The Forgery of Deepfake and the “Advent” of Artificial Intelligence

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.12797/RM.02.2021.10.06

Keywords:

communication, artificial intelligence, deepfake, politics, society

Abstract

The concept of politics changes its semantic value according to the historical period and the cultural changes affecting the social fabric. In classical literature, there was no distinction between politics and society or politics and ethics, since the first indicated the collective space in which cultural, social, economic relations of human life developed that were differentiated from other living forms. To date, with the advent of digitalization and artificial intelligence, we have a concrete assessment of how politics has acquired a new perspective and is changing to adapt to new technologies and its uses: on the one hand, we are experiencing the propagation of debate, confrontation, and information accessible at any time. On the other hand, it has become an instrument for the annihilation of rivals and subjugation of those who consider any data received from the Internet as truthful, exploiting the media and digital technologies, until it pervades the social structure, making even nonsense seem credible. The purpose of this contribution, therefore, is to outline theoretically the contours and contemporary phenomena that relate, through a dialogical relationship, with the use of deepfake techniques and artificial intelligence technology, the concepts of politics – in its dimension of the relationship of collective power – and of social communication.

References

Allcott H., and Gentzkow M. 2017. Social Media and Fake News in The 2016 Election, Journal of Economic Perspectives, 31(2): 211–236. https://doi.org/10.1257/jep.31.2.211. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1257/jep.31.2.211

Altman, D., Posters, B., Future Advocacy. (2019, November 13). DeepFake Boris Johnson, Darren Altman youtube channel. Retrieved from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gHbF-4anWbE&ab_channel=DarrenAltman.

Bobbio N. 1997. L’età dei diritti, Torino: Einaudi.

Bovero M. 2014. Crisi del capitalismo e crisi della democrazia. Note introduttive, Teoria Politica.

Nuova serie Annali V. Retrieved from: http://bibliotecaculturajuridica.com/EDIT/1466/capitalismo-e-democracia.html.

Brundage M. et al. 2018. The Malicious Use of Artificial Intelligence: Forecasting, Prevention, and Mitigation. Retrieved from: https://img1.wsimg.com/blobby/go/3d82daa4-97fe-4096-9c6b-376b92c619de/downloads/MaliciousUseofAI.pdf?ver=1553030594217.

Buzzfeed. (2018, April 17). You Won’t Believe What Obama Says In This Video!, BuzzfeedVideo. Retrieved from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cQ54GDm1eL0.

Caplan R., Hanson L., and Donovan J. 2018. Dead Reckoning: Navigating Content Moderation After “Fake News”, Data & Society Research Institute. Retrieved from: https://datasociety.net/pubs/oh/DataAndSociety_Dead_Reckoning_2018.pdf.

Cedroni L. 1987. Democrazia degli antichi e democrazia dei moderni, Poggibonsi: Lalli Editore.

Chawla R. 2019. Deepfakes: How a Pervert Shook the World, International Journal of Advance Research and Development, 4(6): 4–8.

Derakhshan H., Wardle C. 2017, September 27. INFORMATION DISORDER: Toward an Interdisciplinary Framework for Research and Policy Making, Strasbourg: Council of Europe. Retrieved from https://rm.coe.int/information-disorder-toward-an-interdisciplinary-framework-for-researc/168076277c.

Finn E. 2018. Che cosa vogliono gli algoritmi. L’immaginazione dell’era dei computer (trans. Gewurz D.A.), Torino: Einaudi.

Fry H. 2019. Hello World. Essere umani nell’era delle macchine (trans. Migliori A.), Torino: Bollati Boringhieri.

Grassi E. 2018. Bit-Knowledge: Communication and Memory in the Machine Age. In Floriani Neto A.B., Caceres Nieto E., Chiodi G. and Petroccia S. (eds.). 2018. Governing Turbulence, Risk and Opportunities in the Complexity Age, Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 250–260.

Grassi E. 2018. Transumanesimo: dall’umano al post-umano. L’identità della pelle e il superamento del suo confine oltre il genere. In Antonelli F. (ed.). 2018. Genere, sessualità e teorie sociologiche, Roma: Cedam.

