Several Remarks About the Near-Eastern Contribution to Early Archaic Greek Warfare

  • Jakub Witowski University of Wrocław
Keywords: Greek warfare, Archaic Period, conical helmet, shields, Near-Eastern warfare, composite shields

Abstract

In recent years Archaic Greek warfare has become one of the issues most often raised among scholars focused on Ancient Greece in general. Questions about the emergence of the phalanx, evolution of fighting styles and types of weapons feature prominently in the mentioned discourse. The considerations of the provenance of these innovations certainly do not go beyond the frames of that debate. Taking the vast scope of interactions between the Near East and the widely understood Greek world into account, presuming the possible presence of the Near-Eastern influences in Archaic Greek warfare seems to be legitimate. The aim of this paper is an attempt to point out archaeologically traceable solutions in the terms of weapons and tactics in Greek warfare which may have been drawn from the Oriental area and assess their potential significance for the development of Greek warfare.

References

Ahlberg G. 1971. Fighting on Land and Sea in Greek geometric Art. Athens.

Backer D. F. 2007. Some basic tactics of Neo-Assyrian warfare. Ugarit-Forschungen 1, 69-115.

Baitinger H. 2011. Waffenweihungen in griechischen Heiligtümern. (Monographien des des Römisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums 94). Mainz.

Batmaz A. 2013. A lion-headed shield from Ayanis: An identifier of the Urartian culture?. In L. Bombardieri, A. D’Agostino, G. Guarducci, V. Orsi and S. Valentini (eds.), SOMA 2012. Identity and Connectivity.

Proceedings of the 16th Symposium on Mediterranean Archaeology, Florence, Italy, March 1-3, 2012. vol. 1, 243-252. (BAR-IS 2581, 1). Oxford.

Benton S. 1938. The date of the Cretan shields. The Annual of the British School at Athens 39, 52-64.

Blecić Kavur M. 2017. Illyrian helmets from Montenegro. In D. Radovic (ed.), Nova Anticka Duklja VIII. Museum and Galleries of Podgorica, 31-57. Podgorica.

Boardman J. 1970. Greek Gems and Finger Rings, Early Bronze Age to Late Classical. London.

Boardman J. 2000. The Greeks Overseas. Their Early Colonies and Trade. London.

Boardman J. 2001. The History of Greek Vases. London.

Born H. and Hansen S. 1994. Frühgriechische Bronzehelme. Berlin.

Brown R. B. 1984. Greeks in Assyria: some overlooked evidence. Classical World 77, 300-303. https://doi.org/10.2307/4349596.

Cifarelli M. 1998. Gesture and alterity in the art of Ashurnasirpal II of Assyria. The Art Bulletin 80, 210-228. https://doi.org/10.2307/3051230.

Curtis J. 1994. Mesopotamian bronzes from Greek sites: the workshops of origin. Iraq 56, 1-25. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021088900002771.

Dawkins R. M. 1929. The Sanctuary of Artemis Orthia at Sparta. London.

De Groote K. R. 2016. “Twas when my shield turned traitor”! Establishing the combat effectivness of the Greek hoplite shield. Oxford Journal of Archeology 35, 197-212. https://doi.org/10.1111/ojoa.12085.

Dezsö T. 1998. Oriental Influence in the Aegean and Eastern Mediterranean Helmet Traditions in the 9th-7th Centuries B.C.: The Patterns of Orientalization. (BAR-IS 691). Oxford.

Dezsö T. 2001. Near Eastern Helmets of the Iron Age. (BAR-IS 992). Oxford.

Dezsö T. 2012. The Assyrian Army. I. The Structure of the Neo-Assyrian Army. 1. Infantry. Budapest.

Dezsö T. and Curtis J. 1991. Assyrian iron helmets from Nimrud now in the British Museum. Iraq 53, 105-126. https://doi.org/10.2307/4200341.

Echeverría F. 2012. Hoplite and phalanx in Archaic and Classical Greece: A Reassessment. Classical Philology 107, 291-318. https://doi.org/10.1086/666924.

Echeverría F. 2015. Heroic fiction, combat scenes, and the scholarly reconstruction of Archaic Greek warfare. Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies 58, 33-60. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2041-5370.2015.12001.x.

Frielinghaus H. 2011. Die Helme von Olympia: Ein Beitrag zu Waffenweihungen in griechischen Heiligtümern. Berlin–New York.

Frothingham A. L. 1888. Early Bronzes brecently discovered on Mount Ida in Krete. The American Journal of Archaeology and of the History of the Fine Arts 4, 431-449. https://doi.org/10.2307/496130.

Hale J. R. 2013. Not Patriots, Not Farmers, Not Amateurs: Greek Soldiers of Fortune and the Origins of Hoplite Warfare. In D. Kagan, G. F. Viggiano (eds.), Men of Bronze. Hoplite Warfare in Ancient Greece, I. Princeton, 176-193.

Hall J. M. 2011. Historia Grecji archaicznej ok. 1200-479 p.n.e. Kraków.

Hencken H. 1950. Herzsprung shields and Greek trade. AJA 54, 294-309. https://doi.org/10.2307/501002.

