The Implementation of the Pan-Indian Form on the Keralan Ground: A.R. Rajaraja Varma’s Citranakṣatramālā
Keywords:Citranakṣatramālā, citrakāvya, A. R. Rajaraja Varma, Kerala, Maharaja Visakham Tirunal
In the 19th century Keralan literature contrasts between the traditional approach and a modern way of writing, as well as the attempts to reconcile those two modes, were particularly visible. The group of Kodungallur (Kōṭuṅgallūr) poets acted against over-Sanskritization in Malayalam poetry, while in the nearby Travancore (Tiruvitāṅkūr) poets advocated Sanskrit and tried to emulate classical forms. A. R. Rajaraja Varma (1863–1918), being one of the leading figures of the Travancore progressive movement, combined traditional, modern and local forms and themes in his works. He mastered the usage of well-known elements of kāvya literature in the description of events of his time. One of the examples that joins all of these factors is Citranakṣatramālā, a short composition written by seventeen-year-old author in honour of his patron—Maharaja Visakham Tirunal (Viśākham Tirunāḷ Mahārāja) of Travancore. The analysis of selected passages of the work reveals Rajaraja Varma’s ability to implement pan-Indian form on local ground successfully.
Bhaskaran, T. (ed.).1985. Viśākhatulābhāraprabandha. Trivandrum: Oriental Research Institute and Manuscripts Library, University of Kerala.
CNM = Citranakṣatramālā = Subramanian, K. H. (ed.). 1995. Citranakṣatramālā. Tripunithura: Govt. Sanskrit College Committee.
Cielas, H. 2013. The Eight-petalled Lotus Flower Pattern in Sanskrit Figurative
Poetry. A Study. In: Pandanus, 7(1): 73–88.
Das, S. K. 2000. A History of Indian Literature 1800–1910: Western Impact: Indian Response. New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi.
Easwaran Nampoothiry, E. 1972. Sanskrit Literature of Kerala. Index of Authors with Their Works. Trivandrum: College Book House.
George, K. M. 1968. A Survey of Malayalam Literature. London: Asia Publishing House.
George, K. M. 1972. Western Influence on Malayalam Language and Literature. New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi.
George, K. M. (ed.). 1985. Comparative Indian Literature. Vol. 2. Trichur: Kerala Sahitya Akademi.
Gouri Lakshmi Bayi. 2000. Sree Padmanabha Swamy Temple. Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan.
Harness, D. M. 2004. The Nakshastras: The Lunar Mansions of Vedic Astrology. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers.
Kunjunni Raja, K. 1980. The Contribution of Kerala to Sanskrit Literature. Madras: University of Madras.
Menon, A.S. 2006. A Survey of Kerala History. Chennai: S.Viswanathan.
Monier-Williams, M. (ed.). 2005. Sanskrit- English Dictionary. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers.
Sudyka, L. and C. Galewicz. 2005. If You Know One Thousand Śloka-s, You Are Half a Poet: On the akṣara-śloka Traditions of Kerala. In: Cracow Indological Studies, 7: 295–315.
Sudyka, L. and C. Galewicz. 2012. The Eightfold Gymnastic of Mind: a preliminary Report on the Idea and Tradition of aṣṭāvadhāna. In: Cracow Indological Studies, 14: 169–192.
Spagnoli, C. and P. Samanna. 1999. Jasmine and Coconuts: South Indian Tales. Englewood: Libraries Unlimited.
Tarabout, G. 2016. Religious Uncertainty, Astrology and the Courts in South India. In: D. Berti, A. Good and G. Tarabout (eds.). 2016. Of Doubt and Proof: Ritual and Legal Practices of Judgment. London–New York: Routledge: 59–76.
Varadpande, M. L. 1992. History of Indian Theatre. Loka Ranga: Panorama of Indian Folk Theatre. New Delhi: Abhinav Publications.
Vaidyanathan, K. R. 1988. Temples and Legends of Kerala. Bombay: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan.
Whitney, W. D. 1896. A Sanskrit Grammar. Including Both the Classical Language, and the Older Dialects, of Veda and Brahmana. Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel.
Yampolsky, P. 1950. The Origin of the Twenty-Eight Lunar Mansions. In: Osiris, 9: 62–83. http://www.sreepadmanabhaswamytemple.org/lnh.htm (last accessed: 26 October 2016).
How to Cite
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Narodowym Centrum Nauki
Grant numbers 2014/13/N/HS2/03022