Gallic Amphorae in Rome (and Ostia) during the Middle Imperial Age: Data Revision and Reflections from the Finds at the ‘Terme Di Elagabalo’ in Rome

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.12797/SAAC.25.2021.25.09

Keywords:

amphorae, Gaul, Rome, trade, consumption, Middle Imperial Age

Abstract

Starting from the unpublished amphorae discovered in the Middle Imperial contexts (dating 2nd-early 3rd centuries AD) found in the building known as the ‘Terme di Elagabalo’ in Rome, this paper analyses the presence of Gallic containers in Rome and Ostia. The finds from that site will be combined with the ones deriving from several published contexts in Rome with similar dating and compared with those discovered in Ostia (the traditional comparison for the Capital) in order to update the data about their presence in both cities during the chosen chronological period. This paper will also analyse ancient sources that mention Gallic products in order to reflect not only upon their quality, but also their purchasers and consumers, with brief considerations derived from theories in social sciences.

References

Baratta G. 2001. Un’alternativa all’anfora: la botte. In J. Maldonado Rosso (ed.), Actas del I simposio de la Asociación Internacional de Historia y Civilización de la vid y el vino 1/2, 149-155. El Puerto de Santa María.

Barberan S., Bardot-Cambot A., Gafà R., Lemaire B., Malignas A., Raux S.,

Renaud A. and Silvéréano S. 2012. Boire et manger sur le forum du Castellas (Murviel-lès-Montpellier, Hérault): un dépotoir atypique de la première moitié du IIe s. ap. J.-C. RANarb 45, 293-360. https://doi.org/10.3406/ran.2012.1840.

Barnett C. 2014. Alcoholic Beverages and Resistance to Roman Imperialism in Dalmatia. Croatian Studies Review 10, 13-34.

Barthes R. 1957. Mythologies. Paris.

Barthes R. 1961. Pour une psycho-sociologie de l’alimentation contemporaine. Annales E-S-C 16/5, 977-986. https://doi.org/10.3406/ahess.1961.420772.

Bats M. 1993. Amphores massaliètes impériales. In M. Py, A.M. Adroher Auroux and C. Raynaud (eds), Lattara 6, Dicocer: dictionnaire des céramiques antiques (VIIème s. av. n. è. – VIIème s. de n. è.) en Méditerranée nord-occidentale (Provence, Languedoc, Ampurdan), 67-68. Lattes. Retrieved from http://syslat. on-rev.com/ArcheOnLine/PUB1/PUB000011.pdf (status as of July 1st 2021). Baudoux J., Bocquet A., Brulet R., Laubenheimer F., Marlière E. and

Vilvorder F. 1998. La production des amphores dans l’Est et le Nord des Gaules. In F. Laubenheimer (ed.) 1998, 11-48.

Beaudrillard J. 1990. Subjective Discourse in the Non-functional System of Objects. In J. Beaudrillard (ed.), Revenge of the Crystal: Selected Writings on the Modern Object and Its Theory 1968-1983, trans. P. Foss and J. Petanis, 35-61. London.

Bertucchi G. 1992. Les amphores et le vin de Marseille. VIe siècle avant J.-C. – IIe siècle après J.-C. (RANarb Supplément 25). Paris.

Botte E. 2009. Salaisons et sauces de poissons en Italie du sud et en Sicile durant l’Antiquité. (Collection du Centre Jean Bérard 31). Naples. https://doi.org/10.4000/books.pcjb.4345.

Bouvier M. 2001/2002. Le vin, boisson privilégié des villes. Cesarodunum.

Bulletin de l’institut d’études latines et du Centre de recherches A. Piganiol 35, 241-253.

Brun J.-P. 2003. Le vin et l’huile dans la Méditerranée antique. Viticulture, oléiculture et procédés de transformation. Paris.

Brun J.-P. 2004. Archéologie du vin et de l’huile. De la Préhistoire à l’époque hellénistique. Paris.

Brun J.-P. 2005. Archéologie du vin et de l’huile en Gaule romaine. Paris.

