Toto, što sâ lišylo


  • Marta Watral Jagiellonian University, Kraków, Poland
  • Urszula Reczek Uniwersytet Jagielloński, Kraków



Operation ‘Vistula’, memory, Lemkos, Lemko identity



The article presents how (and if) the displacement action of 1947 influenced the young generation of people of Lemko origin (called the grandsons of the Operation ‘Vistula’). The authors cite the statements of representatives of various Lemko identity options – Lemkos who grew up in families cultivating traditions and retaining the language, a half-Lemko whose one parent is of Lemko origin, but this is not a fact of importance to her identity, regained Lemkos whose parents are Lemkos, but they did not raise them in Lemko traditions and language, a Lemko who knows about her origins, intergenerational transmission has not been interrupted in her family, but this is not a dominant issue for her identity, and also a Carpatho-Rusyn activist whose family is not a victim of the Operation ‘Vistula’, but sees it as a community experience, important for the broadly understood Carpatho-Rusyn identity. On the basis of answers to the questions about how they learned about the Operation ‘Vistula’, what their parents or grandparents told them about it, do they feel that it had or still has an impact to their lives, the authors show that the complicated attitudes toward Lemko identity are the result of the Operation ‘Vistula’.



How to Cite

Watral, M., & Reczek, U. (2017). Toto, što sâ lišylo. Rocznik Ruskiej Bursy, 13, 193–208.



Дискурс • Discourse