Conflicting Narratives? Geopolitical and Normative Power Narratives in the EU Eastern Partnership
Keywords:European Union, Eastern Partnership, geopolitics, normative power
Since its inception, the EU’s Eastern Partnership has given rise to two seemingly conflicting narratives. The first one, the normative power narrative emphasizes the use of norms expansion as the main objectives of the European Union vis‑a‑vis its Eastern Partners. The second narrative, i.e. the geopolitical one, emphasizes the need for the EU to develop a geopolitical orientation in its relations with its Eastern neighbours based on interests rather than values. This paper will look at these two narratives, how they originated and how they developed in the EU discourses related to the making of EU foreign policy and more particularly as far as the EU’s Eastern Partnership is concerned.
Anderson S., Crafting EU Security Policy. In Pursuit of a European Identity, Boulder 2008.
Byrne A., “EU’s Respone to Ukraine Highlights Limits to Power”, Financial Times, 8 May 2014, at <http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/0/2dcb625c‑d146‑11e3‑81e0‑00144feabdc0.html#axzz3h5rpe13D>.
“Cablegate: Poland: A Natural U.S. Ally on Eastern Policy”, 12 December 2008, ref. 08WARSAW1409, Scoop Wikileaks, at <http://www.scoop.co.nz/stories/WL0812/S00107/cablegate‑poland‑a‑natural‑us‑ally‑on‑eastern‑policy.htm>.
Cianciara A., “Stability, Security, Democracy: Explaining Shifts in the Narrative of the European Neighbourhood Policy”, Journal of European Integration, vol. 39, no. 1 (2017), at <http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07036337.2016.1256397>. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/07036337.2016.1256397
Council of the European Union, Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions “Second Strategic Energy Review”, Brussels, 19 November 2008, COM(2008) 781 final, at .
Council of the European Union, Joint Declaration of the Prague Eastern Partnership Summit, Press 78, Prague, 7 May 2009, at <http://ec.europa.eu/europeaid/where/neighbourhood/eastern_partnership/documents/prague_summit_declaration_en.pdf>.
Crombois J., “ESDP Operations and EU Conflict Management in the Eastern Neighbourhood”, in F. Attinà, D. Irrera (eds.), Multilateral Security and ESDP Operations. The Changing Practice of Peace Operations and the European Contribution, Farnham 2010.
Crombois J., “Which Geopolitics for the European Union? The EU’s Eastern European Partnership”, International Relations and Diplomacy, vol. 3, no. 7 (2015), at <http://dx.doi.org/10.17265/2328‑2134/2015.07.005>. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17265/2328-2134/2015.07.005
Debattista A., “Geopolitics, Security, and the Eastern Partnership”, 12 November 2013, One Europe, at .
Delcour L., “Escaping Geopolitical Entrapment: the EU’s Eastern Policy in Light of EU‑Russia Rivalry”, Sofia Platform Policy Papers, at <http://sofiaplatform.org/wp‑content/uploads/2015/06/Escaping_Geopolitical_Entrapment_the_EU‑s_Eastern_Policy_in_Light_of_EU‑Russia_Rivalry.pdf>.
Delcour L., “Quelle influence pour l’Union européenne dans son voisinage oriental? Bilan et perspectives du Partenariat oriental”, Etudes Européennes. La revue permanente des professionnels de l’Europe, 15 February 2012, at <http://www.etudes‑europeennes.eu/images/stories/Eastern_Partnership/DELCOUR_Laure_FR_FINAL.pdf>.
Delcour L., “Technical, Geopolitical or Transformative? What Future for the Eastern Partnership?”, 23 May 2015, Open Democracy, at <https://www.opendemocracy.net/can‑europe‑make‑it/laure‑delcour/technical‑geopolitical‑or‑transformative‑what‑future‑for‑eastern‑pa>.
Delcour L., Wolczuk K., Approximation of the national legislation of Eastern Partnership countries with EU legislation in the economic field, European Parliament, Direcrorate‑General for External Policies of the Union, Directorate B, Policy Department, May 2013, at <http://dx.doi.org/10.2861/22028>.
Depo B., Theorizing the Interests of the EU Member States in the Eastern Partnerhip, ISA BISA Conference, Edinburgh, June 2012, at <http://www.exact.uni‑koeln.de/fileadmin/home/depod/Bogdana_Depo_Theorising_EaP.pdf>.
