Somaliland i Tajwan – współpraca państw nieuznawanych w cieniu rozgrywki geopolitycznej mocarstw w Rogu Afryki




unrecognized states, Somaliland, Taiwan, USA, China



Separated by thousands of kilometers and very different cultures, histories, and economies, Taiwan and Somaliland appear to have little in common. Like Taiwan, Somaliland was created in the aftermath of a civil war. The consequences of those conflicts continue to shape the political status of both countries. Since the declaration of independence from Somalia in 1991, Hargeisa, like Taipei, has been trying to secure its existence, because both states cannot count on international recognition, and their independence is contested by the states from which they seceded. Despite being forced to exist on the periphery of the international community, both de facto states still try to be active participants in global affairs. Relations between unrecognized states are also an element of the game between the main players in this region, the US and China. Washington, concerned about Beijing’s political and economic expansion in the Horn of Africa, is trying to limit it, and one of the elements of this policy is indirect support for the strategically located Somaliland through its ally from Taipei.


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Author Biography

Robert Kłosowicz, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland

Prof. dr hab., badacz stosunków międzynarodowych, afrykanista, zatrudniony w Instytucie Nauk Politycznych i Stosunków Międzynarodowych Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego. Dyrektor Jagiellońskiego Centrum Badań Afrykani-stycznych. Specjalizuje się w badaniach nad zagadnieniami bezpieczeństwa międzynarodowego i konfliktami zbrojnymi, ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem problematyki dysfunkcyjności państw i państw de facto. W sferze jego zainteresowań znajduje się także problematyka stosunków międzynarodowych w Afryce. Autor siedmiu monografii oraz redaktor pięciu prac zbiorowych. Prowadził badania terenowe w ponad dwudziestu państwach afrykańskich.


Dokumenty, raporty, wywiady, strony rządowe

Statistical Tables, National Statistics, Republic of China (Taiwan), [online:]

Bakonyi J., Darwich M., Imaginaries of Modernity in the Horn of Africa: Ports and Infrastructural Lifewords, referat wygłoszony na konferencji „European Conference on African Studies” w Kolonii, 31 V 2023.

Central Statistics Department of Somaliland, [online:]

China’s Trade and Investment Relationship in Africa, Brookings – Quality. Independence. Impact, [online:] (GamacheHammerJones).pdf.

Chinese Oil Buying in Africa Plunges Amid Shift to Suppliers in Russia, Persian Gulf, China Global South Project, 9 XI 2022, [online:]

Considering Political Engagement with Al-Shabaab in Somalia, International Crisis Group, [online:]

Country Dashboard, Fragile States Index, [online:]

Daallo Airlines, [online:]

GDP per capita, Current Prices, List 2021, International Monetary Fund, [online:]

Government of Somaliland, [online:]

Konwencja wiedeńska o stosunkach dyplomatycznych, Dz.U. 1965, nr 37, poz. 232, wersja od 19 IV 1965, [online:]

Moeller R., United States Africa Command: Partnership, Security, and Stability, referat wygłoszony na konferencji „Transforming National Security: AFRICOM – An Emerging Command” w Waszyngtonie, 18 II 2008.

Requests for Disbursement Under the Rapid Credit Facility and Debt Relief Under the Catastrophe Containment and Relief Trust – Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for Djibouti, International Monetary Fund, [online:]

Seminarium Polish and Taiwanese perspectives on Africa, National Chengchi University w Tajpej, 17.10.2023.

Somaliland Chamber of Commerce, Industry and Agriculture, [online:]

Somaliland Civil Aviation and Airports Authority, [online:]

Somaliland in Figures, Ministry of Planning and National Development, Central Statistics Department, Hargeisa 2022, [online:]

Somaliland Innovation Zone Will Serve as a Hub of ICT Training for Public Officers and Citizens Who Are Interested in ICT Learning, ROC Embassies and Missions Abroad, 15 X 2021, [online:]

Somaliland Official Government Website – The Republic of Somaliland, [online:]

Taiwan External Trade Development Council, Overseas Community Affairs Council, [online:]

Taiwan, World Data, [online:]

The Recognition of Somaliland: The Legal Case, Somaliland Official Government Website – The Republic of Somaliland, [online:]

Wywiad autora artykułu z Chiré Aminą Said, ekspertką L’institut de Recherche Indépendant de la Corne d’Afrique, Dżibuti, 19 III 2017.

Wywiady autora artykułu z Mohammadem Abdullahim Omarem oraz Abdirahmanem Mohamedem Abdullahim, Hargejsa, 27 II 2011.

Monografie, opracowania

Gacek Ł., Bezpieczeństwo energetyczne Chin. Aktywność państwowych przedsiębiorstw na rynkach zagranicznych, Kraków 2012.

Harper M., Getting Somalia Wrong? Faith, War and Hope in a Shattered State, London – New York 2012, DOI:

Kłosowicz R., Konteksty dysfunkcyjności państw Afryki Subsaharyjskiej, Kraków 2017, Studia nad Rozwojem.

Kłosowicz R., Mormul J., Erytrea i jej wpływ na sytuację polityczną w Rogu Afryki, Kraków 2018.

Lewis I., Understanding Somalia and Somaliland, Culture, History, Society, London 2009.

Mengisteab K., The Horn of Africa, Cambridge – Malden 2014.