Caple C. 2006. Objects: Reluctant Witnesses to the Past. London, New York.https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203409060.

Cerchiai C. 2013. Nettare di Dioniso. La vite e il vino attraverso le parole degli autori antichi. Rome.

Corrigan P. 1997. The Sociology of Consumption: An Introduction. London. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781446216903.

Curtis R.I. 1991. Garum and Salsamenta: Production and Commerce in Materia Medica. (Studies in Ancient Medicine 3). Leiden. https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004377264.

Dangréaux B., Desbat A., Picon M. and Schmitt A. 1992. La production d’amphores à Lyon. In Laubenheimer F. (ed.) 1992, 37-50.

D’Arms J.H. 1995. Heavy Drinking and Drunkenness in the Roman World: Four Questions for Historians. In O. Murray and M. Tecuşan (eds), In vino veritas, 304-317. London.

De’ Siena S. 2012. Il vino nel mondo antico. Archeologia e cultura di una bevanda speciale. Modena.

Desmond J. 2003.Consuming Behaviour. Basingstoke. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-230-62939-4.

Desbat A. 1987. Note sur la production d’amphores à Lyon au début de l’empire. In L. Rivet (ed.), Société Française d’Étude de la Céramique Antique en Gaule, Actes du Congrès de Caen (28-31 mai 1987), 159-165. Marseille. Retrieved from http://sfecag.free.fr/ACTES/1987_159-166_Desbat.pdf (status as of July 1st 2021).

Desbat A. 2003. Amphorae from Lyon and the Question of Gaulish Imitations of Amphorae. Journal of Roman Pottery Studies 10, 45-49. Retrieved from https://sgrp-wordpress-offload.s3.eu-west-2.amazonaws.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/08/09155520/Journal-of-Roman-Pottery-Studies-Vol-10_final. pdf (status as of July 1st 2021).

Dietler M. 2006. Alcohol: Anthropological/Archaeological Perspectives. Annual Review of Anthropology 35, 229-249. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev. anthro.35.081705.123120/.

Driard C., Dréano Y., Garnier N. 2018. Les sauces de poisson produites sur la côte atlantique des Gaules: sources archéologiques et productions diversifiées des ateliers de salaison. Gallia 74/2, 183-205. https://doi.org/10.4000/gallia.2182.

Fabris G. 2000. Consumatore & Mercato. Milan.

Ferrandes A.F. 2008. I contenitori da trasporto. In F. Filippi (ed.), Horti et Sordes, Uno scavo alle falde del Gianicolo, 247-283. Rome.

Gras M. 2006. Commercio o traffici: elementi per un dibattito. In M.G. Della Fina (ed.), Gli Etruschi e il Mediterraneo. Commerci e politica, Atti del XIII Convegno Internazionale di Studi sulla Storia e l’Archeologia dell’Etruria, 433-438. Rome.

Grenier A. 1932. Le garum de Fréjus. RÉA 34, 291-292.

Harris W.V. 2011. Rome’s Imperial Economy: Twelve Essays. Oxford. https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199595167.001.0001.

Holleran C. 2012. Shopping in Ancient Rome: The Retail Trade in the Late Republic and Early Principate. Oxford. https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199698219.001.0001.

Horejs B., Jung R. and Pavúk P. 2010. Introductory Remarks, or What Should Be Done with a Pile of Sherds. In B. Horejs, R. Jung and P. Pavúk (eds), Analysing Pottery, Processing – Classification – Publication, 9-12. (Studia Archaeologica et Medievalia 10). Bratislava. Retrieved from https://www.yumpu.com/s/J07GJDZoFaDPpne5 (status as of July 1st 2021).

Insoll T. 2007. Archaeology: The Conceptual Challenge. London.

Johnson M. 2010. Archaeological Theory: An Introduction, 2nd ed. Chichester.

Komar P. 2018. Aegean Wine Imports to the City of Rome (1st century BC –3rd century AD). SAAC 22, 95-116. https://doi.org/10.12797/SAAC.22.2018.22.05.

Laubenheimer F. 1985. La production des amphores en Gaule Narbonnaise sous le Haut-Empire. Paris. https://doi.org/10.3406/ista.1985.1790.

