Perché I Medici Parlano Ancora Il Greco?

Authors

  • Ioannis Petropoulos Università Democrito di Tracia

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.12797/CC.24.2021.24.07

Keywords:

Ancient Greek medicine, nomenclature, reception of ancient Greek medicine, textual transmission, translation, vernacular languages

Abstract

Although the extraordinary progress in medicine since the 19th century has made Hippocrates and Galen irrelevant, Greek and Greek-derived terms continue to be used in the medical sciences today. The marked ability of the Greek language to form compounds facilitated the expansion of its medical lexicon. Greek medicine evolved far longer than its modern counterpart; its enduring cachet has lent it an atemporality. This article traces the main stages in the history of the nearly continuous reception of Greek medical nomenclature across more than two millennia. The process is shown to have been inseparable from the transmission and editing of Greek medical texts and their translation into Latin, Arabic, and eventually into vernacular languages. The article also sheds incidental light on the history of translation and transliteration in Europe and the Arab world.

References

Anawati G., 1977, ‘Science’, [in:] Cambridge History of Islam, P. M. Holt et al. (edd.), Cambridge, pp. 741–779. https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521219495.015. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521219495.015

Arráez-Aybar L.-A., Bueno-López J.-L., Raio N., 2015, ‘Toledo School of Translators and Their Influence on Anatomical Terminology’, Annals of Anatomy 198, pp. 21–33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aanat.2014.12.003. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aanat.2014.12.003

Bacalexi D., 2009, ‘Trois traducteurs de Galien au XVIe siècle et leur regard sur la tradition arabe’, [in:] Pratique et pensées médicales à la Renaissance: Actes du 51e colloque international d’études humanistes (Tours, 2-6 juillet 2007), J. Vons (ed.), Paris, pp. 201–222.

Bacalexi D., 2012, ‘Galien, d’une réception à l’ autre: Tradition médiévale arabe et humanistes du XVIe siècle’, Seizième Siècle 8, pp. 89–106. https://doi.org/10.3406/xvi.2012.1045. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3406/xvi.2012.1045

Banay G. L., 1948, ‘An Introduction to Medical Terminology I. Greek and Latin Derivations’, Bulletin of the Medical Library Association 36/1, pp. 1–27.

Boudon-Millot V., 2012, Galien de Pergame: Un médecin grec à Rome, Paris.

Burnett C., 2001, ‘The Coherence of the Arabic-Latin Translation Program in Toledo in the Twelfth Century’, Science in Context 14/1–2, pp. 249–288, https://doi.org/10.1017/S0269889701000096. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0269889701000096

Dover K. J., 1997, The Evolution of Greek Prose Style, Oxford.

Durling R. J., 1961, ‘A Chronological Census of Renaissance Editions and Translations of Galen’, Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 24/3–4, pp. 230–305. https://doi.org/10.2307/750797. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/750797

Durling R. J., 1993, A Dictionary of Medical Terms in Galen, Leiden–New York, NY. https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004377301. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004377301

Ferngren G. B., Amundsen, 2005, ‘Aesclepius’, [in:] Encyclopedia of Religion, vol. VI/2. ed., L. Jones (ed.), Detroit, MI, p. 3841.

Ferre L., 2012, ‘The Jewish Contribution to the Transmission of the Cultural Legacy’, European Review 20/4, pp. 522–562. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1062798712000129. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S1062798712000129

Fraisse A., 2006, ‘Néologismes et premières attestations dans le “De medicina” de Cassius Felix’, Latomus 65/1, pp. 147–158.

Henrichs A., 1995, ‘Graecia Capta: Roman Views of Greek Culture’, Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 97, pp. 243–261. https://doi.org/10.2307/311309. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/311309

Jackson D. F., 2012, ‘Greek Medicine in the Fifteenth Century’, Early Science and Medicine 17, pp. 378–390. https://doi.org/10.1163/1573382320120002. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/1573382320120002

Jacquart D., 1997, Lexique de la langue scientifique: Astrologie, mathématiques, médecine, Paris.

Jouanna J., 1992, Hippocrate, Paris.