Grassi E. 2020. Etica e intelligenza artificiale. Questioni aperte, Roma: Aracne.

https://alisa2018.ru/

https://www.ai-mayor.com

Kant I., Constant B., Mori Carmignani S. (ed.) 2008. Il diritto di mentire, Firenze: Passigli Editori.

Kant I., Ferende Tunto L. (a cura di). 2004. Per la pace perpetua. un progetto filosofico di Immanuel Kant, Milano: BUR.

Langston, J. (2017, November 11). Lip-syncing Obama: New Tools Turn Audio Clips into Realistic Video, University of Washington. Retrieved from https://www.washington.edu/news/2017/07/11/lip-syncing-obama-new-tools-turn-audio-clips-into-realistic-video/.

Lazer D.M. J. et al. 2018, March 9. The Science of Fake News, Science, 359(6380), 1094–1096. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aao2998. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aao2998

Lemov R. 2015. Database of Dreams: The Lost Quest to Catalog Humanity, New Haven: Yale University Press.

Luhmann N. 2002. La realtà dei mass media, Milano: FrancoAngeli.

Mattioli F. 2015. La comunicazione sociologica, Roma: Aracne.

Meyrowitz J. 1993. Oltre il senso del luogo. L’impatto dei media elettronici sul comportamento sociale. (trans. Gabi N.) Bologna: Baskerville.

Mills C.W. 2014. L’immaginazione sociologica (trans. Maffi Q.), Milano: Il Saggiatore.

Myers, A. (2019, June 5). Stanford engineers make editing video as easy as editing text, Stanford News. Retrieved from: https://news.stanford.edu/2019/06/05/edit-video-editingtext/.

Patrini G. et al. 2018, March 17. Commoditisation of AI, Digital Forgery and the End of Trust: How We Can Fix It. Retrieved from https://giorgiop.github.io/posts/2018/03/17/AI-anddigital-forgery/.

Pelosi Videos Manipulated to Make Her Appear Drunk Are Being Shared on Social Media, Washington Post. (2019, May 24). Retrieved from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=93&v=sDOo5nDJwgA&feature=emb_title&ab_channel=WashingtonPost.

Qayyum A., Qadir J., Janjua M.U. and Sher F. 2019. Using Blockchain to Rein in the New Post-Truth World and Check the Spread of Fake News, IT Professional, 21(4), 16–24. https://doi.org/10.1109/MITP.2019.2910503. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/MITP.2019.2910503

Sarlin, B. (2018, January 14). ‘Fake News’ Went Viral in 2016. This Expert Studied Who Clicked.

Retrieved from: https://www.nbcnews.com/politics/politics-news/fake-news-went-viral- 2016-expert-studied-who-clicked-n836581.

Silverman C., Singer-Vine J. 2016, December 6. Most Americans Who See Fake News Believe It, New Survey Says. Buzzfeed Poll about Fake News, Buzzfeed News. Retrieved from https://www.buzzfeed.com/craigsilverman/fake-news-survey?utm_term=.qoOvLO5vA#.dim75q97X.

Thompson J.B. 1998. Mezzi di comunicazione e modernità (trans. Palminiello P.), Bologna: Il Mulino.

Tognonato C. 2018. Teoria sociale dell’agire inerte. L’individuo nella morsa delle costruzioni sociali, Napoli: Liguori Editore.

Wolpert S. 2019. Combating Deepfakes: Leading Scholars to Discuss Doctored Content and How to Fight It. Retrieved from http://nres-room.ucla.edu/releases/deepfakes-workshophow-to-combat-doctored-content.

Zuboff S. 2019. Il capitalismo della sorveglianza. Il futuro dell’umanità nell’era dei nuovi poteri (trans. Bassotti P.), Roma: Luiss University Press.

Downloads

Published

2021-11-03

How to Cite

Grassi, E. (2021). The Forgery of Deepfake and the “Advent” of Artificial Intelligence. Intercultural Relations, 4(2(10), 76–91. https://doi.org/10.12797/RM.02.2021.10.06