Bezpieczeństwo energetyczne w dokumentach strategicznych Unii Europejskiej i Federacji Rosyjskiej – problemy definicyjne oraz próba ich przezwyciężenia

Authors

  • Jarosław Ćwiek-Karpowicz Uniwersytet Warszawski

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.12797/Politeja.13.2016.41.11

Keywords:

energy security, Russia, European Union, fossil fuels, renewables

Abstract

Energy security in the EU’s and Russia’s strategic documents – how to overcome conceptual problems


Analyzing EU-Russia relations one may find significant difference regarding the energy security definition. From the Russian perspective this concept is defined mainly through the technical prism focusing on stable and secure supply. In turn, many European researchers add economic and environmental dimensions of this concept underlying the role of competitive market and interrelations with climate issue. In this paper author tries to reduce a difference between these two positions. He aims at elaborating broad definition of the energy security which should help for better analysis EU-Russia energy relations. He states that existing definition based on three abovementioned elements like security of supply, free market, and sustainable development, is incomplete and should therefore be extended by the fourth component, so called social and political agreement.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Adelle C., Russel D., Pallemaerts M., A „Coordinated” European Energy Policy? The Integration of EU Energy and Climate Change Policies, [w:] European Energy Policy. The Environmental Approach, red. F. Morata, I. Solorio, Northampton 2012.

Balmaceda M.M., Energy Dependency, Politics and Corruption in the Former Soviet Union. Russia’s Power, Oligarchs’ Profits and Ukraine’s Missing Energy Policy, 1995-2006, New York 2008, BASEES/Routledge Series on Russian and East European Studies, 37.

Bodio M., Polityka energetyczna w stosunkach między Unią Europejską a Federacją Rosyjską w latach 2000-2008, Warszawa 2009.

Boussena S., Locatelli C., Energy Institutional and Organisational Changes in EU and Russia: Revisiting Gas Relations, „Energy Policy” 2013, Vol. 55, [online] http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2012.11.052.

Brown M.A., Sovacool B.K., Developing an „Energy Sustainability Index” to Evaluate Energy Policy, „Interdisciplinary Science Reviews” 2007, Vol. 32, nr 4, [online] http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/030801807X211793.

Ciută F., Conceptual Notes on Energy Security: Total or Banal Security?, „Security Dialogue” 2010, Vol. 41, nr 2, [online] http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0967010610361596.

Commission of the European Communities, Green Paper „A European Strategy for Sustainable, Competitive and Secure Energy”, Brussels, 8 III 2006, COM(2006) 105 final.

Ćwiek-Karpowicz J., Russia’s Gas Sector: In Need of Liberalisation in the Context of Shale Gas Revolution and the Energy Relations with the European Union, „Journal of East-West Business” 2012, Vol. 18, nr 1, [online] http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10669868.2012.664018.

Dupont C., Primova R., Combating Complexity: The Integration of EU Climate and Energy Policies, „European Integration online Papers” 2011, Vol. 15, nr 1.

Dynamics of Energy Governance in Europe and Russia, red. C. Kuzemko i in., Basingstoke 2012, International Political Economy Series.

European Commission, Commission Staff Working Document „In-depth study of European Energy Security”, Brussels, 2 VII 2014, SWD(2014) 330 final/3.

Geopolityka rurociągów. Współzależność energetyczna a stosunki międzypaństwowe na obszarze postsowieckim, red. E. Wyciszkiewicz, Warszawa 2008.

Godzimirski J., The Northern Dimension of the Russian Gas Strategy, „Russian Analytical Digest” 2009, nr 5.

Goldthau A., Rhetoric versus Reality: Russian Threats to European Energy Supply, „Energy Policy” 2008, Vol. 36, nr 2.

Grzesik J., Bezpieczeństwo energetyczne, [w:] Miejsce Polski w Europie. Polska na arenie międzynarodowej, bezpieczeństwo energetyczne kraju, Rzeszów 2005, Nasza Unia.

Henderson J., Russia and the Global LNG Market, Oxford 2014.

Henderson J., Tight Oil Developments in Russia, Oxford 2013.

Henderson J., Stern J., The Potential Impact on Asia Gas Markets of Russia’s Eastern Gas Strategy, Oxford 2014.

Hippel D.F. i in., Evaluating the Energy Security Impacts of Energy Policies, [w:] The Routledge Handbook of Energy Security, red. B.K. Sovacool, London 2011, Routledge International Handbooks.

