„Co powiedziałem, jest prawdą”

Ptaki moa (Dinornithiformes) w pamięci Maorysów





New Zealand, moa birds, extinction, Maori traditions


„What I Said, Is True”. Moa Birds (Dimornithiformes) in the Collective Maori Memory

Giant moa birds were one of the most spectacular of all New Zealand phenomena. It is assumed that those titanic creatures were completely wiped out by Maori tribes in the 15th–16th centuries. Many authors argue that at the time of European discovery of New Zealand Maori completely lost their recollections of moa. Native traditions however claim the opposite. It is very probable that last Mohicans of those birds survived until the 18th or even the 19th century.


Anderson A., Mechanics of Overkill in the Extinctions of New Zealand Moas, „Journal of Archeological Science” 1989, nr 16 (2), s. 137–151, https://doi.org/10.1016/0305-4403(89)90062-9.

Anderson A., On Evidence on the Survival of Moa in European Fiordland, „New Zealand Journal of Ecology” 1989, nr 12 (Supplement), s. 39–44.

Anderson A., Prodigious Birds. Moas and Moa-hunting in Prehistoric New Zealand, Cambridge – New York – Port Chester – Melbourne – Sydney 1989.

Bauer A.M., Russell A.P., „Hoplodactylus decourti” n. sp. (Reptilia: Gekkonidae), the Largest Known Gecko, „New Zealand Journal of Zoology” 1986, nr 13 (1), s. 141–148, https://doi.org/10.1080/03014223.1986.10422655.

Beattie H., The Moa: When Did it Become Extinct? Maori Traditions and Pakeha Conjectures. Four Main Schools of Thought, One Hundred Opinions of Maori and Pakeha, Dunedin, N.Z. 1953.

Berentson Q., Moa. The Life and Death of the New Zealand Legendary Bird, Nelson, N.Z. 2012.

Breathwaite D.H., Notes on the Weight, Flying Ability, Habitat and Prey of Haast’s Eagle („Harpagornis moorei”), „Notornis” 1992, nr 39 (4), s. 239–247.

Brewster B., The Moa. The Life and Death of the New Zealand’s Unique Bird, Nelson 1987.

Buick T.L., The Discovery of Dinornis. The Story of Man, a Bone, and a Bird, New Plymouth, N.Z. 1936.

Buick T.L., The Mystery of the Moa, New Zealand’s Avian Giant, New Plymouth, N.Z. 1931.

Buller W.L., A History of the Birds of New Zealand, t. 2, London 1888.

Bunce M., Worthy T.H., Philips M.J. i in., The Evolutionary History of the Extinct Ratite Moa and New Zealand Neogene Paleogeography, „Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America” 2009, nr 106 (49), s. 20646–20651, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0906660106.

Bunce M., Worthy T.H., Ford T. i in., Extreme Reversed Sexual Size Dimorphism in the Extinct New Zealand Moa Dinornis, „Nature” 2003, nr 425, s. 172–175, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature01871.

Burrows C.J., McCulloch B., Trotter M.M., The Diet of Moas Based on Gizzard Content Samples from Pyramid Valley, North Canterbury, and Scaifest Lagoon, Lake Wanaka, Otago, „Records of the Canterbury Museum” 1981, nr 9 (6), s. 51–56.

Ching R., New Zealand Birds. An Artist’s Field Studies, Auckland 1986.

Dell R.K., Falla R.A., The Kaikoura Moa Egg, „Dominion Museum Records in Ethnology” 1972, nr 2 (9), s. 97–104.

Diamond J., Blitzkrieg against the Moa, „Science” 2000, nr 287 (5461), s. 2170–2171, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.287.5461.2170.

Diamond J., Trzeci szympans. Ewolucja i przyszłość zwierzęcia zwanego człowiekiem, przeł. J. Weiner, Warszawa 1998.

Dieffenbach E., Travels in New Zealand with Contributions to the Geography, Geology, Botany and Natural History of that Country, t. 2, London 1843.

Duff R., The Moa-Hunter Period of Maori Culture, Wellington 1956, Canterbury Museum Bulletin 1.

Dymek B., Ostatnia ostoja turów na Mazowszu, „Rocznik Mazowiecki” 2007, nr 19, s. 7–50, http://mazowsze.hist.pl/article.php?id=12758 (dostęp 2 IV 2020).

Dzieduszycki A.M., Słomski M., Ryba M.S., Czy tur powróci do polskich lasów?, Turek 2008.

Enys J.D., Moa egg discovered on Kaikoura Peninsula, „Transactions of the New Zealand Institute” 1872, nr 4, s. 403.

Field H.C., The Moa Period: Interesting Views [list do R.C. Bruce’a], „The Dominion” 21 IX 1980.

Flannery T., Schouten P., A Gap in the Nature. Discovering the World’s Extinct Animals, New York 2001.

Galbreath R.A., Walter Buller, Wellington 1989.

Grey G., Letter, „Proceedings of the Zoological Society” 1870, nr 8, s. 116.

Hallet J.-P., Księga zwierząt, przeł. T. Szaflar, Warszawa 1973.

Hamilton J.W., Notes on Maori Traditions of the Moa, „Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand” 1874, nr 7, s. 121–138.

Hill H., The Moa – Legendary, Historical and Geological. Why and When the Moa Disappeared, „Transactions of the New Zealand Institute” 1914, nr 46, s. 330–351.