Laubenheimer F. (ed.) 1992. Les amphores en Gaule. Production et circulation.

Table ronde internationale. Metz 4-6 octobre 1990. (Centre de Recherches d’Histoire Ancienne 116). Bresançon, Paris. Retrieved from https://www.persee.fr/issue/ista_0000-0000_1992_act_474_1 (status as of July 1st 2021).

Laubenheimer F. (ed.) 1998. Les Amphores en Gaule. II. Production et circulation. (Collection Institut des Sciences et Techniques de l’Antiquité 705). Bresançon, Paris. Retrieved from https://www.persee.fr/issue/ista_0000-0000_1998_ant_705_1 (status as of July 1st 2021).

Laubenheimer F. 2000. Imitations d’amphores à huile de Bétique dans l’est et le nord des Gaules et en Germanie Supérieure. In E. García Vargas (ed.), Congreso internacional ‘Ex Baetica amphorae’. Conservas, aceite y vino de la Bética en el Imperio Romano, (Ecija y Sevilla, 17-20 de Diciembre de 1998), 1121-1142. Ecija.

Laubenheimer F. 2004. Inscriptions peintes sur les amphores gauloises. Gallia 61, 153-171. https://doi.org/10.3406/galia.2004.3192.

Laubenheimer F. and Gisbert Santonja J.A. 2001. La standardisation des amphores Gauloise 4, des ateliers de Narbonnaise à la production de Denia (Espagne). In F. Laubenheimer (ed.), 20 ans de recherches à Sallèles d’Aude, Colloque des 27-28 septembre 1996 (Sallèles d’Aude), 33-50. (Collection Institut des Sciences et Techniques de l’Antiquité 760). Besançon. Retrieved from https://www.persee.fr/issue/ista_0000-0000_2001_act_760_1 (status as of July 1st 2021).

Laubenheimer F. and Marlière É. 2010. Échanges et vie économique dans le nord-ouest des Gaules: (Nord/Pas-de-Calais, Picardie, Haute-Normandie): le témoignage des amphores du IIe s. av. J.-C. au IVe s. ap. J.-C. Besançon. https://doi.org/10.3406/ista.2010.2784.

Laubenheimer F. and Schmitt A. 2009. Amphores vinaires de Narbonnaise, Production et grand commerce. Création d’une base de donnée géochimiques des ateliers. Lyon. Retrieved from https://www.persee.fr/doc/mom_1955-4982_2009_mon_51_1 (status as of July 1st 2021).

Laubenheimer F., Gebara C. and Beraud I. 1992. Production d’amphores à Fréjus. In F. Laubenheimer (ed.) 1992, 15-24.

Leather S. 1992. Less Money, Less Choice: Poverty and Diet in the UK Today. In National Consumer Council (ed.), Your Food: Whose Choice?, 72-94. London.

Lo Cascio E. (ed.) 2012. L’impatto della “Peste Antonina”. (Pragmateiai 22). Bari.

Marlière E. 1998. Les amphores de Bavay. In Laubenheimer F. (ed.) 1998, 49-89.

Marlière E. 2002. L’outre et le tonneau dans l’Occident romain. (Monographies Instrumentum 22). Montagnac.

Martín i Oliveiras A. 2015. Arqueología del vino en época romana: teoría económica, lógica productiva y comercial aplicada al envasado, la expedición, el transporte y la distribución de ánforas vinarias del noreste peninsular (s. I a.C.-I d.C.). In V. Martínez Ferreras (ed.), La difusión comercial de las ánforas vinarias de Hispania Citerior-Tarraconensis (s. I a.C. – I. d.C.), 19-37. (Archaeopress Roman Archaeology 4). Oxford. https://doi.org/10.2307/j. ctvr43jtb.7.

Marshall D. 1995. Introduction: Food Choice, the Food Consumer and Food Provisioning. In D. Marshall (ed.) 1995, 3-17.

Marshall D. (ed.) 1995. Food Choice and the Consumer. London. Montanari M. 2004. Il cibo come cultura. Rome, Bari.

