East African Communities (1967-1978, 1999-) and their Activity for Political Stability of the Region


  • Joanna Bar Pedagogical University of Krakow




East African Community, East Africa, Republic of South Sudan, sub-regional organisation, security, political integration


The East African Community (EAC) is a regional intergovernmental organisation founded on 30 November 1999, including such member states as Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, South Sudan, Tanzania, and Uganda. The EAC was meant as the reactivation and expansion of an earlier organisation founded in 1967 by Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. Unlike its predecessor (which collapsed in 1978), not only has the contemporary Community been operating stably for almost 20 years, but it has also proved to be successful in improving the economic growth of its member states. Simultaneously, it supports the internal and national security of individual member states and the stability of the entire region. In recent years, the stabilisation capabilities of the Community have been tested through the accession of South Sudan, a country driven by a domestic conflict. Republic of South Sudan contributes not only rich crude oil deposits and water resources, but also a heavy burden of political issues in the form of both domestic conflicts and unresolved international problems such as a border conflict with the Republic of (north) Sudan. Successful economic cooperation may, however, reduce poverty and boost the development of South Sudan, both with regard to its economy and within the social and political aspects. This, in turn, may translate into good governance and the formation of a civil society.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Joanna Bar, Pedagogical University of Krakow

Political scientist, historian and ethnologist; associate professor at the Institute of Political Science of the Pedagogical University of Krakow, Chair of Political Systems. Her research field centers around the social and political change in east African countries, with a particular focus on contemporaries social and political changes in Rwanda and Tanzania. She has conducted fieldwork in several countries in Sub-Saharan Africa.


Aseka E.M., Transformational Leadership in East Afrika. Politics, Ideology and Community, Kampala 2005.

Bach D., “Regionalizm, integracja i transnarodowa regionalizacja w Afryce”, in K. Jędrzejczyk-Kuliniak, L. Kwieciński, B. Michalski, E. Stadtmüller (eds.), Regionalizacja w stosunkach międzynarodowych. Aspekty polityczno-gospodarcze, Toruń 2008.

Bar J., “Polityka państw Wspólnoty Wschodnioafrykańskiej wobec kryzysu w Regionie Wielkich Jezior”, in A. Żukowski (ed.), Konteksty bezpieczeństwa w Afryce. Konflikty, wojny, polityka bezpieczeństwa, “Forum Politologiczne”, vol. 17, Olsztyn 2014.

Bar J., “Współpraca polityczna i gospodarcza w ramach Wspólnoty Wschodnoafrykańskiej (EAC) jako przykład nowych form komunikowania w Afryce”, in A. Żukowski (ed.), Komunikowanie w Afryce. Endo- i egzogeniczne aspekty: Polityka – gospodarka – społeczeństwo – media, “Forum Politologiczne”, vol. 19, Olsztyn 2016.

Booth D., Cammack D., Kibua T. et al., “East African integration: How can it contribute to East African development?”, Briefing, February 2017, at <https://www.odi.org/sites/odi.org.uk/files/odi-assets/publications-opinion-files/126.pdf>.

“Charter of the Organization of African Unity, 479 U.N.T.S. 39”, University of Minnesota. Human Rights Library, 13 September 1963, at <http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/africa/OAU_Charter_1993.html>.

Cisło W., Różański J. Ząbek M. (eds.), Bilad as-Sudan. Kultury i migracje, Warszawa 2013.

Czernichowski K., Integracja afrykańska – uwarunkowania, formy współpracy, instytucje, Warszawa 2010.

“EAC Peace & Security Strategy Overview”, East African Community, at <http://eac.int/security/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=67&Itemid=143>.

“EALA Wants Partner States to Infuse Mechanism for Speedy Implementation of Peace and Security Decisions in the Region”, East African Community, 24 May 2015, at <http://www.eac.int/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1890:eala-wants-partnerstates-to-infuse-mechanism-for-speedy-implementation-of-peace-and-security-decision-inthe-region&catid=146:press-releases&Itemid=194>.

“EALA MPs want to help break deadlock in South Sudan peace talks”, 23 April 2018, NTV, at <http://www.ntv.co.ug/news/international/4522060-4545608-mpfdn2z/index.html>.

“East African Community Facts and Figures – 2012”, at <http://www.statistics.eac.int/index.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_view&gid=142&tmpl=component&format=raw&Itemid=153>.

East African Community Facts and Figures (2016) Report, East African Community Secretariat, November 2016, at <https://d3n8a8pro7vhmx.cloudfront.net/eatradehub/pages/3248/attachments/original/1493280329/eac_facts_figures_2016_0.pdf?1493280329>.

“East African Railways and Harbours. Kampala to Nairobi”, at <http://www.mccrow.org.uk/eastafrica/eastafricanrailways/KampalaNairobi.htm>.

“Fact sheet on the Economic Partnership Agreements. The Eastern African Community (EAC)”, Europan Commission, February 2014, at <http://ec.europa.eu/trade/policy/countries-and-regions/regions/eac/>.

Francis D.J., Uniting Africa. Building Regional Peace and Security Systems, Aldershot 2006.

Frankowski P., Słomczyńska I. (eds.), Unia Europejska – Afryka Subsaharyjska. Uwarunkowania, mechanizmy; efektywność współpracy, Lublin 2011.

