowie na wzgórzu Sowiniec w latach 30. XX wieku, ku czci Marszałka Józefa Piłsudskiego, twórcy odrodzonego w 1918 r. Państwa Polskiego.</p> pl-PL (Department of Scientific Journals, Ksiegarnia Akademicka Publishing) (Author’s Support) Fri, 28 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0100 OJS 60 Słowo od redaktora Tomasz Gąsowski Prawa autorskie (c) 2018 Fri, 28 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0100 Sprawozdanie z działalności Fundacji Centrum Dokumentacji Czynu Niepodległościowego w roku 2017 Adam Roliński Prawa autorskie (c) 2018 Fri, 28 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0100 Front matter Prawa autorskie (c) 2018 Fri, 28 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0100 Mój rok 1968 Mariusz Klapper Prawa autorskie (c) 2018 Fri, 28 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0100 Marzec i maj 1968 we Wrocławiu Michał Siciński Prawa autorskie (c) 2018 Fri, 28 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0100 Antropologia donosu, red. nauk. J. Syrnyk, R. Klementowski, IPN Warszawa–Wrocław 2017 Antoni Czermak Prawa autorskie (c) 2017 Fri, 28 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0100 Od Mostycza po Rzeczpospolitą Mościską Krzysztof Z. Nowakowski Prawa autorskie (c) 2018 Fri, 28 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0100 List Janusza Pierzchały w związku ze śmiercią Piotra M. Boronia, Londyn 8 stycznia 2018 r. Janusz Pierzchała Prawa autorskie (c) 2018 Fri, 28 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0100 Polacy u progu niepodległości <p><strong>Poles on the Brink of Independence</strong></p> <p>Due to the final fall of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, its inhabitants were pushed for 123 years into three completely different and essentially hostile state organisms. In such diverse conditions, a few succeeding generations experienced deep and multilateral civilizational transformations occurring in the 19th century and in the version typical for this part of Europe. In other words, modernity formed here bygone inhabitants and citizens of the Republic in various ways. It was important for further existence of the Polishness and nationality without the state. In this context, the key question arises: who of them, successors of the First Republic tradition, in the time of the Polish state revival, felt still Polish, ready for the construction and defence of the state? In other words, what social capital had the reviving Polish state – the Second Polish Republic – at its disposal in the time of its beginnings? Based on source materials, and primarily on data from the last population censuses and their statistical studies before the First World War, the author tried to estimate the potential number of Poles on the brink of independence. The analysis was connected with an important assumption that primarily these people would be both the main beneficiaries of this radically changed statehood and persons ready to co-shape it actively. The obtained results fit into few similar estimations made until now, constituting material for further reflections.</p> Tomasz Gąsowski Prawa autorskie (c) 2018 Fri, 28 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0100 Nieudana wyprawa lisiogórska jako próba ruchu powstańczego w 1846 roku na terenie miasta Tarnowa i okolic w świetle wybranych tytułów prasowych <p><strong>The Unsuccessful Lisiogórska Expedition as an Attempt of the Insurrectionary Movement in 1846 on the Territory of the Town of Tarnow and its Surroundings in the Light of Memories of Franciszek Wiesiołowski </strong></p> <p>The article presents events which occurred on Tarnów lands before and during the unsuccessful insurrectionary movement in 1846 – the movement called Krakow Uprising. The article focuses on the fate of the count Franciszek Wiesiołowski who was appointed by the Central Committee in Poznań as the governor of Galicia responsible for the whole military movement on this area. The discussed period includes the time form the first days of February 1846 to 19 February, which means to the day when the independence burst on the Tarnów land was nipped in the bud. The article is mainly based on the diary of Franciszek Wiesiołowski – thanks to his personal account from the period preceding the uprising we get to know in detail the analyzed events, especially the expedition to Lisia Góra which was instantly stopped. This event, and the fact that other troops were dispersed or arrested, contributed to putting an end to the unfinished revolt. It was also the beginning of a short but violent period of chaos called the Galician Slaughter.</p> Sławomir Piskozub Prawa autorskie (c) 2018 Fri, 28 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0100 II Brygada Legionów Polskich w Karpatach (listopad-grudzień 1914 r.). Cz. II <p><strong>The Brigade II of the Polish Legions in the Carpathian Mountains (November‑December 1914): Part II</strong></p> <p>In this article, the author presents the activity of the Polish Legions, at that time commanded by the general Karol Durski, in the Carpathian Mountains. Polish soldiers had to fight there under very difficult conditions as a result of the numerous deficiencies in equipment and arms. Nonetheless, they tried to perform the tasks to which they were entrusted as best as they could. As opposed to the weakness of the Austro‑Hungarian army, the Polish units in this region played a decisive rule in halting the Russian offensive. This was a significant factor because if the Russians had crossed the Carpathians, this would have led to an invasion of Hungary, which could have had unpredictable consequences. In the first phase, the Polish units participated in the fight to liberate Máramaros County. The second phase comprised the armed conflict in the Nadvirna and Bohorodchany regions. This part of the skirmishes was finished with the bloody Battle of Mołotków on October 29, 1914. Although it ended with a tactical defeat of the Polish units, which were forced to retreat, it was, however, a tactical victory, as the Russians, exhausted by the daylong battle, were forced to cease their offensive manoeuvres.</p> Tomasz Dudek Prawa autorskie (c) 2018 Fri, 28 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0100 Wojsko jako internowanie <p><strong>The Army as Internment: Forms of the Repression During the Martial Law in the Years 1982-1983 Against Activists of the Anticommunist Opposition Placed in Military Special Camps (Part I)</strong></p> <p>The work focuses its issues on one of the repression forms used in the martial law introduced on 13th December 1981 to pacify the society which tried to change the fossilised communist system through activity in the Independent Self-Governing Trade Union “Solidarity”. It was not a new solution in the Polish People’s Republic – just after the Second World War the communist authority drafted into “alternative military service” opponents of sovietisation of the country, directing them to forced labour in mines. Fearing a social rebellion before the second anniversary of the independent trade union registration, communist authorities interned in military special camps, functioning in Poland from 5 November 1982 to 3 February 1983, 1450 trade union activists and members of the political parties unaccepted by communists. 264 younger colleagues of these people were drafted into the basic military service lasting two years in three units intended for this purpose.</p> Elwira Brodecka Prawa autorskie (c) 2018 Fri, 28 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0100 Back matter Prawa autorskie (c) 2018 Fri, 28 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0100