Hockey M., Johnston A., Niece L. S., Middleton A. and Swaddling J. 1992. An Illyrian helmet in the British Museum. The Annual of the British School at Athens 87, 281-291.

Hurwit J. M. 1985. The Art and Culture of Early Greece, 1100–480 B.C. New York.

Hurwit J. M. 2002. Reading the Chigi vase. Hesperia: The Journal of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens 71, 1-22. https://doi.org/10.2307/3182058.

Hurwit J. M. 2006. Lizards, lions, and the uncanny in early Greek art. Hesperia: The Journal of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens 75, 121-136.

Jaeger W. 2007. Teologia wczesnych filozofów greckich. Kraków.

Kagan D. and Viggiano G. F. 2013. The Hoplite debate. In D. Kagan and G. F. Viggiano (eds.), Men of Bronze. Hoplite Debate in Ancient Greece, 1-56. Princeton.

Kasas V. S. 1980. Die Funde aus Olympia. Athens.

Luraghi N. 2006. Traders, pirates, warriors: the proto-history of Greek mercenary soldiers in the Eastern Mediterranean. Phoenix 60, 21-47.

Molloy B. 2009. For Gods or men? A reappraisal of the function of European Bronze Age shields. Antiquity 83, 1052-1064. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003598X00099348.

Molloy B. 2010. Swords and swordmanship in the Aegean Bronze Age. AJA 114, 403-428. https://doi.org/10.3764/aja.114.3.403.

Molloy B. 2012. Martial Minoans? War as social process, practice and event in Bronze Age Crete. The Annual of the British School at Athens 107, 87-142. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0068245412000044.

Moore M. B. and Schwartz J. H. 2006. Hoplites, horses, and a comic chorus. Metropolitan Museum Journal 41, 33-57. https://doi.org/10.1086/met.41.20320659.

Niemeier W.-D. 2001. Archaic Greeks in the Orient: textual and archaeological evidence. BASOR 322, 11-32. https://doi.org/10.2307/1357513.

Paipetis S. A. and Kostopoulos V. 2008. Defensive weapons in Homer. In S. A. Paipetis (ed.), Science and Technology in Homeric Epics, 181-203. Dordrecht.

Pantermalis D. 2016. Dodoni to manteio ton ichon [Δωδώνη το μαντείο των ηχων]. Athens.

Pedley J. G. 1994. Greek art. Ancient Art at The Art Institute of Chicago 20, 32-53.

Rollinger R. 2006. The Eastern Mediterranean and Beyond: The relations between the Worlds of the “Greek” and “Non-Greek” civilizations. In K. H. Kinzl, A Companion to the Classical Greek World, 197-226. Oxford.

Snodgrass A. 1964. Early Greek Armour and Weapons. Edinburg.

Snodgrass A. 1998. Homer and the Artists. Text and Picture in Early Greek Art. Cambridge.

Snodgrass A. 2013. Setting the Frame Chronologically. In D. Kagan and G. F. Viggiano (eds.), Men of Bronze. Hoplite Warfare in Ancient Greece, 85-93. Princeton.

Sourvinou-Inwood C. 1993. Early Sanctuaries, the eighth Century and ritual Space Fragments of a Discourse. In N. Marinatos and R. Hägg (eds.), Greek Sanctuaries. New Approaches, 1-13. London−New York.

Spier J. 1990. Emblems in Archaic Greece. Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies 37, 107-129. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2041-5370.1990.tb00222.x.

Stevenson Smith W. 1960. Two Assyrian reliefs. Bulletin of the Museum of Fine Arts 58, 44-56.

Taracha P. 2007. Warriors of the Mycenaean “Age of Plate”. In B. Molloy (ed.), The Cutting Edge. Studies in Ancient and Medieval Combat, 144-152. Stroud.

Uckelmann M. 2016. The function of Bronze Age shields. In M. Uckelmann and M. Mödlinger (eds.), Bronze Age Warfare: Manufacture and Use of Weaponry, I, 187-199. (BAR-IS 2255). Oxford.

Viggiano G. F. and Wees H. van 2013. The arms, armor, and iconography of Early Greek Hoplite Warfare. In D. Kagan and G. F. Viggiano (eds.), Men of Bronze. Hoplite Warfare in Ancient Greece, 57-73. Princeton.

Wees H. van 1992. Status Warriors. War, Violence and Society in Homer and History. Amsterdam.

Wees H. van 1994. The Homeric way of war: the “Iliad” and the hoplite phalanx (I). Greece & Rome 41, 1-18.

Wees H. van 2004. Greek Warfare: Myths and Realities. London−New York.

Winter I. 1988. North Syria as a Bronzeworking centre in the Early First Millennium BC: Luxury commodities at home and abroad. In J. E. Curtis (ed.), Bronzeworking Centres of Western Asia c. 1000–539 B.C. London−New York.

Woolley L. 1921. Carchemish. Report on the Excavations at Jerablus on Behalf of the British Museum, I. London.

Published
2019-01-31
Section
Articles