Surveying the rural village of Al-Jāyyah (Ma’an Governorate, Jordan): archaeological methodologies and first results

A contribution to the knowledge of the Shawbak territorial settlement in the longue durée

Authors

  • Chiara Marcotulli University of Florence

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.12797/SAAC.24.2020.24.08

Keywords:

Light Archaeology, Building Archaeology, Landscape Archaeology, vernacular architecture, rural villages

Abstract

Surveying the rural village of Al-Jāyyah (Ma’an Governorate, Jordan): archaeological methodologies and first results. A contribution to the knowledge of the Shawbak territorial settlement in the longue durée

This paper presents some preliminary results about systematic Light Archaeology surveys (integrating Building and Landscape Archaeology) that the author is leading in the village of Al-Jāyyah, SE ofthe Shawbak castle, within the archaeological investigations on the landscape surrounding the fortress managed by the Italian archaeological Mission‘Medieval Petra,’ University of Florence. The aim of the surveys is to investigate the historical connection between the castle and the village, suggested by some Medieval written sources. The research’s preliminary outcomes are confirming that even if the present appearance of the village is modern, it preserves significant Medieval material evidences plausibly linked to the Crusader suburb and the Islamic madīnah of Shawbak.

References

Abū al-Fidā = M. Guyard S. (ed.) 1883. Géographie d’Aboulféda. Traduite de l’arabe en francais et accompagnée de notes et d'éclaircissements par M. Reinaud (et M. Stanislas Guyard), vol. II, 2. Paris.

Al-Bakhit M. A. and Al-Sawariyyah N. R. 1989. The Detailed Defter of Liwā Aljūn. Amman.

Al-Nammari F. 2003. The preservation of vernacular architecture in Jordan: development chances lost. In Managing conflict and conservation in historic cities: integrating conservation with tourism, development and politics. 6th US/ICOMOS International Symposium, April 24-27, 2003. Annapolis MD.

Alsubeh M. A. 2013. Architectural and heritage elements and formation characteristics of traditional houses interfaces. Arts and Design Studies 12, 9-22.

Balducci Pegolotti F. 1936. Practica della mercatura. A. Evans (ed.). Cambridge MA.

Bonacchi C. and Burtenshaw P. 2012. Archaeology for Development: The need for holistic planning, case studies from Jordan. In ICOMOS 17th General Assembly, November 27- December 2, 2011, 540-541. Paris.

Brogiolo G. P. and Cagnana A. 2012. Archeologia dell’architettura. Metodi e interpretazioni. (Metodi e temi dell’Archeologia Medievale 3). Florence.

Brown R. 1988. Report of the 1986 Excavation at Shobak, Department of Anthropology. State University of New York, New York (USA) and ACOR Amman, unpublished.

Burckardt J. L. 1822. Travels in Syria and Holy Land. London.

Burri E., Ferrari A., Ragni P., Del Bon A., Mancini M., Albino G., Di Paolo P. and Meneghini M. 2011. Indagini sugli ipogei artificiali nel Castello di Shawbak e nelle aree limitrofe (Giordania meridionale). Temporis Signa. Archeologia della tarda antichità e del medioevo 6, 283-318.

Daher R. F. 1999. Gentrification and the Politics of Power, Capital and Culture in an Emerging Jordanian Heritage Industry. Traditional Dwellings and Settlements Review 10/2, 33-46.

Faucherre N. 2004. La forteresse de Shawbak (Crac de Montréal). Une des premières forteresses franques sous son corset Mamelouk. In N. Faucherre, J. Mesqui and N. Prouteau (eds), La fortification au temps des Croisades, 43-66. Rennes.

Fragai L. 2019. New Research Perspectives on the Mamluk Qāʾa at Kerak Castle: Building Archaeology and Historical Contextualization. Journal of Islamic Archaeology 6/2, 187-208. https://doi.org/10.1558/jia.37337. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1558/jia.37337

Glueck N. 1935. Explorations in Eastern Palestine, I. The Annual of the American Schools of Oriental Research 14, 1-113. https://doi.org/10.2307/3768481. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/3768481

Hütteroth W. D. and Abdulfattah K. 1977. Historical Geography of Palestine, Transjordan and South Syria in the Late Sixteenth Century. Erlangen.