“History of Africa’s Regional Integration Efforts”, UN Economic Commission for Africa, at <http://www.uneca.org/oria/pages/history-background-africas-regional-integration-efforts>.

“History of the EAC”, East African Community, at <http://www.eac.int/about/EAC-history>.

“History of the EAC – Milestones in the EAC Integration Process”, East African Community,at <http://www.eac.int/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=44&Itemid=54&limitstart=1>.

Jagielski W., “Żandarm znad Nilu. Jak prezydent Ugandy Yoweri Museveni zaprowadza pokój w Sudanie Południowym”, PAP, 16 January 2014, at <http://konflikty.wp.pl/kat,132874,title,Zandarm-znad-Nilu-Jak-prezydent-Ugandy-Yoweri-Museveni-zaprowadza-pokoj-w-SudaniePoludniowym,wid,16335105,wiadomosc.html?ticaid=11752a&_ticrsn=5>.

Katembo B.I.M., “Pan Africanism and Development: The East African Community Model”, in The Journal of Pan African Studies, vol. 2, no. 4 (2008).

Katembo B.I.M., Scattered Assets. How African-Americans and Other Resources Can Shape 21st Century Pan-African Empowerment, Bloomington 2012.

Law B., “AFRICOM hosts East African Community Delegation”, United States Africa Command, 9 December 2015, at <http://www.africom.mil/newsroom/article/23996/africomhosts-east-african-community-delegation>.

Lizak W., Afrykańskie instytucje bezpieczeństwa, Warszawa 2012.

Lizak W., „Regionalny system bezpieczeństwa w Afryce”, in E. Haliżak, R. Kuźniar, G. Michałowska (eds.), Stosunki międzynarodowe w XXI wieku. Księga jubileuszowa z okazji 30-lecia Instytutu Stosunków Międzynarodowych Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, Warszawa 2006.

Makinda S.M., Okumu F.W., The African Union. Challenges of Globalization, Security and Governance, New York 2008. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203940112

Mangachi M.W., Regional Integration in Africa. East African Experience, Ibadan 2011.

Mazzeo D. (ed.), African Regional Organizations, Cambridge 1984.

“Mediation Agreement for the Division of Assets and Liabilities History of the EAC”, East African Community, at <http://www.eac.int/about/EAC-history>.

Oluoch F., “East Africa. South Sudan’s Push to Join EAC Gains Momentum”, The East African, 2 November 2015, at <http://allafrica.com/stories/201511090602.html>.

“Overview of Peace and Security Strategy”, at <https://www.eac.int/security>.

“Peace and Security”, East African Community, at <http://www.eac.int/sectors/peace-and-security>.

Poddar P., Johnson D. (eds.), A Historical Companion to Postcolonial Thought in English, New York 2005.

Polus A., “Regionalizm w Afryce Subsaharyjskiej”, PCSA Working Paper, no. 1 (2015), at <https://pcsa.org.pl/pcsa-working-paper-regionalizm-w-afryceandrzej-polus/>.

Repinski G., Stahl H.M., Poverty and Poverty Reduction Strategies in the East African Community (EAC), Moshi 2005.

“South Sudan becomes EAC’s sixth member state”, Sudan Tribune, 3 February 2016, at <http://sudantribune.com/spip.php?article58197>.

Stahl M. (ed.), Deepening East African Community (EAC) Integration, Dar es Salaam 2007.

“Sudan Południowy. Prezydent i lider opozycji podpisali porozumienie pokojowe”, Interia fakty świat, 12 February 2018, <https://fakty.interia.pl/swiat/news-sudan-poludniowy-prezydent-i-lider-opozycji-podpisali-porozu,nId,2630416>.

“The History of the East African Community”, East African Community, at <http://eacgermany.org/eac-history/>.

“The Treaty for the Establishment of the East African Community”, EAC Publication, vol. 14,no. 1 (2002), at <http://www.eala.org/upload/The_Treaty_for_the_Establishment_of_the_East_Africa_Community_2006_1999.pdf>.

Topolski I., Dumała H., Dumała A. (eds.), Regiony w stosunkach międzynarodowych, Lublin 2009.

“Transitional Government of National Unity (TGoNU) of the Republic of South Sudan”, Embassy of the Republic of South Sudan in Germany, 11 Mai 2016, at <http://embassy-southsudan.de/transitional-government-of-national-unity-tgonu-of-the-republic-of-south-sudan/>.

Ugirashebuja E., Ruhangisa J.E., Ottervanger T.R., Cuyvers A., East African Community Law. Institutional, Substantive and Comparative EU Aspects, Brill Nijhoff 2017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004322073

“UNHCR, EAC strengthens bilateral cooperation”, East African Community, at <http://www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/refdaily?pass=463ef21123&id=4cad5e165>.

“Walki plemienne w Sudanie. Ponad 150 zabitych”, PAP, 4 January 2012, at <http://www.polskieradio.pl/5/3/Artykul/511746,Walki-plemienne-w-Sudanie-Ponad-150-zabitych>.

Yieke F.A. (ed.), East Africa. In Search of National and Regional Renewal, Dakar 2005.




How to Cite

Joanna Bar. 2019. “East African Communities (1967-1978, 1999-) and Their Activity for Political Stability of the Region”. Politeja 15 (5(56):247-66. https://doi.org/10.12797/Politeja.15.2018.56.14.