Publication Ethics and Malpractice Statement


Editorial Process

The Editors of the journal undertake to control whether the Authors and Reviewers comply with the ethical principles related to academic publishing, and shall take the available measures to detect any irregularities and abuses.

The Editors declare that they are familiar with the publishing ethics of Księgarnia Akademicka Publishing, the course of the publishing process and other policies adopted by the Publisher. They also undertake to cooperate with the Publisher in the publishing process and developing a marketing strategy.

The Editor together with the Publisher undertake to ensure the integrity of the written record of the published texts by being ready to introduce, if necessary, appropriate errata or withdraw the whole or parts of the text.

Decision on Publication

The Editor-in-Chief is responsible for the final approval or rejection of the text for publication in the journal, as well as for the academic merit of the publication. The Editor-in-Chief decides to accept or reject the text, taking into account the results of stages of review (for more see Peer Review Process). The decision to reject or accept a text for inclusion in the journal is made solely on the basis of its originality, validity and clarity, as well as its compliance with the subject area of the journal.


The Editor and members of the Editorial Board shall ensure that all materials submitted for publication in the journal are kept confidential. They may not be presented to anyone or discussed with anyone except those involved in the publishing process or persons specifically authorized to do so.

Disclosure and Conflict of Interest

In the submitted texts, all Authors must provide information on any financial or other substantial conflict of interest that could influence the research results or their interpretation in the text. If the article is related to research funded by a grant from the National Science Center or other institution or association, the Author is required to provide this information in a footnote along with the grant number.

Fair Play

The Editor declares that the publications are assessed only in terms of their content and are published for their value – the publication process is not influenced by gender, religion, race or political beliefs of the Author or Authors.

Withdrawal of Articles

The Editor will consider withdrawing a publication if at least one of the following irregularities has been detected:

  • the research has been previously published elsewhere without providing an appropriate reference, consent or justification (cases of redundant publications),
  • the text has been plagiarised or bases on unethical research,
  • there is clear evidence that the findings contained in the text are unreliable due to wrong research procedures (including fabricated) or the honest mistake.

Notifications of text withdrawal should state and clearly specify the reasons for such a decision. The withdrawn articles will not be removed from the printed or electronic version of the journal, while the fact of their withdrawal will be clearly indicated and marked.



Reporting Standards

Authors reporting on the results of original research should provide a reliable justification of the work completed and objectively argue their significance. In the submitted manuscript, key data should be presented in an appropriate manner. If the Author is aware of the fact, providing completely or partially false statements is considered illegal and unethical.

Originality and Plagiarism

The Author is required to assure the Editors that his work is entirely original and that the names of the authors cited in the work and/or excerpts from the cited works, including his own, are correctly quoted or mentioned in it. The detection of plagiarism or self-plagiarism excludes the text from the publication process.

Multiple, Redundant and Parallel Publications

Submitting the same text for publication in more than one collective monograph or journal is considered unethical and unacceptable.

Acknowledgement of Sources

The Author should acknowledge using the results of other people’s work. They should also cite publications that contributed to the creation of the submitted work.

Authorship of the Manuscript

The Author is obliged to provide information about persons who in any way contributed to the creation of the article, and in the case of multi-Author publications, to reliably specify the contribution of individual authors to the work. This procedure aims to prevent practices such as ghost writing and guest authorship. It is therefore necessary to list all co-authors of the article, with their affiliation, and information on the Author of the concepts, assumptions, methods, etc. used in creating the publication. If assistance from third parties or institutions is involved, an appropriate note should be made in footnote or acknowledgment.

Data Access Retention

The Author may be asked to provide raw data for review. They should also be prepared to provide public access to such data and retain it for a reasonable period of time after publication.

Disclosure and Conflict of Interest

Authors should provide information in their work on any financial or other material conflict of interest that could influence the research results or their interpretation in the text. If the article is related to research funded by a grant from the National Science Center or other institution or association, the Author is required to provide this information in a footnote along with the grant number.

Fundamental Errors in Publication

If the Author discovers a significant error or inaccuracy in the published work, he is obliged to immediately notify the Editors or the Publisher directly and cooperate with them on withdrawing the text or introducing appropriate corrections.

Editorial Process

The Author declares that they are familiar with the journal’s ethical principles, the course of the editorial process and other policies adopted by the Editors and Publisher.




Contribution to Decision on Publication

The Reviewer’s assessment has a significant impact on accepting the submitted text for publication and is intended to help the Authors prepare the best possible version of the manuscript.


A Reviewer who does not feel qualified to evaluate the content of the submitted text or knows that they are unable to prepare a review within the specified time, should notify the Editor-in-Chief without delay so that they can contact another Reviewer.


Texts for review must be treated as confidential documents. They may not be presented to or discussed with anyone other than those authorized by the Editor-in-Chief. Information and ideas that the Reviewer gets acquainted with during their work must be kept confidential and may not be used for personal gain.

Standards of Objectivity

Reviewers are required to be objective in their work. They should present their point of view using appropriate argumentation. The use of personal criticism and defamatory remarks against the Author is unacceptable. The assessments made should be transparent with the use of reliable reasoning and, if necessary, references.

Acknowledgement of Sources

Reviewers should indicate the works relevant to a given text, which have not been included in it. The Reviewer should also inform the Editor-in-Chief in the event of any observed significant similarities of the submitted text with other published materials known to the Reviewer.

Conflict of Interest

The Reviewer should not assess the submitted text if there is a conflict of interest resulting from competition, cooperation or other relationship with the Author or any of the Authors. They should also declare no conflict of interest by means of a written statement, and if there is one, report it immediately to the Editor-in-Chief.