Saeed A., Border Changes: North Sudan – South Sudan Regional Dynamics, [w:] The Horn of Africa: Intra-State and Inter-State Conflicts and Security, red. R. Bereketeab, London 2013, s. 95-114. DOI:

Samatar A.I., The Production of Somali Conflict and the Role of Internal and External Actors, [w:] The Horn of Africa: Intra-State and Inter-State Conflicts and Security, red. R. Bereketeab, London 2013, s. 117-156. DOI:

The Horn of Africa: Intra-State and Inter-State Conflicts and Security, red. R. Bereketeab, London 2013.

Trojnar E., Tajwan. Dylematy rozwoju, Kraków 2015, Societas, t. 80, DOI:

Woodward P., Crisis in The Horn of Africa: Politics, Piracy and the Threat of Terror, New York 2013, DOI:

Artykuły naukowe

Carroll A., Rajagopal B., The Case for the Independent Statehood of Somaliland, „American University International Law Review” 1993, vol. 8, no. 2/3, s. 653-681.

Godsall J.R., Richard Burton’s Somali Expedition, 1854-55: Its Wider Historical Context and Planning, „Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society” 2001, vol. 11, no. 2, s. 135-173, DOI:

Klare M., Volman D., The African „Oil Rush” and US National Security, „Third World Quarterly” 2006, vol. 27, no. 4, s. 609-628, DOI:

Kłosowicz, R., The Role of Ethiopia in the Regional Security Complex of the Horn of Africa, „Ethiopian Journal of Social Sciences and Language Studies” 2015, vol. 2, no. 2, s. 85-99.

Kłosowicz R., United States Africa Command – Balance of Activities during the Presidencies of George H. Bush, Barack Obama and Donald Trump, „Politeja” 2022, t. 19, nr 1(76), s. 255-184, DOI:

Makinda S.M., Security in the Horn of Africa, „The Adelphi Papers” 1992, vol. 32, no. 269, s. 3-8, DOI:

Artykuły prasowe i źródła internetowe

| 25,000 Tonnes of Ukrainian Wheat Delivered to Somali, Ukrainform, 29 XII 2022, [online:]

Bashir M., Somaliland Budget Analysis 2021, Horn Diplomat. Reliable media House from Africa, 14 I 2021, [online:]

China’s African Oil Hunt Revisited, International Relations and Security Network, ETH Zürich, [online:]

Demissie S.T., Djibouti Looks to Ethiopia to Gauge Its Economic Future, Institute for Security Studies, 3 V 2021, [online:]

Djibouti Port Loses Traffic Shares from Neighbouring Ethiopia, Desiderio Consultants Ltd., 1 II 2022, [online:]

Egyptian Government Delegation Visits Somaliland, Somaliland Chronicle, 14 VII 2020, [online:]

Gerding J., At Port of Berbera, Dubai Invests in Horn of Africa Shipping, „Deutsche Welle” 2022, 26 XII, [online:]

Karatzas B.M., China in Djibouti: The Power of Ports, „The Diplomat” 2019, 25 III, [online:]

Kine P., On the Horn of Africa, a Tiny „Country” Has Congress’ Ear, Politico, 21 XII 2021, [online:]

Middle East Oil Less Important Than African Oil for USA, – Environmental Journalism and Education, 22 II 2007, [online:]

Ministry of Transport of Ethiopia and DP World Sign MoU for the Development of the Ethiopian Side of the Berbera Corridors, DP World, 6 V 2021, [online:]

Ndiaga T., Yu J.M., Taiwan Loses Second Ally in a Month as Burkina Faso Cuts Ties, Reuters, 24 V 2018, [online:]

Nicoloso G., EU and UN Carry out Maritime Training with Somaliland Coast Guard, Critical Maritime Routes, [online:]

Nkala O., Taiwan to Fund Somali Coastal Radar, Defense News, 17 X 2015, [online:]

Port of Berbera. Charting a Stronger Course for African Trade with the Rest of the World, British International Investment, [online:]

Rahman A., Shaban A.R., U.S. „Backs” Taiwan-Somaliland Cooperation, Africanews, [online:]

Reid M., The Taiwan-Somaliland Partnership: A Model for an Unofficial Approach to Diplomatic Relations?, Global Taiwan Brief, Vol. 6, Issue 23, 1 XII 2021, [online:] https://globaltaiwan.


Somaliland and Taiwan: Two Territories with Few Friends but Each Other, BBC, 13 IV 2021, [online:]

Somaliland Clashes Between Government and Militias Kill Nearly 100 in Two Weeks, France24, 23 II 2023, [online:]

Somaliland Postpones Presidential Election Until Next Year, Reuters, 25 IX 2022, [online:]

Somaliland, Taiwan Expand Ties Amid Isolation, „Deutsche Welle” 2022, 2 IX, [online:]

Taiwan Issuing Visas to Citizens with Somaliland Passport, Somali Dispatch, 25 VIII 2020, [online:]

Taiwan, Somaliland Hold First Joint Energy, Mineral Meeting, Taiwan Today, 16 III 2023, [online:]

Taiwan, Somaliland Ties Growing Despite Diplomatic Isolation, „The Diplomat” 2022, 10 II, [online:]

Taiwan, Somaliland Vow to Boost Cooperation in Maritime Security, Healthcare and Education, Horn Diplomat. Reliable media House from Africa, 1 VII 2020, [online:]

The Cross-Border Berbera Corridor-Linking Somaliland and Ethiopia Nears Completion, Somaliland Standard, 29 VI 2022, [online:]



How to Cite

Kłosowicz, Robert. 2023. “Somaliland I Tajwan – współpraca państw Nieuznawanych W Cieniu Rozgrywki Geopolitycznej Mocarstw W Rogu Afryki”. Politeja 20 (4(85):161-81.