IEA, Energy Technology Perspectives: Scenarios and Strategies to 2050, OECD, Paris 2006.

Jacobson M.Z., Review of Solutions to Global Warming, Air Pollution, and Energy Security, „Energy & Environmental Science” 2009, nr 2, [online] http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/B809990C.

Kaczmarski M., Bezpieczeństwo energetyczne Unii Europejskiej, Warszawa 2010, Studia Europejskie.

Kemmler A., Spreng D., Energy Indicators for Tracking Sustainability in Developing Countries, „Energy Policy” 2007, Vol. 35, nr 4, [online] http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2006.09.006.

Kłos A., Paska J., Niezawodność systemów elektroenergetycznych a wielkie awarie systemowe, [w:] Bezpieczeństwo systemów energetycznych, Warszawa 2004.

Konoplyanik A., Energy Security and the Development of International Energy Markets, [w:] Energy Security. Managing Risk in a Dynamic Legal and Regulatory Environment, red. B. Barton i in., Oxford 2004.

Kretzschmar G.L., Simpson E., Haque M., Russia’s Resource Capitalism – Market vs Political Signalling, „Energy Policy” 2013, Vol. 61, [online] http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2013.04.082.

Kropatcheva E., He Who Has the Pipeline Calls the Tune? Russia’s Energy Power against the Background of the Shale „Revolutions”, „Energy Policy” 2014, Vol. 66, [online] http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2013.10.058.

Livezey E.T., Hazardous Waste, „The Christian Science Monitor” 1980, 6 XI, [online] http://www.csmonitor.com/1980/1106/110653.html.

Nikulina A., The Russian Anti-Nuclear Movement, „Russian Analytical Digest” 2011, nr 101.

Nilsen T., Kudrik I., Nikitin A., The Russian Northern Fleet Nuclear Submarine Accidents, „Bellona Report” 1996, n 2.

Olz S., Sims R., Kirchner N., Contributions of Renewables to Energy Security. International Energy Agency Information Paper, OECD, Paris 2007.

Paik K.W., Sino-Russian Oil and Gas Cooperation. The Reality and Implications, Oxford 2012.

Paltsev S., Scenarios for Russia’s Natural Gas Exports to 2050, „Energy Economics” 2014, Vol. 42, [online] http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eneco.2014.01.005.

Pronińska K., Bezpieczeństwo energetyczne w stosunkach UE-Rosja. Geopolityka i ekonomia surowców energetycznych, Warszawa 2012.

Russian and CIS Gas Markets and Their Impact on Europe, red. S. Pirani, Oxford 2009.

Russian Gas Matrix. How Markets Are Driving Change, red. J. Henderson, S. Pirani, Oxford 2014.

Severance A., Old Habits Die Hard: Aleksandr Nikitin, the European Court of Human Rights, and Criminal Procedure in the Russian Federation, „Boston College International and Comparative Law Review” 2002, Vol. 25, nr 1.

Smeenk T., Russian Gas for Europe: Creating Access and Choice. Underpinning Russia’s Gas Export Strategy with Gazprom’s Infrastructure Investments, The Hague 2010.

Smith Stegen K., Deconstructing the „Energy Weapon”: Russia’s Threat to Europe as Case Study, „Energy Policy” 2011, Vol. 39, nr 10, [online] http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2011.07.051.

Smith Stegen K., Nanay J., Russia and the Caspian Region: Challenges for Transatlantic Energy Security?, „Journal of Transatlantic Studies” 2012, Vol. 10, nr 4, [online] http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14794012.2012.734670.

Solorio I., Bridging the Gap between Environmental Policy Integration and the EU’s Energy Policy: Mapping out the „Green Europeanisation” of Energy Governance, „Journal of Contemporary European Research” 2011, Vol. 7, nr 3.

Umbach F., Global Energy Security and the Implications for the EU, „Energy Policy” 2010, Vol. 38, nr 3, [online] http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2009.01.010.

United Kingdom Department of Trade and Industry, UK Energy Sector Indicators 2006, London 2006.

Valentine S.V., The Fuzzy Nature of Energy Security, [w:] The Routledge Handbook of Energy Security, red. B.K. Sovacool, London 2011, Routledge International Handbooks.