Jouanna J., 2012a, Greek Medicine from Hippocrates to Galen. Selected Papers, transl. N. Allies, Leiden– Boston, https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004232549. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004232549

Jouanna J., 2012b, ‘Textual History’, [in:] The Cambridge Companion to Hippocrates, P. E. Pormann (ed.), Cambridge, pp. 38–62. https://doi.org/10.1017/9781107705784.004. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/9781107705784.004

Jouanna-Bouchet J., 2009, ‘Composition littéraire et composition médicale: Un exemple remarquable dans la littérature médicale latine: Marcellus Empiricus’, Latomus 68/3, pp. 720–741.

Jóskowska K., Grabarczyk Z., 2013, ‘Greek and Latin in Medical Terminology’, Folia Medica Copernicana 1/2, pp. 41–52.

Lane Fox R., 2020, The Invention of Medicine: A History from Homer to Hippocrates, New York.

Langslow D. R., 2000, Medical Latin in the Roman Empire, Oxford.

Lucchetta F., 1964, Il medico e filosofo Bellunese Andrea Alpago († 1522), traduttore di Avicenna. Profilo biografico, Padova.

Mattock J. N., 1992, ‘Islam’, [in:] Perceptions of the Ancient Greeks, K. J. Dover (ed.), Oxford–Cambridge, MA, pp. 79–99.

Mayer C. F., 1946, ‘Arabism, Egypt, and Max Meyerhof’, Bulletin of the History of Medicine 19, pp. 375–432.

Montagne V., 2017, Médecine et rhétorique à la Renaissance. Le cas du traité de peste en langue vernaculaire, Paris.

Montero-Cartelle E., 1997–1998, ‘El lexico médico latino entre la antigüedad y el renacimiento: la asimilacion de modelos médicos y léxicos’, Voces (Caen) 8–9, pp. 227–248.

Nagy K. I., 2013, ‘The History, Peculiar Terminology and Translation Problems of the Language of Medicine’, LDMD 1, pp. 179–189.

Nutton V., 1997, ‘The Rise of Medical Humanism: Ferrara, 1464–1555’, Renaissance Studies 11/1, pp. 2–19, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1477-4658.1997.tb00008.x. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1477-4658.1997.tb00008.x

Nutton V., 2002, ‘The Diffusion of Ancient Medicine in the Renaissance’, Medicina nei secoli-Arte e scienza 14/2, pp. 461–478.

Nutton V., 2012, ‘Galen and Roman Medicine: Or Can a Greek Become a Latin?’, European Review 20/4, pp. 534–542. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1062798712000105. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S1062798712000105

Russell G. A., 2013, ‘Vesalius and the Emergence of Veridical Representation in Renaissance Anatomy’, Progress in Brain Research 203, pp. 3–32. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-62730-8.00001-3. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-62730-8.00001-3

Savage-Smith E., 2013, ‘Medicine in Medieval Islam’, [in:] Cambridge History of Science, D. C. Lindberg, M. H. Shank (eds.), pp. 139–167. https://doi. org/10.1017/CHO9780511974007.007. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CHO9780511974007.007

Siraisi N., 1990, Medieval and Early Renaissance Medicine. An Introduction to Knowledge and Practice, Chicago. https://doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226761312.001.0001. DOI: https://doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226761312.001.0001

Staikos Κ. Sp. (Stάϊkoς, K. Sp.), 2017, H pneymatikή poreίa toy Gέnoyς, me όchhma to cheirόgrafo kai to έntypo vivlίo. 13oς ai. – mέsa 16oy, Athήna [I pneumatiki poreia tou Genous, me ochima to cheirografo kai to entypo vivlio. 13osai. – mesa 16ou, Athina].

Tolan J. et al., 2012, Europe and the Islamic World: A History, Princeton. https://doi.org/10.23943/princeton/9780691147055.001.0001. DOI: https://doi.org/10.23943/princeton/9780691147055.001.0001

Downloads

Published

2021-12-31

How to Cite

Petropoulos, I. . “Perché I Medici Parlano Ancora Il Greco?”. Classica Cracoviensia, vol. 24, Dec. 2021, pp. 117-30, doi:10.12797/CC.24.2021.24.07.

Issue

Section

Miscellanea