Studia Historyczne <p>Studia Historyczne is a historical journal published four times a year. In 1958 a group of Kraków historians within the Polish Historical Society decided to publish a local scientific historical periodical. Thus a quarterly Małopolskie Studia Historyczne was called to life, which soon became a vivid platform of historical discussion, exchange of ideas and place of presentation of scholarly achievements mostly for historians from the Kraków, Rzeszów and Kielce regions.</p> en-US (Department of Scientific Journals, Ksiegarnia Akademicka Publishing) (Author’s Support) Wed, 20 Jul 2022 13:19:04 +0200 OJS 60 Front Matter Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 20 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Nowe spojrzenie na uroczystości żałobne cesarza Rudolfa II Habsburga Wojciech Mischke Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 20 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Back Matter Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 20 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0200 „O sztuce cukrowej”, czyli dlaczego piętnastowieczni aptekarze włoscy wytwarzali słodycze? <p><strong>“ON SUGAR ART”; OR, WHY DID FIFTEENTH CENTURY ITALIAN PHARMACISTS MAKE CANDY?</strong></p> <p>This article looks at the production of candy by late mediaeval Italian pharmacists. The author discusses the roots of candy production and shows its development was connected to the use of medical products based on honey, sugar, spices and fruits. For many centuries such products were treated as medicines and only at the end of the Middle Ages did people start to perceive them as candy. Pharmacists from Italian nations, known as<em> speziari</em>, were central to the process. They had access to a range of spices imported from the Orient, know-how and experience inherited from their ancestors and their own acquired skills. In effect, they started producing candy on the base of existing, sweet medical products. The richest and most helpful source for the study of the candy production is De artificium zuchari, the thirteenth chapter of <em>Lumen apothecariorum</em>, a work by the fifteenth-century Piedmont physicist and pharmacist, Quirico de Augustis.</p> Rafał Hryszko Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 20 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Hrabina du Barry jako faworyta Ludwika XV (1768-1774) <p><strong>COUNTESS DU BARRY AS A ROYAL FAVORITE OF LOUIS XV (1768-1774)</strong></p> <p>Jeanne Bécu, countess du Barry, was the last favorite of King Louis XV of France. As a woman of the people, with no property, no name and an unclear past, she became the heroine of numerous satires and pamphlets. Contemporaries presented her as a debauched, vulgar, vain and spendthrift person. These accusations are repeated by many historians to this day. This article is an attempt to show the origins of these negative opinions and uncover the real picture of her life at the Versailles court between 1768-1774.</p> Rafał Niedziela Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 20 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Wróżki i zacofanie irlandzkich chłopów w świetle wybranych dziewiętnastowiecznych dzienników z podróży <p><strong>THE ROLE OF FAIRIES IN THE LIVES OF IRISH PEASANTS AND THEIR DEPICTION IN SELECTED NINETEENTH-CENTURY TRAVELOGUES</strong></p> <p>Life in the nineteenth-century Irish countryside was not easy. Irish peasants lived in abject poverty and struggled to make ends meet. They consumed almost only potatoes and famines occurred regularly. Peasants often blamed their hardships on fairies, whose various races were supposed to inhabit Ireland. Tales about fairies were very popular among travelers who visited Ireland in the nineteenth century and subsequently published books about their travels there. They often highlighted the role of magic in daily activities of the Irish. The aim of this paper is to discuss the role of fairies in the lives of Irish peasants and argue that by underlining the attachment of the Irish to magical creatures, travelers underscored the backwardness of Irish peasants and propagated negative stereotypes about the inhabitants of the Emerald Isle.</p> Paweł Hamera Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 20 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Franco’s Choice: The Reevaluation of Spain’s Neutrality and Non-Belligerence During the Second World War <p>General Francisco Franco established his dictatorship in Spain in 1939 after winning the Civil War fought against the democratic Republican government. The same year, the Second World War broke out. The <em>Caudillo</em> wanted his country to remain neutral, but Spain soon moved forward to the status of non-belligerence: Franco backed Mussolini and Hitler on the level of propaganda, and he also sent voluntary troops to help the Germans, although he also maintained relations with the Allies. Later, the country returned to the status of neutrality. The aim of my article is to highlight the main features of the Spanish attitude and the government’s diplomatic maneuvers between the Axis powers and the Allies, paying special attention to Franco’s possibilities and doubts.</p> András Lénárt Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 20 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Strzelcy moskiewscy w latach 1550-1723 Rafał Zaremba Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 20 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Królestwo anarchii. W poszukiwaniu nowożytnych wyobrażeń o Rzeczypospolitej i jej mieszkańcach Oskar Goliński Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 20 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0200