Irby C. L. and Mangles J. 1844. Travels in Egypt and Nubia, Syria, and the Holy Land; Including a Journey Round the Dead Sea, and through the Country East of the Jordan. London.

Jäger J. 2012. Describing traditional architecture in rural areas, examples from Syria and Jordan. In J. Jäger and I. Helmedag (eds), Stone and Architecture in the Mountainous Regions of Jordan and Syria, 13-60. Amman, Damascus, Berlin.

Kana‘an R. and Mc Quitty A. 1994. The architecture of al-Qasr on the Kerak Plateau: an essay in the chronology of vernacular architecture. Palestine Exploration Quarterly 126, 127-151. https://doi.org/10.1179/peq.1994.126.2.127. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1179/peq.1994.126.2.127

Khammash A. 1986. Notes on Village Architecture in Jordan. Lafayette LA.

Labin A. M. J. E. and Aldeek Z. A. O. 2017. The design elements and building techniques at the traditional Jordanian dwellings. International Review of Engineering and Computer Sciences 2/3, 12-20.

Le Strange G. 1890, Palestine Under the Moslems: A Description of Syria and the Holy Land from A.D. 650 to 1500. London.

Little D. P. 1986. Data from the Haram Documents on rugs in late 14th century Jerusalem. In R. Pinner and W. B. Denny (eds), Oriental Carpet and Textile Studies II, Carpets of the Mediterranean Countries 1400-1600, 83-94. London.

Ludolph of Sudheim 1851. De itinere Terrae Sanctae liber. F. Deycks (ed.). Stuttgart.

Marcotulli C. and Pruno E. 2018. Teindre ou ne pas teindre. Là est le problème! Le cas du site de Shawbak (Jordanie). In S. Burri and M. Ourefelli (eds), Artisanat et métiers en Méditerranée médiévale et moderne, 187-202. Aix-Marseille.

Mauss C. and Sauvaire H. 1874. Voyage de Jérusalem à Kérak et Chaubak. In M. le duc de Luynes (ed.), Voyages d’exploration à la Mer Morte, à Pétra et sur la rive gauche du Jourdain, 2, 83-178. Paris.

Milwright M. 2006. Central and Southern Jordan in the Ayyubid period: Historical and archaeological perspectives. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 16, 1-27. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1356186305005626. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S1356186305005626

Milwright M. 2008. The Fortress of the Raven: Karak in the Middle Islamic Period (1100-1650). (Islamic History and Civilization. Studies and Texts 72). Leiden. https://doi.org/10.1163/ej.9789004165199.I-445. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/ej.9789004165199.I-445

Nucciotti M. 2007. Analisi stratigrafiche degli elevati: primi risultati. In G. Vannini (ed.), Archeologia dell’insediamento crociato-ayyubide in Transgiordania. Il progetto Shawbak, 27-55. Florence.

Nucciotti M. and Pruno E. 2016. Great and Little Traditions in medieval Petra and Shawbak: contextualizing local building industry and pottery production in 12th-13th centuries. Archeologia Medievale 43, 309-320.

Nucciotti M. and Vannini G. 2020. Light archaeology and territorial analysis: experiences and perspectives of the Florentine medievalist school. Archaeologia Polona 50, 149-169.

Peake F. G. 1934. A History of Trans-Jordan and Its Tribes, 1. Amman.

Prawer J. 1951. Colonization activities in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem. Revue Belge de Philologie et d’Histoire 29/4, 1063-1118. https://doi.org/10.3406/rbph.1951.2115. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3406/rbph.1951.2115

Pruno E., Ranieri R. and Marcotulli C. 2020. The material culture in Shawbak between Crusaders, Ayyubids and Mamluks: the case-study of Hospitaller’s Chapel. In J. B. Walker and A. Al Ghouz (eds), Living with Nature and Things. Contribute to a New Social History of the Middle Islamic Periods. Bonn. https://doi.org/10.1422/9783737011037.401.

Rjoub A. and Mahmoud A. 2012. The emergence of agro-pastoral villages in Jordan Hamamet al-Olimat village as a case study. Journal of Human Ecology 38/3, 231-243. https://doi.org/10.1080/09709274.2012.119064 92.

