Economic and Institutional Urban Resilience to COVID-19: Case of Poland
Keywords:institutional resilience, economic resilience, urban resilience, COVID-19, shocks, urban vulnerability
This article aims to investigate the institutional and economical resilience of Polish cities with poviat rights to COVID-19 between spring 2020 and autumn 2020. Institutional resilience was researched using surveys among crisis management units and economic resilience with K-means clustering method and stepwise regression. Cities demonstrated a large recovery potential in the areas which lay directly under their supervision. Problems arose in the areas coordinated by central government, i.e. access to respirators, or hospital beds. The size of the city and large number of medium-sized companies were the factors of city’s immunity. Tourist cities turned out to be less resilient.
Annez P.C., Buckley R.M., “Urbanization and Growth: Setting the Context”, in M. Spence, P.C. Annez, R.M. Buckley, Urbanization and Growth: Commission on Growth and Development, Washington, DC 2009, https://doi.org/10.1596/978-0-8213-7573-0.
Aggarwal Ch.C., Reddy Ch.K., Data Clustering: Algorithms and Applications, London 2014. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1201/b15410
Baldwin R., Weder di Mauro B., Economics in the Time of COVID-19, London 2020, at https://cepr.org/sites/default/files/publication-files/60120-economics_in_the_time_of_covid_19.pdf.
Bennett N., Lemoine G.J., “What VUCA Really Means for You”, Harvard Business Review, January-February 2014.
Breathnach P., Egeraat Ch. van, Curran D., “Regional Economic Resilience in Ireland: The Roles of Industrial Structure and Foreign Inward Investment”, Regional Studies, Regional Science 2015, vol. 2, no. 1, https://doi.org/10.1080/21681376.2015.1088792. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/21681376.2015.1088792
Briguglio L. et al., “Economic Vulnerability and Resilience: Concepts and Measurements”, WIDER Working Paper Series, Research Paper No. 2008/55, at https://www.wider.unu.edu/sites/default/files/rp2008-55.pdf.
Capello R., Caragliu A., Fratesi U., “Spatial Heterogeneity in the Costs of the Economic Crisis in Europe: Are Cities Sources of Regional Resilience?”, Journal of Economic Geography 2015, vol. 15, no. 5, https://doi.org/10.1093/jeg/lbu053. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/jeg/lbu053
Cattivelli V., Rusciano V., “Social Innovation and Food Provisioning During Covid-19: The Case of Urban–Rural Initiatives in the Province of Naples”, Sustainability 2020, vol. 12, no. 11, https://doi.org/10.3390/su12114444. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/su12114444
Cohen M.D., March J.G., Olsen J.P., “A Garbage Can Model of Organizational Choice”, Administrative Science Quarterly 1972, vol. 17, no. 1, https://doi.org/10.2307/2392088. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/2392088
Cutter S.L. et al., “A Place-Based Model for Understanding Community Resilience to Natural Disasters”, Global Environmental Change 2008, vol. 18, no. 4, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2008.07.013. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2008.07.013
Dobbs R. et al., “Urban World: Mapping the Economic Power of Cities”, McKinsey & Company, 1 March 2011, at http://www.mckinsey.com/global-themes/urbanization/urban-worldmapping-the-economic-power-of-cities.
Doran J., Fingleton B., “Resilience from the Micro Perspective”, Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society 2015, vol. 8, no. 2, https://doi.org/10.1093/cjres/rsv004. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/cjres/rsv004
Duranton G., “Are Cities Engines of Growth and Prosperity for Developing Countries?”, in M. Spence, P.C. Annez, R.M. Buckley, Urbanization and Growth: Commission on Growth and Development, Washington, DC 2009, https://doi.org/10.1596/978-0-8213-7573-0. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1596/978-0-8213-7573-0
Folke C., “Resilience: The Emergence of a Perspective for Social-Ecological Systems Analyses”, Global Environmental Change 2006, vol. 16, no. 3, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2006.04.002. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2006.04.002
George D., Mallery P., SPSS for Windows Step by Step: A Simple Guide and Reference. 11.0 update (4th ed.), Boston, MA 2003.