Hochstetter F. von, New Zealand. Its Physical Geography, Geology and Natural History, with Special Reference to the Results of the Government Expeditions in the Provinces of Auckland, przeł. E. Sauter, Stuttgart 1867.

Holdaway R.N., Jacomb C., Rapid Extinction of the Moas (Aves: Dinornithiformes). Model, Test, and Implications, „Science” 2000, nr 287 (5461), s. 2250–2254, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.287.5461.2250.

Huynen L., Gill B.J., Millar C.D., Lambert D.M., Ancient DNA Reveals Extreme Egg Morphology and Nesting Behavior in New Zealand’s Extinct Moa, „Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America” 2010, nr 107 (37), s. 16201–16206, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0914096107.

Kendall T., Lee S., A Grammar and Vocabulary of the Language of New Zealand, London 1820.

Lockley M., Gregory M.R., Gill B.J., The Ichnological Record of New Zealand’s Moas. A Preliminary Summary, „New Mexico Natural History and Science Bulletin” 2007, nr 42, s. 73–78.

Mair G.W., On the Disappearance of the Moa, „Transactions of the New Zealand Institute” 1890, nr 22, s. 70–75.

Maning F.E., Extract from a Letter… Relative to the Extinction of the Moa, „Transactions of the New Zealand Institute” 1876, nr 8, s. 102–103.

McCulloch B., Cox G.J., Moas. Lost Giants of New Zealand, Auckland 1992.

McDonnell T., The Ancient Moa-hunters at Waingongoro, „Transactions of the New Zealand Institute” 1889, nr 21, s. 348–341.

Murison W.D., Notes on Moa Remains, „Transactions of the New Zealand Institute” 1972, nr 4, s. 12–124.

Murray P.F., Vickers-Rich P., Magnificent Mihirungs. The Colossal Flightless Birds of the Australian Dreamtime, Bloomington, IN 2004.

Nosowitz D., These Massive Extinct Eagles Could Have Carried Off That Toddler’s Dad, „Popular Science” 12 XII 2012, https://www.popsci.com/science/article/2012-12/these-massiveextinct-eagles-could-have-carried-toddlers-dad/ (dostęp 7 IV 2020).

Polack J.S., New Zealand. Being a Narrative of Travels and Adventures during a Residence in that Country between the Years 1831 and 1837, t. 1, London 1838.

Richard R., Which Pakeha Ate the Last Moa. A Preliminary Re-examination of the Traditional, Scientific and Historical Evidence, and of the Need for Their Integration, Paremata, Wellington 1986.

Smith P.S., The Maori and the Moa, „Journal of the Polynesian Society” 1911, nr 20, s. 34–59.

Spittle B., Sir George Grey and the Moa, Dunedin, N.Z. 2015.

Spittle B., Moa Sightings, Dunedin, N.Z. 2010.

Spittle B., Sir George Grey and Moa Sightings, „Notornis” 2007, nr 54 (1), s. 57.

Stack J.W., Traditional History of the South Island Maoris, „Transactions of the New Zealand Institute” 1878, nr 10, s. 57–59.

Taylor R., An Account of the First Discovery of Moa Remains, „Transactions of the New Zealand Institute” 1873, nr 5, s. 97–101.

Taylor R., Te Ika a Maui, or, New Zealand and its inhabitants, London 1855.

Tregear E., The Extinction of the Moa, „Transactions of the New Zealand Institute” 1893, nr 25, s. 413–426 i 530–532.

Tregear E., The Maoris and the Moa, „Journal of Royal Anthropological Institute” 1888, nr 27, s. 292–304.

Trotter M., Tai Rua. A Moa Hunter Site in North Otago, [w:] Birds of a Feather, red. A. Anderson, Oxford 1979, British Archeological Reports International 62, s. 203–230.

Trotter M.R., McCulloch B., Moas, Men and Middens, [w:] Quaternary Extinctions. A Prehistoric Revolution, red. P.S. Martin, R.G. Klein, Tucson 1995, s. 708–725.

Vickers-Rich P., The Dromornithidae, an Extinct Family of Large Ground Birds Endemic to Australia, Canberra 1979.

Wendt H., Śladami Noego, przeł. T. Berken, Warszawa 1963.

White J., The Moa in Maori Tradition, „Journal of the Polynesian Society” 1925, nr 34, s. 170–174.

White T., [Letter to W.T.L. Travers, 29th June 1875], „Transactions of the New Zealand Institute” 1875, nr 8, s. 83.

Wohlers J.F.H., The Mythology and Traditions of the Maori in New Zealand, cz. 3, „Transactions of the New Zealand Institute” 1876, nr 8, s. 108–123.

Wolfe R., Moa. The Dramatic Story of the Discovery of a Giant Bird, Auckland 2003.

Worthy T.H., Holdaway R.N., The Lost World of the Moa. Prehistoric Life in the New Zealand, Bloomington 2002.

Źródła internetowe

https://teara.govt.nz/en/biographies/1p1/paipai-kawana-pitiroi (dostęp 31 III 2020).

https://teara.govt.nz/en/biographies/1b46/buller-walter-lawry (dostęp 2 IV 2020).



How to Cite

Polit, J. (2020). „Co powiedziałem, jest prawdą”: Ptaki moa (Dinornithiformes) w pamięci Maorysów. Intercultural Relations, 4(1(7), 93–123. https://doi.org/10.12797/RM.01.2020.07.06