RRH = Röhricht R. (ed.) 1893. Regesta Regni Hierosolymitani (MXCVIIMCCXCI), Innsbruck.

Seetzen U. J. 1854. Ulrich Jasper Seetzen’s Reisen durch Syrien, Palästina, Phönicien, die Transjordan-Länder, Arabia Petraea und Unter-Aegypten. Berlin.

Segnini C. 2011. Archeologia e sviluppo socio-economico territoriale. Prospettive di intervento e politiche di sostegno, comunitarie e regionali. In G. Vannini (ed.), Archeologia Pubblica in Toscana. Un progetto e una proposta, 69-78. Florence.

Shqairat M. A. 2018. Abandoning Shammakh: historical archaeology among the villages of Southern Jordan and its ethno-archaeological and modern economic potential. Journal of Anthropology and Archaeology 6/1, 1-14. https://doi.org/10.15640/jaa.v6n1a1. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15640/jaa.v6n1a1

Stagno A. M. 2012. Casa rurale e storia degli insediamenti. Un approccio geografico per l’archeologia dell’edilizia storica. In F. Redi and A. Forgione (eds), Atti del VI Congresso Nazionale di Archeologia Medievale, September 12-15, 2012, 23-27. Florence.

Thietmar of Merseburg 1857. Peregrinatio. J. C. M. Laurent (ed.). Hamburg.

Twaissi S. A., Abuhalaleh B., Abudanah F. and Al-Salameen A 2016. The architectural aspects of the traditional villages in Petra region with some anthropological notes. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences 7/4, 336-352. https://doi.org/10.5901/mjss.2016.v7n4p336. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5901/mjss.2016.v7n4p336

Vanni Desideri A. and Vannini G. 2016. Light archaeology and historical landscape. For the global history of the site of al-Wu’ayra (Petra) in Transjordan. In P. Kołodziejczyk and B. Kwiatkowska-Kopka (eds), Landscape in the Past & Forgotten Landscapes, 197-206. (Cracow Landscape Monographs 2). Krakow.

Vannini G. 2012. Il ‘castello’ di Shawbak e la Transgiordania meridionale: una frontiera del Mediterraneo medievale. In P. Peduto and A. M. Santoro (eds), Archeologia dei castelli nell’Europa angioina (secoli XIII-XV). Atti del convegno internazionale, November 10-12, 2008, 145-157. (Medioevo scavato 5). Florence.

Vannini G. and Nucciotti M. 2012. Da Petra a Shawbak. Archeologia di una frontiera. La missione in Giordania dell’Università di Firenze. In S. Lusuardi Siena and G. Perassi (eds), La Giordania che abbiamo attraversato, 55-73. Milan.

Vannini G. and Nucciotti M. 2018. Medieval Petra - Shawbak Project: archaeological excavations at Shawbak/Jaya 2018. Press Release. Unpublished report for the Department of the Antiquities of Jordan. Vannini G., Marcotulli C. and Ruschi P. 2013. Crusader, Ayyubid and early Mamluk Shawbak and the history of Medieval south Jordan: the archaeology and restoration of the Mamluk workshop. Studies in the History and Archaeology of Jordan 11, 359-380.

Vigouroux E., Elter R., Pascual J-P. and March C. 2015. Le complexe médiéval de Khirbat al-Dusaq. II Résultats de la prèmiere campagne de fouilles (2009). Syria. Archeologie, art et histoire 92, 189-209.

Walker B. J. 2011. Jordan in the Late Middle Ages: Transformation of the Mamluk Frontier. (Chicago Studies on the Middle East 8). Chicago.

William of Tyre 1943. A History of Deeds Done beyond the Sea. E. Atwater Babcock and A. C. Krey (eds). New York.

Downloads

Published

2020-12-01

How to Cite

Marcotulli, Chiara. 2020. “Surveying the Rural Village of Al-Jāyyah (Ma’an Governorate, Jordan): Archaeological Methodologies and First Results: A Contribution to the Knowledge of the Shawbak Territorial Settlement in the Longue durée”. Studies in Ancient Art and Civilisation 24 (December):177-95. https://doi.org/10.12797/SAAC.24.2020.24.08.

Issue

Section

Articles