Wolsink M., Invalid Theory Impedes Our Understanding: A Critique on the Persistence of the Language of NIMBY, „Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers” 2006, Vol. 31, nr 1, [online] http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-5661.2006.00191.x.

Wolsnik M., Wind Power and the NIMBY-Myth: Institutional Capacity and the Limited Significance of Public Support, „Renewable Energy” 2000, Vol. 21, nr 1, [online] http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0960-1481(99)00130-5.

Yafimava K., The Transit Dimension of EU Energy Security. Russian Gas Transit across Ukraine, Belarus and Moldova, Oxford 2011.

Yenikeyeff S.M., Krysiek T.F., The Battle for the Next Energy Frontier. The Russian Polar Expedition and the Future of Arctic Hydrocarbons, Oxford 2007.

Yergin D., The Quest. Energy, Security, and the Remaking of the Modern World, London 2011.

Zajdler R., Hara T., Staniłko J., Formuły cenowe w kontraktach długoterminowych na dostawę gazu do Unii Europejskiej, Warszawa 2012.

Bušuev V.V., Ènergiâ i sudʹba Rossii, Moskva 2014.

Makarov A.A. Prognozirovanie razvitiâ ènergetičeskogo kompleksa. Metodičeskie rekomendacii po razrabotke prognoza razvitiâ Rossii do 2030 g., Moskva 2010.

Makarov A.A., Mitrova T.A., Kulagin V.A., Pervye 5 let „slancevoj revolûcii” – čto my teperʹ znaem navernâka?, Moskva 2012.

Mastepanov A.M., Innovacionnoe razvitie v usloviâh sankcij – nekotorye razmyšleniâ ob ènergopolitike, nastoâŝem i buduŝem rossijskoj ènergetiki, „Ènergetičeskaâ politika” 2014, nr 6.

Melʹnikova S.I., Razvitie mirovogo rynka SPG i perspektivy èksporta sžižennogo gaza iz Rossii, „Ènergetičeskaâ politika” 2013, nr 6.

Metodika monitoringa sostoâniâ ènergetičeskoj bezopasnosti Rossii na regionalʹnom urovne, red. S.M. Senderov, Irkutsk 2014.

Metodičeskie rekomendacii po ocenke sostoâniâ ènergetičeskoj bezopasnosti Rosssijskoj Federacii na federalʹnom urovne, red. S.M. Senderov, Irkutsk 2013.

Neftʹ slancevyh pleev – novyj vyzov ènergetičeskomu rynku? Informacionno-analitičeskij obzor, red. A.A. Makarov, Moskva 2012.

Plakitkin Û.A. O koncepcii innovacionnogo razvitiâ TÈK do 2030 g. i ee vzaimosvâzi s osnovnymi trendami innovacionnogo razvitiâ mirovoj èkonomiki, Moskva 2010.

Prognoz razvitiâ ènergetiki mira i Rossii do 2040 goda, Moskva 2014.

Rasporâženie Pravitelʹstva RF ot 13.11.2009 N 1715-r „Ènergetičeskaâ strategiâ Rossii na period do 2030 goda”, [online] http://minenergo.gov.ru/node/1026.

TÈK i èkonomika Rossii: včera, segodnâ, zavtra (1990-2010-2030), red. Û.K. Šafranik, Moskva 2011. Ènergetika Rossii, t. 1: Potencial i strategiâ realizacii, red. V.V. Bušuev, Moskva 2012.

Ènergetika Rossii, t. 2: Ènergetičeskaâ politika Rossii, red. V.V. Bušuev, Moskva 2012.

Ènergetičeskaâ bezopasnostʹ Rossii: problemy i puti rešeniâ, red. N.I. Voropaj, M.B. Čelʹcov, Novosibirsk 2011.

Ènergetičeskaâ strategiâ Rossii na period do 2035 goda (proekt), Moskva 2014, [online] http://www.energystrategy.ru/ab_ins/source/ES-2035_09_2015.pdf.

Published

2021-06-21

How to Cite

Ćwiek-Karpowicz, Jarosław. 2021. “Bezpieczeństwo Energetyczne W Dokumentach Strategicznych Unii Europejskiej I Federacji Rosyjskiej – Problemy Definicyjne Oraz próba Ich przezwyciężenia”. Politeja 13 (2 (41):195-209. https://doi.org/10.12797/Politeja.13.2016.41.11.