Skuteczność poprawek parlamentu europejskiego w procedurze (specjalnej procedurze ustawodawczej)


  • Adam Kirpsza Uniwersytet Jagielloński



European Union, special legislative procedure, consultation, European Parliament’s amendments success, legislative negotiations


Effectiveness of the European Parliament Amendments in the Consultation Procedure (Special Legislative Procedure)

The aim of the article is to empirically analyze the effectiveness of the European Parliament’s amendments in one of the special legislative procedures, namely consultation. In the first step, several hypotheses were developed predicting positive or negative impact of certain factors on the EP amendments success. Subsequently, those suppositions were quantitatively tested by logistic regression on special dataset representing 599 legislative acts adopted during the fifth and sixth parliamentary term, that is, between 1 May 1999 and June 2009, under consultation. The results revealed that the EP is more likely to be successful in this procedure if it implements five strategies. Firstly, it seeks to conclude a package deal, that is, it links a consultation decision to a codecision or budgetary proposal. Secondly, it delays its opinion on a legislative proposal. Thirdly, it persuades the European Commission to support its amendments. Fourthly, it prolongs legislative negotiations with the Council until the end of parliamentary term. Fifthly, it accumulates all its negotiation resources on salient proposals. In addition, the EP is more likely to succeed in consultation when it proposes democratic and financial amendments, whereas it is least likely to be successful when it tables institutional issues. The success of EP amendments is also significantly greater in directives than in regulations, decisions or framework decisions. On the other hand, voting rule in the Council, rapporteur experience and her/his political affiliation with EPP‑ED, PES or ELDR/ALDE don’t have any impact on the EP amendments success.


Download data is not yet available.


Cooper C., Theories of Organizational Stress, Oxford–New York 1998.

Hosmer D., Lemeshow S., Applied Logistic Regression, New York 2000. DOI:

Kapteyn P., Verloren van Themaat P., Introduction to the Law of the European Communities.

After the Coming into Force of the Single European Act, Deventer 1990.

Menard S., Applied Logistic Regression, Thousand Oaks 2002. DOI:

Perrow C., Organizational Analysis. A Sociological Views, Belmont, Calif. 1970, Behavioral Science in Industry Series.

Raiffa H., The Art and Science of Negotiation, Cambridge, Mass. 1982. DOI:

The New Institutionalism in Organizational Analysis, red. W. Powell, P. DiMaggio, Chicago 1991.

Westlake M., A Modern Guide to the European Parliament, London 1994.

Węc J.J., Spór o kształt instytucjonalny Wspólnot Europejskich i Unii Europejskiej 1950‑2005.

Między ideą ponadnarodowości a współpracą międzyrządową. Analiza politologiczna, Kraków 2006, Societas – Księgarnia Akademicka, 8.

Węc J.J., Traktat Lizboński. Polityczne aspekty reformy ustrojowej Unii Europejskiej w latach 2007‑2009, Kraków 2011, Societas – Księgarnia Akademicka, 36.

Bailer S., What Factors Determine Bargaining Power and Success in EU Negotiations?, „Journal of European Public Policy” 2010, Vol. 17, nr 5, [online] DOI:

Bailer S., Schneider G., Nash versus Schelling? The Importance of Constraints in Legislative Bargaining, [w:] The European Union Decides, red. R. Thomson i in., Cambridge 2006, Political Economy of Institutions and Decisions.

Boyron S., The Consultation Procedure. Has the Court of Justice Turned against the European Parliament?, „European Law Review” 1996, Vol. 21.

Burns C., Who Pays? Who gains? How do Costs and Benefits Shape the Policy Influence of the European Parliament, „Journal of Common Market Studies” 2005, Vol. 43, nr 3. DOI:

Checkel J., International Institutions and Socialization in Europe. Introduction and Framework, „International Organization” 2005, Vol. 59, nr 4. DOI:

Costello R., Thomson R., The Distribution of Power Among EU Institutions. Who Wins Under Codecision and Why?, „Journal of European Public Policy” 2013, Vol. 20, nr 7. DOI:

Crombez C., Legislative Procedures in the European Community, „British Journal of Political Science” 1996, Vol. 26, nr 2, [online] DOI:

Dür A., Mateo G., Bargaining Power and Negotiation Tactics. The Negotiations on the EU’s Financial Perspective, 2007‑2013, „Journal of Common Market Studies” 2010, Vol. 48, nr 3. DOI:

Egeberg M., Transcending Intergovernmentalism? Identity and Role Perceptions of National Officials in EU Decision‑Making, „Journal of European Public Policy” 1999, Vol. 6, nr 3. DOI:

Elgström O., Jönsson C., Negotiation in the European Union. Bargaining or Problem‑Solving?, „Journal of European Public Policy” 2000, Vol. 7, nr 5. DOI:

Farrell H., Héritier A., Interorganizational Negotiation and Intraorganizational Power in Shared Decision Making. Early Agreements Under Codecision and Their Impact on the European Parliament and Council, „Comparative Political Studies” 2004, Vol. 37, nr 10. DOI:

Häge F., Committee Decision‑Making in the Council of the European Union, „European Union Politics” 2007, Vol. 8, nr 3, [online] DOI:

Häge F., The European Union Policy‑Making Dataset, „European Union Politics” 2011, Vol. 12, nr 3, [online] DOI:

Hartley T., Consulting the European Parliament, „European Law Review” 1981, Vol. 6.

Heisenberg D., The Institution of ‘Consensus’ in the European Union. Formal versus Informal Decision‑Making in the Council, „European Journal of Political Research” 2005, Vol. 44, nr 1. DOI:

Hertz R., Leuffen D., Gridlock after Enlargement? An Analysis of Legislative Output in the European Union, paper presented at EUSA conference, Los Angeles, CA, 23‑25 IV 2009.

Hosmer D., Lemeshow S., Goodness‑of‑Fit Tests for the Multiple Logistic Regression Model, „Communications in Statistics. Theory and Methods” 1980, Vol. 9, nr 10, [online] DOI:

Jacobs F., Isoglucose Resurgent. Two Powers of the European Parliament Upheld by the Court, „Common Market Law Review” 1981, Vol. 18.

Judge D., Earnshaw D., Ngaire C., Ripples or Waves. The European Parliament in the European Community Policy Process, „Journal of European Public Policy” 1994, Vol. 1, nr 1. DOI:

Kardasheva R., The Power to Delay. The European Parliament’s Influence in the Consultation Procedure, „Journal of Common Market Studies” 2009, Vol. 47, nr 2. DOI:

Kardasheva R., Package Deals in EU Legislative Politics, „American Journal of Political Science” 2013, Vol. 57, nr 4, [online] DOI:

Kirchner E., Williams K., The Legal, Political and Institutional Implications of the Isoglucose Judgments 1980, „Journal of Common Market Studies” 1983, Vol. 22, nr 2. DOI:

Kirpsza A., Charakterystyka konsultacji jako specjalnej procedury ustawodawczej Unii Europejskiej, „Stosunki Międzynarodowe – International Relations” 2012, Vol. 46, nr 2.

Kirpsza A., Zastosowanie regresji logistycznej w studiach nad Unią Europejską, [w:] Metody jakościowe i ilościowe w badaniu organizacji i działania Unii Europejskiej, red. K. Ławniczak, Warszawa 2013.

Kirpsza A., Analiza zjawiska wczesnych nieformalnych porozumień legislacyjnych w zwykłej procedurze ustawodawczej, „Studia Europejskie” 2013, nr 4.

Laruelle A., The EU Decision‑Making Procedures. Some Insight from Non Co‑Operative Game Theory, [w:] Institutional Challenges in the European Union, red. A. van Deemen, M. Widgrén, M. Hösli, London 2002, Routledge Advances in European Politics, 6.

Leuffen D., Hertz R., If Things Can Only Get Worse. Anticipation of Enlargement in the European Union, „European Journal of Political Research” 2010, Vol. 49, nr 1. DOI:

Lewis J., Is the ‘Hard Bargaining’ Image of the Council Misleading? The Committee of Permanent Representatives and the Local Elections Directive, „Journal of Common Market Studies” 1998, Vol. 36, nr 4. DOI:

Lewis J., The Janus Face of Brussels. Socialization and Everyday Decision Making in the European Union, „International Organization” 2005, Vol. 59, nr 4. DOI:

Lewis J., How Institutional Environments Facilitate Co‑Operative Negotiation Styles in EU Decision‑Making, „Journal of European Public Policy” 2010, Vol. 17, nr 5, [online] DOI:

Lowi T., Four Systems of Policy, Politics and Choice, „Public Administration Review” 1972, Vol. 32, nr 4, [online] DOI:

McKibben H.E., Issue Characteristics, Issue Linkage, and States’ Choice of Bargaining Strategies in the European Union, „Journal of European Public Policy” 2010, Vol. 17, nr 5. DOI:

Napel S., Widgrén M., Strategic versus Non‑strategic Voting Power in the EU Council of Ministers. The Consultation Procedure, „Social Choice and Welfare” 2011, Vol. 37, nr 3, [online]‑010‑0502‑5. DOI:

Naurin D., Most Common When Least Important. Deliberation in the European Council of Ministers, „British Journal of Political Science” 2010, Vol. 40, nr 1, [online] DOI:

O’Neill M., European Law – Case C‑65/93 and the European Parliament’s Right of Consultation: Community Institutional Balance in Action, „Dublin University Law Journal” 1996, Vol. 3, nr 1.

Raftery A., Bayesian Model Selection in Social Research, „Sociological Methodology” 1995, Vol. 25, [online] DOI:

Rasmussen A., The Role of the European Commission in Co‑Decision. A Strategic Facilitator Operating in a Situation of Structural Disadvantage, „European Integration online Papers” 2003, Vol. 7, nr 10.

Rasmussen A., Reh C., The Consequences of Concluding Codecision Early. Trilogues and Intra‑Institutional Bargaining Success, „Journal of European Public Policy” 2013, Vol. 20, nr 7. DOI:

Reh C., Is Informal Politics Undemocratic? Trilogues, Early Agreements and the Selection Model of Representation, „Journal of European Public Policy” 2014, Vol. 21, nr 6, [online] DOI:

Reh C. i in., The Informal Politics of Legislation. Explaining Secluded Decision Making in the European Union, „Comparative Political Studies” 2011, Vol. 46, nr 9. DOI:

Ripoll Servent A., Playing the Co‑Decision Game? Rules’ Changes and Institutional Adaptation at the LIBE Committee, „Journal of European Integration” 2012, Vol. 34, nr 1. DOI:

Scully R., Policy Influence and Participation in the European Parliament, „Legislative Studies Quarterly” 1997, Vol. 22, nr 2, [online] DOI:

Scully R., The European Parliament and the Co‑decision Procedure. A Reassessment, „Journal of Legislative Studies” 1997, Vol. 3, nr 3, [online] DOI:

Shackleton M., The Politics of Codecision, „Journal Common Market Studies” 2000, Vol. 38, nr 2. DOI:

Shackleton M., Raunio T., Codecision since Amsterdam. A Laboratory for Institutional Innovation and Change, „Journal of European Public Policy” 2003, Vol. 10, nr 2. DOI:

Thomson R., Boerefijn J., Stokman F., Actor Alignments in European Union Decision Making, „European Journal of Political Research” 2004, Vol. 43, nr 2, [online]‑6765.2004.00153.x. DOI:

Thomson R., Hosli M., Who has Power in the EU? The Commission, Council and Parliament in Legislative Decision‑Making, „Journal of Common Market Studies” 2006, Vol. 44, nr 2. DOI:

Trzaskowski R., Popielawska J., Rola Parlamentu Europejskiego we Wspólnej Polityce Zagranicznej i Bezpieczeństwa, [w:] Parlament Europejski po Traktacie z Lizbony. Doświadczenia i nowe wyzwania, red. J.M. Fiszer, Warszawa 2011.

Tsebelis G., Garrett G., Legislative Politics in the EU, „European Union Politics” 2000, Vol. 1, nr 1. DOI:

Tsebelis G., Garrett G., The Institutional Foundations of Intergovernmentalism and Supranationalism in the European Union, „International Organization” 2001, Vol. 55, nr 2. DOI:

Warntjen A., Between Bargaining and Deliberation. Decision‑making in the Council of the European Union, „Journal of European Public Policy” 2010, Vol. 17, nr 5. DOI:

Varela D., Just a Lobbyist? The European Parliament and the Consultation Procedure, „European Union Politics” 2009, Vol. 10, nr 1. DOI:



How to Cite

Kirpsza, Adam. 2021. “Skuteczność Poprawek Parlamentu Europejskiego W Procedurze (specjalnej Procedurze Ustawodawczej)”. Politeja 12 (3 (35):419-44.