Dickel R. et al., Reducing European Dependence on Russian Gas: Distinguishing Natural Gas Security from Geopolitics, Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, OIES Paper, NG 92, October 2014, at <http://www.oxfordenergy.org/wpcms/wp‑content/uploads/2014/10/NG‑92.pdf>.
Edwards G., “The Construction of Ambiguity and the Limits of Attraction: Europe and its Neighbourhood Policy”, Journal of European Integration, vol. 30, no. 1 (2008), at <http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07036330801959465>. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/07036330801959465
EU High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, Joint Communication to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions “Review of the European Neighourhood Policy”, Brussels, 18 November 2015, JOIN(2015) 50 final, at <http://www.eeas.europa.eu/enp/documents/2015/151118_joint‑communication_review‑of‑the‑enp_en.pdf>.
EU High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, Joint Consultation Paper “Towards a new European Neighbourhood Policy”, Brussels, 4 March 2015, JOIN(2015) 6 final, at <http://ec.europa.eu/enlargement/neighbourhood/consultation/consultation.pdf>.
European Commission, Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council “Eastern Partnership”, Brussels, 3 December 2008, COM(2008) 823 final, at .
European Security Strategy 2003 “A Secure Europe in a Better World”, Brussels, 12 December 2003, at <http://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cmsUpload/78367.pdf>.
Ghazaryan N., “The Evolution of the European Neighbourhood Policy and the Consistency of its Inconsistencies”, Review of European and Russian Affairs, vol. 7, no. 1 (2012). DOI: https://doi.org/10.22215/rera.v7i1.211
Guzzini S., The Return of Geopolitics in Europe? Social Mechanisms and Foreign Policy Identity Crises, Cambridge 2012. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139225809
Hale J., EU Relations with Azerbaijan: More for Less, Open Society Discussion Paper, Brussels, 4 May 2012, at <http://www.opensocietyfoundations.org/sites/default/files/eu‑relations‑azerbaijan‑20120606.pdf>.
Haukkala H., “Russian Reactions to the European Neighbourhood Policy”, in R. Whitman, S. Wolff (eds.), The European Neighbourhood Policy in Perspective. Context, Implementation and Impact, London 2012.
Haverluk T., Beauchemin W., Mueller B.A., “The Three Critical Flaws of Critical Geopolitics: Towards a Neo‑Classical Geopolitics”, Geopolitics, vol. 19, no. 1 (2014), at <http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14650045.2013.803192>. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/14650045.2013.803192
Hedberg A., EU’s Quest for Energy Security. What Role for the Energy Union?, EPC Policy Brief, 3 March 2015, at <http://www.epc.eu/pub_details.php?cat_id=3&pub_id=5374>.
House of Lords. European Union Committee, After Georgia. The EU and Russia. Follow‑Up Report. Report with Evidence, 3rd Report of Session 2008‑09, London 2009.
House of Lords. European Union Committee, The EU and Russia. Before and beyond the Crisis in Ukraine, 6th Report of Session 2014‑15, London 2014.
Kelley J., “New Wine in Old Wineskins: Promoting Political Reforms through the New European Neighbourhood Policy”, Journal of Common Market Studies, vol. 44, no. 1 (2006), at <http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468‑5965.2006.00613.x>. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-5965.2006.00613.x
Klussmann U., “The Global Implications of the Ukraine Crisis”, Der Spiegel Online, 20 February 2014, at <http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/the‑geopolitical‑implications‑of‑conflict‑in‑ukraine‑a‑954724.html>.
Korosteleva E., “The Eastern Partnership Initiative: A New Opportunity for Neighbours?”, Journal of Communist Studies and Transition Politics, vol. 27, no. 1 (2011), at <http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13523279.2011.544381>. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13523279.2011.544381
Lehne S., “EU – Actor or Toolbox? How Member States Perceive the EU’s Foreign Policy?”, in A. Hug (ed.), Europe in the World. Can EU Foreign Policy Make an Impact?, The Foreign Policy Center, London 2013, at <http://fpc.org.uk/fsblob/1535.pdf>.
Lovitt J. (ed.), European Integration Index 2014 for the Eastern Partnership Countries, February 2015, at <http://www.eap‑index.eu/sites/default/files/EaP%20Index%202014.pdf>.
Manners I., “As You Like It: European Union Normative Power in the European Neighbourhood Policy”, in R. Whitman, S. Wolff (eds.), The European Neighbourhood Policy in Perspective. Context, Implementation and Impact, London 2012.