Goodin R.E., “Institutions and Their Design”, in R.E. Goodin (ed.), The Theory of Institutional Design, Cambridge 1996, https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511558320. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511558320.002
Greener I., “The Potential of Path Dependence in Political Studies”, Politics 2005, vol. 25, no. 1, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9256.2005.00230.x. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9256.2005.00230.x
Grefalda L.B. et al., “Building Institutional Resilience in the Context of Climate Change in Aurora, Philippines”, Environmental Research, vol. 186, July 2020, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2020.109584. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2020.109584
Grigsby-Toussaint D.S., Shin J.Ch., Jones A., “Disparities in the Distribution of COVID-19 Testing Sites in Black and Latino Areas in New York City”, Preventive Medicine, vol. 147, June 2021, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2021.106463. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2021.106463
Handmer J.W., Dovers S.R., “A Typology of Resilience: Rethinking Institutions for Sustainable Development”, Industrial & Environmental Crisis Quarterly 1996, vol. 9, no. 4, https://doi.org/10.1177/108602669600900403. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/108602669600900403
Herrfahrdt-Pähle E., Pahl-Wostl C., “Continuity and Change in Social-Ecological Systems: The Role of Institutional Resilience”, Ecology and Society 2012, vol. 17, no. 2, art. 8, http://dx.doi.org/10.5751/ES-04565-170208. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5751/ES-04565-170208
Holling C.S., “Resilience and Stability of Ecological Systems”, Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 1973, vol. 4, https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.es.04.110173.000245. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.es.04.110173.000245
Holling C.S., “Understanding the Complexity of Economic, Ecological, and Social Systems”, Ecosystems 2001, vol. 4, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-001-0101-5. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-001-0101-5
Kihato C.W., Landau L.B., “Coercion or the Social Contract? COVID 19 and Spatial (In) Justice in African Cities”, City and Society 2020, vol. 32, no. 1, https://doi.org/10.1111/ciso.12265. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/ciso.12265
Krzysztofik R., Kantor-Pietraga I., Spórna T., “Spatial and Functional Dimensions of the COVID-19 Epidemic in Poland”, Eurasian Geography and Economics 2020, vol. 61, no. 4-5, https://doi.org/10.1080/15387216.2020.1783337. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/15387216.2020.1783337
Kudełko J., Wałachowski K., Żmija D., Gospodarka regionalna w obliczu kryzysu wywołanego pandemią COVID-19, Warszawa 2020.
Kudełko J., Rynio D., “Level of Regional Development and The Dynamics of Unemployment During The COVID-19 Crisis, Based on Observations of German and Polish Regions”, in K.S. Soliman (ed.), Sustainable Economic Development and Advancing Education Excellence in the era of Global Pandemic. Proceedings of the 36th International Business Information Management Association Conference (IBIMA), Granada 2020.
Lang T., “Urban Resilience and New Institutional Theory – A Happy Couple for Urban and Regional Studies?”, in B. Müller (ed.), German Annual of Spatial Research and Policy 2010, Berlin 2011, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-12785-4_2. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-12785-4_2
March J.G., Olsen J.P., Rediscovering Institutions: The Organizational Basis of Politics, New York, NY 1989.
Martin R., “Shocking Aspects of Regional Development: Towards an Economic Geography of Resilience”, in G.L. Clark et al. (eds), The New Oxford Handbook of Economic Geography, Oxford 2018, https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780198755609.013.43. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780198755609.013.43
Martin R., Gardiner B., “The Resilience of Cities to Economic Shocks: A Tale of Four Recessions (and the Challenge of Brexit)”, Papers in Regional Science 2019, vol. 98, no. 4, https://doi.org/10.1111/pirs.12430. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/pirs.12430
Martin R., Sunley P., “On the Notion of Regional Economic Resilience: Conceptualization and Explanation”, Journal of Economic Geography 2015, vol. 15, no. 1, https://doi.org/10.1093/jeg/lbu015. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/jeg/lbu015
Matthew R.A., McDonald B., “Cities under Siege: Urban Planning and the Threat of Infectious Disease”, Journal of the American Planning Association 2006, vol. 72, no. 1, https://doi.org/10.1080/01944360608976728. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01944360608976728
McCartney G., Pinto J., Liu M., “City Resilience and Recovery from COVID-19: The Case of Macao”, Cities, vol. 112, May 2021, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2021.103130. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2021.103130
Mendes L., “How Can We Quarantine without a Home? Responses of Activism and Urban Social Movements in Times of COVID-19 Pandemic Crisis in Lisbon”, Tijdschrift voor economische en sociale geografie / Journal of Economic and Human Geography 2020, vol. 111, no. 3, https://doi.org/10.1111/tesg.12450. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/tesg.12450
Napierała T., Leśniewska-Napierała K., Burski R., “Impact of Geographic Distribution of COVID-19 Cases on Hotels’ Performances: Case of Polish Cities”, Sustainability 2020, vol. 12, no. 11, https://doi.org/10.3390/su12114697. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/su12114697
OECD, “Territorial Impact of COVID-19: Managing the Crisis Across Levels of Government”, 10 November 2020, at https://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/policy-responses/the-territorialimpact-of-covid-19-managing-the-crisis-across-levels-of-government-d3e314e1/.
Oprea F. et al., “The Determinants of Economic Resilience. The Case of Eastern European Regions”, Sustainability 2020, vol. 12, no. 10, https://doi.org/10.3390/su12104228. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/su12104228
Sharifi A., Khavarian-Garmsir A.R., “The COVID-19 Pandemic: Impacts on Cities and Major Lessons for Urban Planning, Design, and Management”, Science of The Total Environment, vol. 749, 20 December 2020, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.142391. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.142391
Shepsle K.A., “Rational Choice Institutionalism”, in R.A.W. Rhodes, S.A. Binder, B.A. Rockman (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Political Institutions, Oxford 2006, https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199548460.003.0002. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199548460.003.0002
United Nations, World Urbanization Prospects: The 2018 Revision (ST/ESA/SER.A/420), New York, NY 2019.
Ustawa z dnia 26 kwietnia 2007 r. o zarządzaniu kryzysowym [The Act on Crisis Management], Dz.U. 2007, no. 89, poz. 590.
How to Cite
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.