Musarò P. 2011. Consumo. In C. Cipolla (ed.), I concetti fondamentali del sapere sociologico, 73-86. Milan.

Nencini P. 2009. Ubriachezza e sobrietà nel mondo antico. Alle radici del bere moderno. Monte San Pietro.

Olmer F. and Maza G. 2004. Le marché gaulois. In J.-P. Brun, M. Poux and A. Tchernia (eds), Le vin: Nectar des dieux, génie des hommes, 141-157. Gollion.

Panella C. 1992. Mercato di Roma e anfore galliche nella prima età imperiale. In F. Laubenheimer (ed.) 1992, 185-206.

Panella C. 2001. Le anfore di età imperiale del Mediterraneo occidentale. In P. Lévêque, J.-P. Morel and E. Geny (eds), Céramiques hellénistiques et Romaines III, 177-275. (Collection Institut des Sciences et Techniques de l’Antiquité 720). Besançon, Paris. Retrieved from https://www.persee.fr/doc/ista_0000-0000_2001_ant_720_1_2709 (status as of July 1st 2021).

Pavolini C. 1996. Mercato ostiense e mercato romano: alcuni contesti ceramici a confronto. In A. Gallina Zevi and A. Claridge (eds), Roman Ostia Revisited: Archaeological and Historical Papers in Memory of Russell Meiggs, 223-242. London.

Petruzzellis L. and Chebat J.-C. 2010. Comportamento del consumatore. Teoria e casi di studio. Milan, Turin.

Picon M. 1992. Origine fréjusienne de l’amphore Dr. 16 de Londres présentant une inscription peinte avec l’indication Liquamen Antipolitanum. In F. Laubenheimer (ed.) 1992, 21-22.

Pieri D. 2012. Regional and Interregional Exchanges in the Eastern Mediterranean during the Early Byzantine Period: The Evidence of Amphorae. In C. Morrisson (ed.), Trade and Markets in Byzantium, 27-49. (Dumbarton Oaks Byzantine Symposia and Colloquia 4). Washington D.C.

Protocole Beauvray 1998. Protocole de la quantifications des céramiques. In P. Arcelin and M. Truffeau-Libre (eds), La quantification des céramiques.

Conditions et Protocole, Actes de la table ronde du Centre archéologique européen du Mont Beuvray (Glux-en-Glenne, 7-9 avril 1998), I-XVII. Gluxen-Glenne.

Purcell N. 1985. Wine and Wealth in Ancient Italy. JRS 75, 1-19. https://doi.org/10.2307/300648.

Radaelli E. 2016. The So-called ‘2nd Century AD Crisis’ of Italian Productions: Reflections from the Remains of Wine-amphorae Discovered in the ‘Terme di Elagabalo’ in Rome. Emergence. Humanities Graduate School Research Journal 8, Construction and Decay, 79-90.

Radaelli E. 2017. Salse di pesce a Roma in età medio imperiale. Considerazioni dai ritrovamenti anforici presso le cd. “Terme di Elagabalo”. In A. Pontrandolfo and M. Scafuro (eds), Dialoghi sull’Archeologia della Magna Grecia e del Mediterraneo, Atti del I Convegno Internazionale di Studi 4, 1043-1052. Paestum.

Radaelli E. 2018a. Los alimentos (vino y dátiles) de Palestina y Líbano en Roma y en Ostia durante el medio imperio (siglos II-principios del III d. C.): análisis de datos que derivan de las ánforas. In M. Andrés Chaín, A. M. Gutiérrez Hernández, P. Ortega Martínez, and P. Poveda Arias (eds), La Alimentación en la Historia, 127-140. Salamanca.

Radaelli E. 2018b. The Presence of North-African Wines in Rome and Ostia during the Middle Imperial Age (2nd – Early 3rd Centuries AD). Antesteria. Debates de Historia Antigua 7, 245-262.

Radaelli E. 2019. Los vinos ibéricos en Roma (y Ostia) durante el medio imperio (siglos II-principios del III d. C.). Análisis y revisiones de datos. In A. Grzelak-Krzymianowska and M.J. Woźniak (eds), Roma y la Península Ibérica.