Merabishvili M., The EU and Azerbaijan: Game on for a More Normative Policy?, CEPS Policy Brief no. 329, March 2015, at <http://www.ceps.eu/publications/eu‑and‑azerbaijan‑game‑more‑normative‑policy>.
“Merkel Tells Eastern Partners Not to Expect too Much”, 22 May 2015, EuroActive, at <http://www.euractiv.com/sections/europes‑east/merkel‑tells‑eastern‑partners‑not‑expect‑too‑much‑314788>.
Nitoiu C., “The Elephant in the Room at Riga”, 26 May 2015, Open Democracy, at <https://www.opendemocracy.net/od‑russia/christian‑nitoui/elephant‑in‑riga‑room>.
Nitoiu C., “The Narrative Conctruction of the European Union in External Relations”, in idem,N. Tomic (eds.), Europe, Discourse, Institutions. Challenging the Mainstream in European Studies, London 2015. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315761473
Non‑Paper “20 Points on the Eastern Partnership Post‑Vilnius”, 6 February 2014, at <http://www.scribd.com/doc/206150753/20‑Points‑on‑the‑Eastern‑Partnership‑post‑Vilnius>.
Park J., “The European Union’s Eastern Partnership”, 13 March 2014, CFR Backgrounders, at <http://www.cfr.org/europe/european‑unions‑eastern‑partnership/p32577>.
Peters K., Rood J., Gromadzki G., The Eastern Partnership: Towards a New Era of Cooperation between the EU and its Neighbours?, Revised Overview Paper, Clingendael European Studies Programme, EU Policies Seminar Series, The Hague, December 2009, at <http://www.clingendael.nl/sites/default/files/20091200_cesp_paper_rood.pdf>.
Polish‑Swedish Proposal – Eastern Partnership 2008, at <http://www.enpi‑info.eu/library/content/polish‑swedish‑proposal‑eastern‑partnership>.
Report on the Implementation of the European Security Strategy “Providing Security in a Changing World”, 2008, at <http://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cms_data/docs/pressdata/en/reports/104630.pdf>.
Risse T., “Identity Matters: Exploring the Ambivalence of EU Foreign Policy”, Global Policy, vol. 3, no. 1 (2012), at <http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1758‑5899.12019>. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1758-5899.12019
Schäffer S., Tolksdorf D., “The Eastern Partnership – ‘ENP plus’ for Europe’s Eastern Neighbors”, CAP Perspectives, no. 4 (2009), at <http://www.cap.lmu.de/download/2009/CAPerspectives‑2009‑04.pdf>.
Shapovalova N., Youngs R., EU Democracy Promotion in the Eastern Neighbourhood: A Turn to Civil Society?, FRIDE Working Paper 115, Madrid 2012, at <http://fride.org/download/WP_115_EU_democracy_promotion_in_the_Eastern_neighbourhood.pdf>.
Sjursen H., “What Kind of Power?”, in eadem (ed.), Civilian or Military Power? European Foreign Policy in Perspective, London 2007.
Smith K.E., “Enlargement, Neighourhood, and European Order”, in C. Hill, M. Smith (eds.), International Relations and the European Union, 2nd ed., Oxford 2011.
Spendzharova A.B., Vachudova M.A., “Catching Up? Consolidating Liberal Democracy in Bulgaria and Romania after EU Accession”, West European Politics, vol. 35, no. 1 (2012), at <http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01402382.2012.631312>. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01402382.2012.631312
Telò M., Europe, a Civilian Power? European Union, Global Governance, World Order, London 2007. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230514034
Tora B., “Democratic Foundations of EU Foreign Policy: Narratives and the Myth of EU Exceptionalism”, Journal of European Public Policy, vol. 18, no. 8 (2011), at <http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13501763.2011.615209>. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13501763.2011.615209
Treaty on European Union (Consolidated Version 2016), Official Journal of the European Union, C 202, 7 June 2016, at .
Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (Consolidated Version 2016), Official Journal of the European Union, C 202, 7 June 2016, at .
Velenciuc S., Geopolitics of Eastern Partnership, at <http://www.academia.edu/8271412/Geopolitics_of_Eastern_Partnership>.
Youngs R., “A New Geopolitics for EU Energy Security”, Carnegie Europe, 23 September 2014, at <http://carnegieeurope.eu/publications/?fa=56705>.
Youngs R., Pishchikova K., “Smart Geostrategy for the Eastern Partnership”, Carnegie Europe, November 2013, at <http://carnegieendowment.org/files/smart_geostrat_eastern_partnership.pdf>.
How to Cite
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.