Variedad de relaciones desde la antigüedad hasta la contemporaneidad, 245-264. Łódź. https://doi.org/10.18778/8142-506-3.16.

Ritson C. and Hutchins R. 1995. Food Choice and the Demand for Food. In D. Marshall (ed.) 1995, 43-76.

Rizzo G. 2003. Instrumenta urbis I. Ceramiche fini da mensa, lucerne ed anfore a Roma nei primi due secoli dell’impero. (Collection de l’École française de Rome 307). Rome.

Rizzo G. 2012. Roma e Ostia, un binomio ancora possibile? Di alcuni generi trasportati in anfora in età tardo-antonina. In S. Keay (ed.), Rome, Portus and the Mediterranean, 87-103. (Monographs of the British School at Rome 21). London.

Rizzo G. 2014a. Le anfore dell’area NE. In Ostia VI (StMisc 38), 73-370.

Rizzo G. 2014b. Ostia, le anfore e i commerci. In Ostia VI (StMisc 38), 393-431.

Sánchez Climent Á. 2013. El objeto en arqueología: el análisis de los artefactos como productos de la cultura material. Archaeological Research & Ethnographic Studies 1, 31-44.

Shack D.N. 1978. Taster’s Choice: Social and Cultural Determinants of Food Preferences. In J. Yudkin (ed.), Diet of Man: Needs and Wants, 209-224. London.

Slater D. 1997. Consumer Choice and Modernity. Cambridge.

Smith M.L. 2006. The Archaeology of Food Preference. American Anthropologist 108/3, 480-493. https://doi.org/10.1525/aa.2006.108.3.480.

Symonds R.P. and Haynes I. 2007. Developing Methodology for Inter-provincial Comparison of Pottery Assemblages. In R. Hingley and S. Willis (eds), Roman Finds: Context and Theory: Proceedings of a Conference Held at the University of Durham, 67-76. Oxford.

Tchernia A. 1986. Le Vin de l’Italie romaine: essai d’histoire économique d’après les amphores. Rome. https://doi.org/10.3406/befar.1986.1221.

Tchernia A. 2011. Les Romains et le Commerce. Naples. https://doi.org/10.4000/books.pcjb.6418.

Tchernia M.A. and Villa J.-P. 1977. Note sur le matériel recueilli dans la fouille d’un atelier d’amphores à Velaux (Bouches-du-Rhône). In G. Vallet (ed.), Méthodes classiques et méthodes formelles dans l’étude des amphores, 231-239. Roma. Retrieved from https://www.persee.fr/doc/efr_0000-0000_1977_act_32_1_4693 (status as of July 1st 2021).

University of Southampton 2005. Roman Amphorae: A Digital Resource [dataset]. https://doi.org/10.5284/1028192.

Thomas J. 2007. The Trouble with Material Culture. Journal of Iberian Archaeology 9/10, 11-23.

Veblen T. 1975. The Theory of the Leisure Class: An Economic Study of Institutions. New York.

Vidale M. 2007. Ceramica e archeologia. Roma.

White C.L. and Beaudry M.C. 2009. Artifacts and Personal Identity. In T. Majewski and D. Gaimster (eds), International Handbook of Historical Archaeology, 209-225. New York. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-72071-5_12.

Wilson A. 2006. Fishy Business: Roman Exploitation of Marine Resources. JRA 19/2, 525-537. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1047759400006760.

Whittaker C.R. 1989. Il povero. In A. Giardina (ed.), L’uomo romano, 299-333. Roma, Bari.

Downloads

Published

19-12-2021

How to Cite

Radaelli, Edoardo. 2021. “Gallic Amphorae in Rome (and Ostia) During the Middle Imperial Age: Data Revision and Reflections from the Finds at the ‘Terme Di Elagabalo’ in Rome”. Studies in Ancient Art and Civilisation 25 (December):161-78. https://doi.org/10.12797/SAAC.25.2021.25.09.

Issue

Section

Articles